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Open access

Wiesława Młodawska, Patrycja Mrowiec, Beata Grabowska, Joanna Waliszewska, Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Anna Migdał, Wojciech Niżański, Sylwia Prochowska, Agnieszka Partyka, Marcin Pałys, Teresa Grega and Józef Skotnicki

Abstract

Dermal fibroblasts are commonly used as donors of genetic material for somatic cell nuclear transfer in mammals. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that regulates proliferation and differentiation of different cell types. The study was aimed at optimizing the cell culture protocol for cat dermal fibroblasts by assessing the influence of culture media and different doses of bFGF on proliferation of fibroblasts and their viability in terms of cell banking and somatic cloning of felids. In Experiment I, skin biopsies of domestic cats were cultured in DMEM (D) and/or DMEM/F12 (F), both supplemented with 5 ng bFGF/ml (D-5, F-5, respectively). After the primary culture reached ~80% of confluency, the cells were passaged (3-4 times) and cultured in media with (D-5, F-5) or without (D-0, F-0) bFGF. To determine the optimal doses of bFGF, in Experiment II, secondary fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM with 0 (D-0), 2.5 (D-2.5), 5 (D-5) or 10 (D-10) ng bFGF/ml. The results showed that in D-5 the cells proliferated faster than in D-0, F-5 and F-0. Due to their poor proliferation, passages IV were not performed for cells cultured in F-0. In experiment II, a dose-dependent effect of bFGF on proliferation of cat dermal fibroblasts was found. In D-5 and D-10, the cells exhibited higher (P<0.05) proliferation compared with D-0. In D-2.5 the cells showed a tendency to proliferate slower than in D-5 and D-10 and at the same faster than in D-0. In conclusion. DMEM supplemented with bFGF provides better proliferation of domestic cat dermal fibroblasts culture than DMEM/F12. Supplementation of culture medium with bFGF has a beneficial effect on cat dermal fibroblast proliferation and could be recommended for addition to culture media.

Open access

Hanna Jankowiak, Wojciech Kapelański and Maria Bocian

Abstract

Reproduction is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of animal production. Within the scope of uterine capacity and other morphometric parameters, the objective of this study was to evaluate the size variability of uterus dissected from prepubertal gilts. The research was conducted on 100 PLW gilts and 100 PL gilts at a pig testing station. After slaughter, the reproductive tract was dissected, and each element was measured and weighed. The obtained results were combined and analyzed in three groups differentiated by uterine capacity: I, II and III. Group I consisted of gilts with a uterine capacity below 115 cm3 (n=69); group II comprised gilts with a uterine capacity between 115 and 175 cm3 (n=85); uterine capacity in group III was above 175 cm3 (n=46). Ontogenesis of the reproductive tract showed great variability with respect to the uterine capacity of gilts of both breeds. Uterine weight with and without ligament was different between the analyzed groups of PLW gilts (P<0.01), and also between the groups of PL gilts (P<0.01; P<0.05). The uterine horns of the PLW gilts in group I were slightly longer than in the PL gilts (90.76 cm vs. 84.20 cm; P<0.05). A slightly higher variability of uterine capacity was observed with respect to the PLW gilts (80.92 cm3 to 243.13 cm3), as compared with the PL gilts (92.61 cm3 to 235.23 cm3). The determined uterine capacity was significantly correlated with all parameters of uterine size (P<0.01), apart from the length of the uterus and cervix in PLW gilts. The proportion between the uterine weight and the length of its horns, which characterizes the thickness of uterine walls, was significantly correlated with the length of uterine horns only in PL gilts (r=0.382**). This study may be used to forecast the potential fertility of related females (littermate gilts and their daughters); it may also be used in sow selection for litter size.

Open access

Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Marcin Michałek, Karolina Kapturska, Alicja Cepiel, Adrian Janiszewski, Robert Pasławski, Piotr Skrzypczak and Urszula Pasławska

Abstract

Introduction: Pacemaker implantation is the only effective symptomatic treatment for life-threatening bradyarrhythmias. Major complications observed after implantation of cardiac pacemakers include lead dislocation, loss of pulse generator function, and inadequate stimulation. The aim of this retrospective single-centre study was to analyse the indications for pacemaker implantation and the incidence and types of complications associated with this procedure in dogs treated for symptomatic bradyarrhythmia.

Material and Methods: The retrospective analysis included 31 dogs with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia, implanted with permanent cardiac pacemakers in 1992–2017. The list of analysed variables included patient age, breed, sex, indication for pacemaker implantation, comorbidities, and the incidence of procedure-related complications along with the type thereof.

Results: The most common indication for pacemaker implantation was 3rd degree AVB, followed by SSS, advanced 2nd degree AVB, and PAS. Pacemaker implantation was associated with a 35% overall complication rate and 6.45% periprocedural mortality. There were no significant differences in terms of procedure-related complications with regard to age, sex, breed, indications for pacemaker implantation, or comorbidities.

Conclusions: Cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment of symptomatic bradycardia, but as an invasive procedure, may pose a risk of various complications, including death.

Open access

Agnieszka Ludwiczak and Marek Stanisz

Abstract

The aim of this review was to define the most important factors that affect the reproductive success of farmed mink. The biology of mink reproduction is unique when comparing it with other farmed fur animals. The article emphasizes the importance of optimal environmental conditions in prevention of reproductive disorders. The novel attempts to the mating schedule, optimal diet and body condition of dams, kits transfer between dams, these are only examples of advantageous procedures used in mink farming to increase the effectiveness of reproduction.

Open access

Iwona Sembratowicz and Katarzyna Ognik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) for chickens by investigating its effect on their growth, hematological parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and indicators of liver and kidney function. The experiment was carried out on 54 chickens assigned to 3 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group did not receive gold nanoparticles. The birds in group Au-NPs2.0 received gold nanoparticles in a tube into a crop at a rate 2.0 mg/kg body weight/day, while the birds in AuNPs5.0 group at a rate 5.0 mg/kg body weight/day. The blood for analysis was collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of Au-NPs application. The obtained results indicate that short-term (7-14 days) exposure to lower dose (2.0 mg/kg b.w./day) of AuNPs had no toxic impact on chickens, but the extension of the duration time caused toxicological effects evidenced by growth inhibition as well as induction of oxidative stress and liver injury. The higher dose of AuNPs (5.0 mg/kg b.w./day) exerted toxic effects already after 7-14 days of supplementation.

Open access

Branko Angjelovski, Miroslav Radeski, Igor Djadjovski, Dine Mitrov, Jovan Bojkovski, Nikola Adamov and Toni Dovenski

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and associated clinical signs in farmed sows in the Republic of Macedonia (RM) in the first 12-24 h postpartum. A total of 202 sows of different parity and different genetic lines from 5 pig farms in RM were included in the study. The sows and their litters were clinically examined 12-24 hours after farrowing. Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome was detected in 23.3% of all clinically examined sows, while prevalence between farms ranged from 14.8% to 38.1%. Altered piglet’s behavior was the most frequent clinical pattern observed in 68.1% of the PDS–affected (PDSA) sows. Regarding the clinical signs in PDSA sows detected among farms, significant differences were observed in the altered piglet’s behavior (p<0.05) and hypogalactia (p<0.05). Endometritis was more often detected in older sows (90%) compared to endometritis in younger animals (44.4%). In addition, fever was also more frequently diagnosed in higher parity (≥3 parity) sows (55.0%) in contrast to other PDSA sows (22.2%). This study has demonstrated the presence of PDS in farmed sows in RM. High frequency of altered piglet’s behavior found in this study could be an useful indicator for early detection of lactation problems in sows. Frequent pathological vaginal discharge in older sows indicates that endometritis plays an important role in the clinical manifestation of PDS. Further investigations should be conducted in order to identify specific risk factors associated with clinical PDS in farmed sows in RM.

Open access

Agnieszka Tylkowska, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Renata Pilarczyk, Michał Zyśko and Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak

Abstract

Introduction: Foxes are a reservoir of parasites that are dangerous to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters associated with the occurrence of tapeworms in red foxes in north-western Poland.

Material and Methods: Parasitological sections were taken from 620 red foxes using IST and SCT methods in 18 districts of West Pomerania Province.

Results: The extensity of fox infection with tapeworms was 61%. Echinococcus multilocularis, Mesocestoides spp., Dipylidium caninum, and specimens of the genus Taenia were identified. E. multilocularis was found in 11 districts. Mesocestoides spp. demonstrated the highest prevalence (41.3%), while E. multilocularis demonstrated the lowest prevalence (2.9%); however, it infected foxes with the greatest mean intensity (235.6 tapeworms per fox). The most common co-occurrence in a single host organism was observed for Mesocestoides spp. and tapeworms of the genus Taenia; however, no examples were found of coinfection by E. multilocularis and D. caninum.

Conclusion: The occurrence of tapeworms in foxes was high in West Pomerania Province and was often higher than observed in previous years. For this reason, the risk of parasite transmission to humans and domestic animals is mounting. The risk of infection is also amplifying due to the growth of the fox population.

Open access

Marcin Gołyński, Michał Metyk, Piotr Szkodziak, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Grzegorz Kalisz, Marcin Szczepanik, Piotr Wilkołek and Piotr Dobrowolski

Abstract

Introduction: Thyroid hormones play a major role in the regulation of testicular maturation and growth and in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell functions in adulthood. When naturally occurring, hypothyroidism causes male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Sertoli cell function disorders, but when iatrogenic and methimazole-induced its influence on the pituitary-testicular axis function with respect to Sertoli cells is poorly known.

Material and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats (n = 14) were divided into two groups: E – taking methimazole orally for 60 days, and C – control animals. After 60 d, the concentrations in serum of testosterone, follicle-stimulating and luteinising hormones, and inhibins A and B were measured. Testicles were examined morphologically: the apoptotic Sertoli cell percentage (ASC%) and number of these cells functional per tubular mm2 (FSCN/Tmm2) were calculated.

Results: In group E, inhibin A was higher while inhibin B was lower than in group C. ASC% was higher and FSCN/Tmm2 lower in group E than in group C.

Conclusion: A specific modulation of Sertoli cell function in the course of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism leads to a simultaneous concentration increase in inhibin A and decrease in B. Inhibin A might share responsibility for pituitary-testicular axis dysfunction and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in this model of hypothyroidism.

Open access

Roberto Amerigo Papini and Ranieri Verin

Abstract

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common protozoan parasites affecting several animal species and humans. The aim of this survey was to investigate, for the first time, their prevalence in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) faecal samples in central Italy. Seventy-one red foxes of different ages and sexes were examined for antigenic detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in fecal samples by means of a commercial rapid immunochromatographic test. The sample was randomly selected from foxes culled during a population control program. They were divided into groups based on sex and age (≤1-year-old and >1-year-old). Five (7%) and one (1.4%) out of 71 fecal samples were positive for the Giardia or Cryptosporidium antigens by immunochromatographic assay, respectively, and no coinfections were observed. The present prevalence rates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens in faeces from V. vulpes suggest that this host species is likely to play only a limited role in the spread of the two protozoa in the study area. A concise review of the literature related to Giardia and Cryptosporidium in V. vulpes is presented.

Open access

Anna Snarska, Dominika Wysocka and Liliana Rytel

Abstract

Introduction: Statins are pharmacological agents commonly used to lower serum cholesterol level. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effect of the statin simvastatin on thrombopoiesis in the porcine model because it is the closest to the human one regarding physiological and genetic similarities.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 32 pigs randomly divided into two equal groups: control and experimental. The pigs were treated for 28 and 56 days with simvastatin in a dose of 40 mg per day per animal. Cytological evaluation of bone marrow smears was performed to assess the average number of all types of cells during thrombopoiesis as was analysis of haematological parameters to assess PLT and MPV.

Results: During the course of the experiment statistically significant changes in the number of promegakaryocytes were observed. Other parameters also showed some fluctuations during the study. However, these changes were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The obtained results clearly indicate a toxic influence of simvastatin on the process of thrombopoiesis and prove that statins reduce mean platelet volume, thus affecting the process of clot formation through the period of administration in a duration-dependent manner.