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Open access

Pavel Šmela, Petra Pačesová, Stanislav Kraček and Nina Halačová

Summary

The aim of the Study was to broaden the findings regarding the performance motivation of the students of the universities in Bratislava segmented according to university type. The research sample comprised 248 undergraduates (males: n = 141; 22.40 years of age ± 1.62 and females: n = 107; 21.78 years of age ± 1.49). A standardised performance motivation questionnaire (PMQ) was used to measure performance motivation (Pardel, Maršálová & Hrabovská 1992). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate data normality, while the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used to test the significance of the differences between individual independent selections. The results revealed significant differences in performance motivation (H(5) = 76.730, p = .000, η2 = .307), anxiety inhibiting performance (H(5) = 128.270, p = .000, η2 = .591) and anxiety supporting performance (H(5) = 95.754, p = .000, η2 = .331) among undergraduates of various types of schools. The students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Comenius University in Bratislava show significant differences (p < .001) in all of three dimensions of performance motivation in comparison with all of the other undergraduates segmented in accordance with various school types. Our findings can be explained by the more intensive sporting activity of the students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Comenius University.

Open access

Ladislava Doležajová, Anton Lednický and Martin Vaváček

Summary

The authors have evaluated the combined track-and-field events performed by the female students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Comenius University in Bratislava (CU FPES) in the years 2013 – 2017. The combined track-and-field events are an obligatory part of the final Athletics examination in the teacher-training study program. The selected disciplines reflect the first day of the men’s decathlon with the exception of the last one, which is replaced by 800 m. The number of points in the combined event enters into the overall assessment of the subject Didactics of Athletics II together with an oral examination. The authors analysed not only the total number of points in the pentathlon but also in the individual disciplines and their percentage share in the final result. They have discovered that the shot put and high jump are among the most stable disciplines. The greatest variance of the percentage share in the overall number of points was observed in the 100 m dash, 800 m and in the long jump. The performance of a high number of students (almost two-thirds) came below the average performance in the particular year as expressed in points.

Open access

Pavol Peráček, Matúš Bôžik and Martin Mikulič

Summary

The aim of the study was to extend the knowledge about the internal load of elite young soccer players in small sided games with different parameters in the category under 19 years. The group consisted of 16 elite soccer players under the age of 19. This team competed in the first league of the same age category We have monitored the time spent by players in bio-energy load zones (percentage of maximum heart rate), in small sided games with 2 players against 2, 3 against 3, with the size of the playing field of 25 × 18 meters and 30 × 25 meters. We used basic mathematical and statistical characteristics and Wilcoxon t-test for non-parametric selections. Our study confirmed that in the category under 19 years is valid that the larger number of players (3:3) in small sided games, indicates the players to spend more time in bio-energy zones 4 and 5. Direct correlation also applies to the size of the playing field, depending on the time spent in the load zones 4 and 5. The larger dimension of the pitch indicates to more time the players spend in bio-energy load zones, which is considered to be focal for us. If we want to use them as a way of complex training program (game training), then the small sided games are suitable training strategy.

Open access

Elena Bendíková and Beáta Dobay

Summary

The aim of the research was to find out the realization of the physical activity among the middle-aged adults by the association with their health, retrospective of the factor contributing to the transfer of the physical activity to the adulthood. The monitored group consisted of 742 respondents of the middle-aged adults from the Southern Districts of Slovakia, of which 403 were the women (age = 37.2 ± 3.04 years) and 339 were the men (age = 36.5 ± 4.54 years) as the selection was deliberate. The monitoring was conducted by the three stages in 2014, through the so-called “Egészség és mozgás” - “Health and Movement” standardized, anonymous questionnaire, which consisted of 60 questions. Our findings point to the stated facts. The findings found the relationship between the health and fitness among the men (r = 0.8300), as well as among the women (r = 0.7193). The relationship between the physical activity and the feeling of health was recorded only among the men (r = 0.8921), while the relationship between the health problems and the feeling of health was also found among the men (r = 0.739), as well as among the women (r = 0, 6714). At the same time, the men perceive the importance of the physical activity, in terms of their health condition (r = 0.8791) more intense than the women. The physical education was significantly (χ2 = 112.47, p < 0.01) among the men (67.6 %, n = 229), opposite to the women (33.7 %; n = 136) contributed to the transfer of the physical activity from the school environment to the adulthood. The stated findings show that the targeted education of the population, even from the childhood with the other effective, preventive measures is very important.

Open access

Mohammed Zerf and Mohamed Hadjarkherfane

Summary

School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness. Whereas Exit school it is not included.

Method: For purpose, this controlled study verified the effect of Leaving school on the health relate to fitness among the unschooled.

Results: Based on the validity of alpha health-related fitness test battery, the design of study and statistical processes applied within search limitation. Our results caution against school dropouts on levels of health relate to fitness among the unschooled. Admit in five motor abilities namely strength, speed, endurance, flexibility and coordinative abilities, according to present study. Reported in the benefit of student scholar as an active lifestyle.

Conclusion: our results recommended all the Algerian dropouts-students to know the overall impact of participating and being involved in outdoor sport activities, subjected in this study as getting positive effects regarding active lifestyle, which in turn helps dropouts-students, to achieve a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and preventing them from disorders like obesity, laziness and stress related to life and their complication. A truth that leads us to recommended our teachers to understand the benefits of outdoor education sport or pro-socials activities contents as part of young people's educational experiences, to structure their free time in beneficial activities, including recreation, academic and cultural enrichment, opportunities for pursuit of individual interests and volunteer activities, especially before being expelled from their school.

Open access

Dagmar Nemček, Stanislav Kraček and Petra Kurková

Summary

The purpose of this study was to map and analyse the emotions among the pupils attending special schools for children with hearing impairments (HI) towards physical education (P.E.) classes. The main objective was to compare the emotions of their feelings during the P.E. lesson and when the P.E. lesson is cancelled. We analysed the data of 73 pupils attending five grades (from 5th up to 9th) of two special elementary schools (at Hrdličkova Street; n = 37 and at Drotárska cesta Street; n = 36) in Bratislava (Slovakia). The research sample consisted of 45 boys and 28 girls in average age 13.5 ± 1.4 years. 48 % of pupils were deaf, 36 % of them were hard of hearing and 16 % were hearing but with hard communication and learning disorders. A non-standardized questionnaire (Antala et al. 2012) was used as a primary research method. Two of the selected questions were related to the emotionality towards P.E.lessons. The data were differentiated from the point of view of the gender and schools. A comparison of the emotions of pupils with HI pointed out a difference consisting in a significantly higher level of positive emotions during P.E. classes among boys (p < .05) and students attending special school at Hrdličkova Street (p < .05). A statistically significant difference was not discovered in the emotions when P.E. class was cancelled neither among genders nor schools. In general, pupils receiving special education show very high positive emotions of the feelings during P.E. lessons but on the other hand they are happier than disappointed when P.E. lesson is cancelled. This will not only increase the positive emotions towards P.E. lessons but also allow physical activities to become a regular part of pupils’ leisure activities as well as long term sport activities.

Open access

Ivo Jirásek, Josef Oborný and Emanuel Hurych

Summary

The philosophical concept of hermeneutics presents the opposite pole of human mental activities than positivism. Phenomenology, together with hermeneutics, also presents a kind of opposition to the positivistic reduction of learning the world. This paper focuses on the topic of authenticity of sport from these two (hermeneutic and phenomenological) approaches. As a basic theoretical platform Martin Heidegger’s book Time and Being is used. The authors develop a specific kind of categorization of the social groups engaged in sport events via the ancient concepts of “TECHNÉ ATHLETIKÉ” and “TECHNÉ GYMNASTIKÉ”. Two different phenomena: sport and “sport” are examined within the next part of the paper. There are some reasons mentioned in conclusions coming from the hermeneutic and phenomenological approach which help us to understand and accept the opinion that a kind of return to “techné gymnastiké” can support the authentic modes of being in human approach to sport.

Open access

Pavel Šmela, Petra Pačesová, Stanislav Kraček and Dan Hájovský

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old) were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old) and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old) are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01) differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14) in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale) dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25) compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51) in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

Open access

Mohammed Zerf, Hadje Besultan, Norddine Attouti, Blidi Touati and Moulay Idriss Mokkedes

Abstract

The criteria and methods for goalkeeper selection are more strict and complex than those of field players. Founded on its principles, the present study tried to examine the strengths and weaknesses of selection process practised by Algerian coaches. Interpret by Algerian scientists in their subjectivity in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance. Seen it's built with the naked eye. Confirmed by FIFA in two categories normal vs overweight, they should work harder under these conditions. For this proposal, eight teams from the leagues of Oran, Algeria Championship second division were involved in the study. Their goalkeepers were classified into the following groups: total (GK = 28), Main goalkeeper (MG = 14) and replacement goalkeeper (RG = 14). Tested at the end of the outward phase by penalty kicks test, ‘T’ Drill Test, Ruler Drop Test (TR) and anthropometric parameters (BH, BMI, BFP, BW). Backed on the applied statistical where our total sample is categorised in overweight, as well as no statistically significant differences between the two groups in all the comparisons practised. Our results confirm the weaknesses of traditional methods. Admit by similar studies in their subjective in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance correlate to anthropometric measurement.

Open access

Miroslav Holienka and Michal Horný

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the match load in soccer on the level of the selected speed abilities in the playing positions of the outside defender and central defender. Speed abilities in all their demonstrations are one of the most important fitness skills in today’s soccer. In our research, we assumed that the higher the match load players achieve, the greater the impact of this load on the level of the selected speed abilities would be. We carried out a cross-sectional ex post facto research. The monitored group consisted of the players of the team playing in the first league (Fortuna League). Their average age was 22.9 ± 4.5 years. We conducted the measurements in the preparation periods during pre-season matches. We carried out a total of 63 individual measurements. We measured the level of the match load and the performance in 10, 20 and 30 meter runs from a standing start before the match and after the match. Except of outside defenders in 30-meter run (W = 12; p = 0.02) we did not confirm a significant impact of the match load on the level of the selected speed (acceleration) abilities. Its effect size reached from d = 0.1 to d = 0.6. In addition, the correlations between match load and performance changes in all three tests were nonsignificant (p ≥ 0.5). Only 0.2 to 8.5 % of the variability in speed tests was shared with the level of match load.