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Synthesis of PMMA-HoVO4 nanocomposites by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization: radical effects

Abstract

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-holmium orthovanadate (PMMA-HoVO4) nanocomposites were synthesized using emulsifierfree emulsion polymerization system in two ways. In the first one, the HoVO4 nanoparticle dispersion was added to the emulsion system before or after polymerization start (in situ polymerization). In the other one, nanoparticle dispersion and polymeric latex were mixed together at room temperature (blending). Crystalline HoVO4 nanoparticles (about 60 nm) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. Three different composite latexes were synthesized by varying the potassium persulfate concentration and the time of HoVO4 nanoparticles addition. According to the dynamic light scattering analysis, the size of the polymer beads in the latexes is between 244.8 nm and 502.5 nm and the PDI values are in the range of 0.005 to 0.206. Infrared spectral analysis showed that HoVO4 caused some changes in the structure of the polymer. Luminescence measurements attempted to determine optical properties of the nanocomposites. The results have shown that HoVO4 nanoparticles do not protect their structure due to the reaction with persulfate radicals but that they enter the polymer beads and change the luminescence properties of the polymer forming a new material with different properties.

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Growth, spectral, optical, dielectric and third order nonlinear studies on 2-amino 4-methylpyridinium salicylate single crystals

Abstract

Optically transparent single crystals of 2-amino 4-methylpyridinium salicylate were successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The grown crystal was characterized by various characterization techniques such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, optical, dielectric and Z-scan studies. The presence of various functional groups was identified by Fourier transform infrared technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies implied the absence of absorption in the visible region. Dielectric studies were carried out in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 MHz. Thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra studies were also performed for the grown crystal. Nonlinear refractive index, absorption coefficient and third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the crystals were evaluated by Z-scan studies.

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Growth, spectroscopic, electrical and mechanical studies on hexamethylenetetramine succinate crystal: a new third harmonic generation material

Abstract

Hexamethylenetetramine succinate was synthesized and good quality single crystals with the size of 14 mm × 6 mm × 4 mm were grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The single crystal XRD revealed that the grown crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with the space group of P21/c. The presence of functional groups in the crystal was identified using FT-IR technique. The optical behavior was examined through UV-Vis-NIR studies. The photoconductivity study exhibited the positive photoconductivity nature of the grown crystal. Microhardness studies revealed the soft nature of the crystal. The nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) of the crystals were measured by Z-scan studies.

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Research on the influence of the filtrating electrode on the structure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared by the energy filtering magnetron sputtering technique

Abstract

TiO2 thin films were deposited by the energy filtrating magnetron sputtering (EFMS) technique and the traditional direct current magnetron sputtering (DMS) technique. The influence of the filtering electrode mesh number on the structure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films was investigated. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM and ellipsometric spectroscopy, respectively. Results show that the TiO2 thin films deposited by the DMS and EFMS techniques at the same deposition parameters are composed of the anatase phase exclusively. TiO2 thin films deposited at lower deposition rate by the EFMS technique have lower crystallinity, smaller particle size and smoother surface. With increasing the mesh number, the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical band gap are larger.

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Stereometric analysis of Ta2O5 thin films

Abstract

The purpose of this work is the study of the correlation between the thickness of tantalum pentoxide thin films and their three-dimensional (3D) micromorphology. The samples were prepared on silicon substrates by electron beam evaporation. The differences in surface structure of the processed and reference samples were investigated. Compositional studies were performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Stereometric analysis was carried out on the basis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) data, for tantalum pentoxide samples with 20 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and 100 nm thicknesses. These methods are frequently used in describing experimental data of surface nanomorphology of Ta2O5. The results can be used to validate theoretical models for prediction or correlation of nanotexture surface parameters.

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Synthesis, photophysical properties and electrochemical polymerization of a new blue fluorescent compound based on 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene moiety

Abstract

New monomer, 4,4’-[(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]diorin-5-yl)vinyl]-1,1’-biphenyl (BPE), was synthesized, characterized and polymerized electrochemically via a potentiostatic method. The corresponding polymer poly(4,4’-[(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4] diorin-5-yl)vinyl]-1,1’-biphenyl) (PBPE) obtained as a thin-layer film, was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels of the obtained polymer were determined from cyclic voltammograms as –4.89 eV and –3.81 eV, respectively. Its optical and electrochemical band gaps were calculated, and found to be 1.08 eV and 1.49 eV, respectively. PBPE can be used as a donor material in bilayer organic photovoltaic solar cells having PCBM as acceptor material.

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Studies on new material: carbon dot-graphene oxide-zinc oxide nanocomplex

Abstract

In the present work, with an aim of developing new useful materials, carbon dot-graphene oxide-zinc oxide (CGZ) nanocomplexes were synthesized by the wet chemical method. Structure, morphology and chemical composition of prepared GCZ nanoparticles were determined by carrying out X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectral measurements. The strong absorption band observed in the UV region for the prepared samples can be attributed to the band edge absorption. The dielectric parameters, viz. dielectric constant (∈r), dielectric loss (tanδ) and AC electrical conductivity (σ AC) were determined at various temperatures in the range of 30 °C to 150 °C at two different frequencies (100 Hz and 1 kHz). DC conductivity (σDC) measurement was also carried out at various temperatures in the range of 30 °C to 150 °C. In addition, the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CGZ has been explained and the mechanism elucidating the excellent performance of CGZ has been proposed.

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Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of In doped Ge-Se-Te chalcogenide thin films

Abstract

Thin films of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) were developed by thermal evaporation technique. The annealing effect on the structural properties of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) films has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results indicate amorphous nature of the as-prepared films whereas crystalline phases in annealed films were identified. Structural parameters such as average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation were determined for different annealing temperatures. Effect of annealing on optical constants of prepared films has been explored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 1000 nm. Various optical constants were determined depending on annealing temperature. It has been noticed that the film transparency and optical bandgap Eg have been reduced whereas the absorption coefficient α and extinction coefficient k increased with increasing annealing temperature. It was found that the prepared samples obey the allowed direct transition. The reduction in optical bandgap with annealing temperature has been described by Mott and Davis model. Due to annealing dependence of the optical parameters, the investigated material could be utilized for phase change memory devices.

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Electrical and thermal characteristics of MWCNTs modified carbon fiber/epoxy composite films

Abstract

To enhance interfacial bonding between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix, the carbon fibers have been modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using the dip- coating technique. FT-IR spectrum of the MWCNTs shows a peak at 1640 cm−1 corresponding to the stretching mode of the C=C double bond which forms the framework of the carbon nanotube sidewall. The broad peak at 3430 cm−1 is due to O–H stretching vibration of hydroxyl groups and the peak at 1712 cm−1 corresponds to the carboxylic (C=O) group attached to the carbon fiber. The peaks at 2927 cm−1 and 2862 cm−1 are assigned to C–H stretching vibration of epoxy produced at the defect sites of acid-oxidized carbon fiber surface. SEM image shows a better interface bonding between the fiber and the matrix of modified composites (MWCNTs-CF/Ep) than those of unmodified composite. The loss factor curve of CF-MWCNTs/Ep composites is the narrowest compared with neat epoxy and CF/Ep composites which evinces that the length distribution range of molecular chain segments in the matrix is the narrowest. From the dependence of the AC conductivity on temperature, we can see that σAC increases when temperature increases. The increase in electrical conductivity of the composites may be a result of the increased chain ordering due to annealing effect. The use of MWCNTs to modify the surface of carbon fiber resulted in a large amount of junctions among MWCNT causing an increase in the electrical and thermal conductivity by forming conducting paths in the matrix. The MWCNTs-CF/Ep composite shows better thermal stability than unmodified composites. The strong interaction between CF and MWCNTs can retard diffusion of small molecules from the resin matrix at high temperature and hence, result in the improved thermal stability of the modified CF/Ep composite.

Open access
Enhancement of yttrium ion on the properties of L-histidine nitrate single crystal for frequency conversion applications

Abstract

Nonlinear optical single crystals of L-histidine nitrate (LHN) as well as 0.05 mol % Y2+ doped LHN and 0.10 mol % Y2+ doped LHN were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The lower cutoff wavelength and transmittance were 339 nm, 343 nm, 347 nm and 84 %, 86 % and 87 % for LHN, 0.05 mol % and 0.10 mol % yttrium doped LHN, respectively. Powder XRD studies revealed that the grown materials belong to an orthorhombic system with the space group P212121. FT-IR peak at 534 cm−1 due to yttrium coordinated with oxygen was observed. The EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of such elements as C, N, O and Y in the grown materials. High intensity PL emission peak was obtained at 420 nm.

Open access