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Open access

Elena Bendíková, Michal Marko, Anetta Müller and Éva Bácsné Bába

Summary

The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the health-oriented exercises included in the final part of the physical and sport education on the selected factors of the musculoskeletal system of the female students of the selected secondary school, as well as to point out the diversification and the realization of the innovative contents of the teaching lessons with the health aspect, especially from the point of view of the primary prevention of the female students’ health of secondary school, improving the level of the posture and the overall muscular system. The monitored group consisted of 33 female students of the selected secondary school in Trenčín (Slovakia). The experimental group (EG) A consisted of 17 female students (age = 16.9 ± 1.3 years, height = 168.6 ± 3.9 cm, weight = 57.3 ± 3.4 kg) and the control group (CG) B consisted of 16 female students (age = 16.3 ± 1.1 years, height = 167.3 ± 4.7 cm, weight = 58.9 ± 4.8 kg). From the point of view of the data acquisition methods, in initial, ongoing and final evaluations were applied standardized methods for assessing the posture and the muscular system for physical and medical practice. Subsequently, the applied health-oriented exercises were used in the final part of the physical and sport education for 3 months, 3 times per week, for the duration of 12 minutes. The results significantly showed the improvement of the monitored musculoskeletal system (p < 0.01), as well as the overall muscular system (p < 0.01). Based on the findings, we point out the suitability of including the health-oriented exercises in the teaching process of the physical and sport education with the focus on the musculoskeletal system. This study was supported by VEGA 1/0242/17 Physical activity as prevention of functional disorders related to the musculoskeletal system of secondary school students.

Open access

M. Armenteros, Anto J. Benítez, R. Flores, M. Sillero-Quintana, M. Sánchez Cid and J.A. Simón

Abstract

The main objective of this article was to analyse whether the Interactive Video Test (IVT) is a useful tool for the practical off-field training of soccer assistant referees, and if its use could reduce erroneous on-field decisions when applying Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. Assistant referees were taken from the Spanish 2nd “B” and 3rd Divisions, and were divided into two groups, the Experimental Group (EG) and the Control Group (CG). The referees in the EG were trained with the Interactive Video Test by analysing 720 off-side decisions. Subsequently, both groups were assessed in on-field tests involving the simulation of 326 possible off-side situations. When the results of both groups were compared, there was a continuous improvement over time in the EG associated to the use of the IVT, significantly better than the improvement of the CG. Moreover, the IVT proved to be a good diagnostic tool to assess the skills of assistant referees in perceiving and evaluating off-side situations.

Open access

Zoran Avramović

Abstract

Spirit and body of the man living in the world of modern technology are discussed in the paper. The entire life of modern man is under the pressure of rapid and far‐reaching changes in economy, organisation, education, self‐image. The relations between the spirit and the body on the one side and illness and health, money, media, narcissism, morality and national identity on the other side are studied in the article. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the world of modern science and technology and the quality of life focusing on the mind and body. The fact emphazised in the conclusion is that the nature of Western ‐ European civilization has been changing with predominant turning to the SELF, to the absolute interest of an invidual in terms of materialism. The result of this civilizational turn is jeopardizing the spirit and the body of modern man.

Open access

T. L. Urban

Abstract

This study analyzed the effect of a disproportionate amount of time between rounds of a playoff series—known as the “rest vs. rust” debate in the popular sports media—on the likelihood of winning each game of the subsequent round of the tournament. We utilized NBA Finals data from 1984 – 2018, and analyzed this phenomenon using ordered logistic regression with a categorical dependent variable representing the margin of victory of each game. In addition to several control variables, variables reflecting the difference in the time between series for the two teams were used to measure this effect. The results indicate that having additional time between rounds of the series provides a statistically significant advantage; interestingly, though, it has more of an impact on the second game of the subsequent round than it does for the first game. Teams may utilize the results of this study when deciding on how to schedule and intensify their practice sessions, by providing appropriate rest and maintaining rhythm to increase the likelihood of winning each game.

Open access

E. Simmonds and P. O’Donoghue

Abstract

Tennis matches are hierarchies made up of sets containing games which, in turn, contain points. Traditional tennis games and tiebreakers could theoretically be infinite in length because a player needs to be at least 2 points ahead of the opponent to win. Fast4 tennis is a newer format of tennis that has been used at a number of levels of the sport including professional tennis where it has been used in Next Generation Finals events since 2017. The purpose of the current investigation is to compare the traditional tennis format to Fast4 tennis in terms of the probability of different players winning matches and the duration of matches. Probabilistic models of Fast4 tennis games and tiebreakers were developed. These models allowed the probability of winning games and tiebreakers to be compared between the two formats of tennis for a range of probabilities of players winning points. The models were then used within a series of simulations to determine the probability of winning sets and matches as well as the durations of games, tiebreakers, sets and matches in the two formats. Each component of the two formats of tennis was simulated 100,000 times revealing a reduced impact of serve, greater chance of upsets and shorter matches in Fast 4 tennis than in traditional tennis. The probability of players of differing abilities winning matches as well as the duration of tennis matches should be considered by those making decisions on the format of matches to be applied in tennis tournaments as well as by those preparing to compete in such tournaments.

Open access

Nenad Živanović and Zoran Milošević

Abstract

Physical culture with the man in its centre has always been an integral part of social events and troubles in various times and ages. Regardless the need to adjust its theory and practice to the given requirements and social circumstances of the time it has always been stretched between rationalism and theanthropos‐centrism. Rationalism and its right wing the Enlightenment had formed deep furrows in the area of physical culture, (too) since the age of Pythagoras, Epicurus, Plato and later Origen and the Neoplatonists and Descartes' ''I think, therefore I am''. The great Njegoš made a clear judgement of the general effects of Rationalism in his work The Ray of the Microcosm: ''You, Pythagoras and you, Epicurus, ... You have degraded a being a man.'' Indeed, only a glimpse at today's events and the development of sport and physical exercise is enough to prove his words to be true. On the other hand, thenathropos‐centrism with its theory and practice bring back hope that not all is lost, when everything is lost (R.P. Nogo). Theanthroposcentrism or, God‐man centrism as it can be called, approaches man with Love and belief that physical exercises is divine food for the human being. And that the food is given to him so that he can master the good as gifted from the Creator, to stand firm, get strong and divinized. Therefore, we can say that Rationalism and Thanthropos‐centrism are two views of and two approaches to man (even) in modern times. Behind the first one there is pridewhereas behind the second one there isLove. It is up to man himself to choose his way.

Open access

Đorđe Stefanović, Violeta Šiljak, Slađana Mijatović and Vladan Vukašinović

Abstract

The scientific contribution of this paper consists of an innovative approach to the issues of Orthodox faith and sport, which opens up a new creative area for theology itself, where sport also gets new opportunities. Given the known "affair" in almost all sports branches, which illustrate the state of "alarming helplessness", the contribution of faith in solving it is indisputable, especially in the way advocated in this research work. The primary goal is to extract from the plethora of theological literature those contents that can encourage the creative responsibility of all positive factors of sports events, from the athletes themselves, through their managers and club officials to the fans. Recognizing these problems and referring to theological sources as "clear content", without the bias of the members, with critical awareness, qualifies work to search and find adequate answers to the asked questions. The mere fact that a new research field has been opened, without the intention to make the last word on this, points to the scientific contribution of this paper.

Open access

Ljubiša Despotović

Abstract

The paper analyzes spiritual stumbling of modern man which in addition to other general aspects of life has also led to sport degradation to only one dimesion ‐ the dimension of the result covering particular material interests of having power and being popular to which all other sport components including playing as the most honourable ingredient, which in terms of anthropology defines man as a being whose essential characteristic is playing, are inferior. Spiritual stumbling of modern man is a result of ratiocentrism (that is, his abandoning the concept of theocentrism) with dispair and loss of morality turning the complex body‐spirit bond into an instrument and the sport competition itself into an alienating form of achieving results at all costs. As a result, athletes themselves as main participants in competitions (either against other competitors or against themselves) have become an instrument‐tool for gaining profit. Spiritual stumbling have generated moral crisis and left sports and their participants without any human dimension of existence degrading them to a single physical dimension and its merciless and brutal exploitation.

Open access

Ivica Živković

Abstract

In his critique of the excessive influences of the personalistic philosophy on the theological construct that some of the most significant orthodox authors of the present are guided by, Jean‐Claude Larchet widely explains why the relation of the christian toward the body in the spiritual education of the more recent generations of the orthodox christians is vastly neglected. On another place he exposes a voluminous summary of the orthodox church tradition on the christian faith as a method of healing the passions, picturing the role of the traditional christian terms ascetism, athletics and agon (struggle) in the orthodox theology and advocating for the neccessity of their reafirmation in the christian upbringing of the modern people. The physical culture of the orthodox christians should be determined in the shape of explication of the christian endeavour as bodily discipline, considering the neccessary role of the body in bringing up the virtues, and also the importance of healing the body from the passions and other forms of attachment as the disorders of spiritual health.

Open access

Anna Nikolova and Diana Dimitrova

Abstract

Study aim: Understanding the morphological determinants of performance is important for talent identification and optimiza­tion of training programs. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics of male and female cadet judokas considering the sex-related differences and athletic achievements. Material and methods: Seventy-four (30 female and 44 male) cadet judokas from the Bulgarian National Team underwent an anthropometric assessment of height, weight, lengths, circumferences, and 8 skinfolds. Body fat percentage (%BF) was calcu­lated using Slaughter et al. skinfold equations. Absolute and relative muscle mass, and arm and thigh muscle circumferences were also evaluated. Results: Except for the lower limb circumferences and thigh muscle circumference, a significant difference in most body dimensions was observed between the sexes. Male cadets had lower body fatness, but greater muscle mass as compared to female cadets. Medal winners from both sexes had lower %BF as compared to non-medalists. Male judokas with higher athletic achievements were significantly taller and had a larger arm span than their counterparts who are non-medalists (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Identified apparent sex-specific differences in almost all anthropometric variables and body composition param­eters in adolescent judo cadets followed the pattern typical for adult athletes. Both male and female medal-winner cadets had lower %BF compared to the less successful athletes, but did not differ from them in the absolute and relative muscle mass and limb muscle circumferences. Our results suggest that maintenance of low body fat rather than higher muscle mass is essential for the competitive success of judo players.