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Abstract

During the last two decades, Poland has become a large recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI). This article uses standard panel data techniques to study empirically the determinants of inward FDI in Poland during the period 1996–2015 made by multinational enterprises coming from the old European Union (EU)-15 member states. The estimated specification is derived from the knowledge-capital (KC) model and includes two types of capital: human and physical. The assembled empirical evidence points to the horizontal motive as the primary reason for undertaking FDI in Poland by multinational firms based in the old EU-15 member states. Moreover, the KC model does not seem to explain better the pattern of inward FDI in Poland compared to the standard ad hoc gravity model of international capital mobility.

Abstract

This paper examines the mainstream theories of “financial sustainability” and “financial development”. It is suggested understanding “financial development” as the complex dynamic characteristics of the financial sector, which is formed under the influence of financial and economic policy factors and the financial market functioning. The paper provides the methodology of relationship between financial sustainability and socio-economic development of countries evaluation. Based on the matrix method, it is proved that the differences in developed and developing countries occur due to the relationship between financial sustainability and financial development.

Abstract

In 2018, Statistics Netherlands carried out a general benchmark revision of their national accounts statistics. The base year was 2015. Special attention was paid to the exhaustiveness of the estimates. Among other, these include estimates for illegal activities and tax evasion. In the first step, the main (illegal and off the record) activities that were not included in the regular data sources underlying the national accounts were identified. In the second step, estimates were made for each identified activity, based on the scarce information data sources available, supplemented with assumptions. This paper describes the second step. The value added of illegal activities in 2015 was estimated at 4.8 billion euros, which is 0.7% of gross domestic product (GDP). The explicit adjustment for tax evasion was about 3.9 billion euros, which is slightly <0.6% of GDP.

Abstract

The tax gap between taxes that are “actually” paid and taxes that “ought” to have been paid by multinational corporate entities has become an area of huge public policy concern in the recent decades. This study reviews the impact of new legislation to reveal the tax gap created by the EU banks and financial institutions passed in 2013 and in particular of the quality of the resulting country-by-country reporting (CBCR) requirement for banks. Although resulting tax gap estimates are noted, they suffer due to significant problems in the published data; much of it is due to the quality of the regulation requiring its publication and implementation. The findings reveal a lack of understanding of the technical and structural weaknesses of accounting in a transnational context in the design of this regulation. CBCR is destined to fail in achieving its regulatory objectives in this context unless necessary reform of the regulation is undertaken.

Abstract

The article discusses the problems of commercial banks related to the deterioration of their image as employers, especially in eyes of the millennial generation, which soon will become the most attractive category for employment in modern business. The main criteria that guide the millennial generation when choosing a future job are identified. A detailed analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of banks as employers has been carried out, and advice for image improvement has been formulated, aimed at the young audiences of potential bank employees. It was proven that banks should build not only an effective PR campaign to create a powerful image of a reliable employer, but at the same time they should establish a reliable system to counteract unfair competition, ultimately aimed at destabilizing financial institutions, which are most sensitive to image problems.

Abstract

The energy sector is characterized by market and monopoly activities. Monopoly activities include network activities, transmission and distribution of electricity, and transport and distribution of natural gas. For this reason, the revenue of the network activities is defined as allowed income, and it is under the control of the national energy regulator. In Croatia, this is the Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency. The allowed revenues of the network system operator in the Croatian energy sector are defined by the methodologies for individual network activities, which are based on the method of eligible costs. Network activities are usually capital-intensive activities. Capital cost is an element of the eligible cost method and is accounted for as a weighted average cost of capital (WACC). WACC affects the allowed revenue of the network system operator and the network tariff. It depends on the interest rates on debt capital, the risk-free rate, the market risk premium and the corporate tax rate. Changing the interest rate on the capital market, which also depends on the credit risk of the country, affects both the change in WACC and the change of tariffs for transport / transmission of energy. Amortization and operating expenses of the network operator, approved by the energy regulator, also have a significant impact on allowed revenues. The impact of the WACC change on the allowed revenue and network tariffs of network system operators has a different impact on the network tariffs, which depends on the structure of the eligible costs of a particular network system operator. Changing WACC affects the changes in tariffs of the network system operator. The aim of the paper is to determine how an interest rate change affects the WACC and how the change in WACC affects the change in the allowed revenue and the network tariff of the gas transport operator and the transmission of electricity in Croatia. The paper will analyse the tariffs of electricity transmission and natural gas transport in Croatia and compare them with those in the European Union.

Abstract

This paper presents the application of the multiple regression analysis model in macroeconomic research using the model of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2005 to 2018. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effects of macroeconomic factors (independent variables) to gross domestic product (dependent variable), and based on theoretical and methodological research. Applying the Enter method, out of six independent variables, they are all included in the regression model, whereas the sequence of inclusion in the model is the following: foreign direct investments, Import, Export, Growth rate, unemployment and inflation. Numerous research indicate positive connection between gross domestic product as the dependent variable and foreign direct investments, Import, Export, Growth rate, unemployment and inflation, as independent variables. Other factors negligibly explain the most important indicator of economic activities of a country. Our assignment is to either confirm or reject the abovementioned statement.

Abstract

The Southern Region of Europe is economically well-developed with highly industrialized urban areas and with great agricultural potential. The empirical analysis is based on an econometric assessment that measures the impact of the VAT on the rate of economic growth for years between 1996 and 2017. The empirical evidence highlighted a significant positive impact of VAT on economic growth, but a poor and ineffective use of the tax revenues during the period under review. Moreover, evidence revealed relatively high rates of VAT in the countries analyzed, with negative impact on the aggregate consumption and a diminishing effect of the consumer’s income.

Abstract

Capital structure refers to the delicate balance between equity and debt that a company uses to finance its assets. It is typically expressed as a debt-to-equity or debt-to-capital ratio, with the components usually located on the right side of the company’s balance sheet. Capital structure can exert great influence on the company’s risk profile and ability to leverage its operations. For this reason, the authors conducted an investigation of the capital structure of 16 joint stock companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange comprising CROBEX, the equity index of Croatia for a three-year period starting in 2015 and ending in 2017. The study demonstrates that many CROBEX-listed companies are very risk averse and choose to remain debt-free. Some are, however, starting to discover the potential offered by financial leverage and have slowly started adjusting their capital structure. In conclusion, capital structure is slowly becoming an issue worthy of discussion on the corporate agendas in Croatia.

Abstract

In this paper will be analyzed the application of the t-test against the nonparametric Mann - Whitney test in the analysis of health insurance benefit costs in the Republic of Srpska on large samples. This research aims to examine which method produces better results when testing statistical hypotheses. The adequacy of the statistical tests will be tested on primary health insurance cost data for 1,044,690 insureds in 2017. For two samples of size 4,000, the sampling distribution of the difference in two means has a skewness coefficient of 0.05 and a kurtosis coefficient of 3.09. Jarque - Bera test does not reject the hypothesis of normality of distribution with a p-value of 0.135. On the other hand, in the Mann - Whitney test, the real risk of the first species, when there is a difference in skewness between the samples, may be less than 0.001 compared to the nominal risk level of 0.05. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested to use the t-test instead of the Mann - Whitney test if the sample is large enough, which should be verified by the bootstrap method.