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Open access

Irén Virág

Abstract

Introduction: Philanthropism, as it evolved at the end of the 18th century in Germany, wanted to break completely with the contemporary methods persisting in education, with the hegemony of classical languages, and with the study of antique authors’ works; instead, it laid emphasis on practical and useful knowledge, on teaching modern languages, on acquiring knowledge based on demonstration, and on an intimate connection to nature. The impact of philanthropism on contemporary Hungarian public education, especially in the first half of the 19th century, can be clearly detected, which can be accredited to study trips to Germany and the Hungarian translations of German works. Salzmann’s institution, founded in 1784 was visited by 366 Hungarian educators, among others by Teréz Brunszvik, who also gave an account of her impressions in her memoires. Yet, we also need to mention Samuel Tessedik, who made good use of his experience gained during his journey to Germany in his school in Szarvas. Purpose: In this study, four 19th century female educational institutions were selected and the presence of philanthropist ideas in the training offered there was investigated. Three of these were established for the education of the middle-class, while one was founded specifically for aristocrats. We investigated whether the presence of philanthropism can be detected in the education offered by these four schools. Methods: In the presented study, we applied source analysis as a traditional research method in history of education. Conclusions: All the institutions under scrutiny have it in common that the founding and contributing educators and teachers were provably well-acquainted with the pedagogy of the philanthropists, and they incorporated several of its elements into their programmes. The preparation for the housewife role, conveying knowledge utilizable in practice, practical approach to teaching content, and the application of the method of illustration were all emphasized. These features show that several philanthropist characteristics can be identified in the educational principles and curricula of these institutions. Nevertheless, on closer inspection, it cannot be stated that they would have taken on an institutional character exclusively reminiscent of the “philanthropinums”

Open access

Ida Zagyváné Szűcs

Abstract

Introduction: A group of researchers have worked out the Teacher Trainers’ Professional Competences in Hungary. The aim of the research was to explore whether there are any differences among certain groups of teacher trainers concerning their self-reflection, self-evaluation and commitment to ongoing professional development. Methods: Structured interviews were carried out with a sample of 6 teacher trainers whose selection was based on two principles - those who are considered to be teacher trainers in Hungary and those who are available in one of the most important teacher training centres in Hungary - Eszterházy Károly University. The data analysis was done with the General Step-by Step Model of Qualitative Content Analysis supported by MAXQDA 12 software programme. Results: Self-reflection and self-evaluation are the most important factors in teacher trainers’ professional development. Existing standards and criteria to which they compare their achievements play an orienteering role in these two processes, as well as in their self-regulatory learning. However, the levels, the types and the methods of self-reflection can differ depending on what field of teacher training they are involved in and when they were trained as teachers. Discussion: The results of the study promote deeper understanding of teacher trainers’ professional competences regarding their commitment to professional development. It has been clearly stated for which group of teacher trainers scientific research as the highest level of reflection can be a basic requirement, and for which group it should be an expected learning outcome in the future. As research-based teacher training is being introduced in Hungary, parallel to it, all groups of teacher trainers will gradually be expected to carry out scientific research to accomplish the highest level of reflection. Limitations: The sample size does not cover the whole scope of teacher trainers, as instructors teaching specific disciplines were not interviewed, and the research was done in qualitative design, therefore the results cannot be generalized. A future research of quantitative design should cover more teacher trainers from other universities and regions. Conclusions: The general step by step model of qualitative content analysis has provided a detailed picture of the driver of the teacher trainers’ professional development. The evidence of the acceptance of the position of a role model for their instructed, mentored or supported student teachers, teacher assistants and teachers has been given by this research. The need for research-based teacher training in Hungary has been confirmed. Further research should be carried out focusing on teaching strategies, methods and good practices where self-reflection and self-evaluation play a crucial role in enhancing self-regulatory learning

Open access

Gabriela Rozvadský Gugová

Abstract

Introduction: The theory of attachment is widely recognized (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). This theory is based on four basic types of relationships. The sEMBU questionnaire does not focus on the relationships but parental behavior, however, parental behavior is the presentation of the relationship. Our goal was to determine the types of attachment and to obtain information about secure attachment by using cluster analysis. Methods: sEMBU primarily finds out about three basic patterns used in parental behaviour - rejection, emotional warmth and overprotection. We used the 23-item s(short)-EMBU which previously demonstrated to be satisfactory on the samples of students from Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, East-Germany, and Sweden (Arrindell et al., 2001). The Slovak translation of the original sEMBU was published in 2007 (Poliaková, Mojžišová, & Hašto, 2007). Since relationships are closely related to rejection, emotional warmth and overprotection, we tried to find behavioral patterns based on Bowlby’s attachment theory. We did not use standard procedures. Using cluster analysis, we also sorted the sample into four groups based on the presupposed attachment styles. Results: Overprotection (father) has the highest share for classification and differentiation in the cluster. Emotional warmth (mother) has the highest share for classification and differentiation in the cluster. We expected to find out that the secure type of attachment prevails over avoidance both in mothers and fathers. Conclusions: Our results surprised us; in the case of mothers, secure attachment did not occur at all. We suggest to continue in the research of the Slovak version of sEMBU focused on the types of attachment, especially on the secure type of attachment.

Open access

Zuzana Geršicová and Silvia Barnová

Abstract

Introduction: The presented paper deals with the issues of the work of class teachers and their further education in the field of personal and social training. The main goal of the research was to find out about changes in personal and social development after the realization of social-pedagogical training. Methods: On the level of personal development, the authors were interested in the field of values and attitudes. On the level of social development, they focused on the changes in communication and opinion scales. The changes in the above fields were measured by means of a pre-test and a post-test which were administered before and after the realization of the training. Results: In the participants of the realized research, the research team, to a certain extent, succeeded in reducing prejudice and beliefs and the participants learnt about the necessity of considering students’ individual abilities and specific environmental influences on their behavior and manifestations at school. On the level of opinions, there was a shift towards a stronger belief in the significance of the impact of the environment and the family background on students’ behaviour and their personality traits. Discussion: The presented data are the results of a pilot probe and have brought initial insights related to the presented issues for the purposes of a longer and deeper research, which is in the phase of its realization. Limitations: As the project was realized with ten groups of teachers showing a deep interest in participating in it, it is not our ambition to generalize the obtained results; nevertheless, we find them interesting and inspiring. Conclusions: Along with knowledge from pedagogy and psychology, class teachers need a huge amount of creativity, ideas, techniques and methods, which can promote the development of students’ value orientation. The authors can see a clear perspective for teachers’ lifelong learning here

Open access

Tamás Sós

Abstract

Introduction: Examining the connection between vocational training and the world of work, nowadays it is essential to mention the “gap”, which keeps on growing, between training and the economy due to the quick technological changes. Purpose: The purpose of the research is scientific investigation of the demand process of competency expectations at workplaces in connection with careerstarter skilled workers having completed their vocational training at school, and of young specialists’ qualifications, motivation, and the supply process in three disadvantaged counties in Northern Hungary. Considering the conditions of the training of specialists, we started from the opinion, an axiom drawn up all over Europe, that there is a shortage of specialists in the labor market in quantitative and qualitative respects alike. Digitalization, “Economy 4.0” is basically transforming technological and logistics processes, while professions disappear, or new ones are created. In the field of employment, probably fewer, but more qualified, skilled workers will be needed. All these mean a significant challenge, a need for a change in specialists’ training, in the preparation for a new type of labor force. Methods: The method of the research was a primary data collection embracing the area of Northern Hungary, self-completed online questionnaires, complemented with focus group interviews. In the framework of a secondary analysis, according to stratified sampling, based on OECD-PISA survey, there will be a comparison of students’ average results on the European scale. Limitations: The lack of representativeness restricted the research with the employer survey. Results: The results of the research cast light on the sensitive points of vocational training at schools, on the educational deficit, on the shortcomings of the qualification system, and on the growing gap between training and the labor market. Conclusions: The conclusions are aimed at the improvement of vocational training, and at broadening the connections with the employers. There is a demand for an incentive system, so that along with big companies, also SMEs will take part in the formal training of professionals within the school system in bigger and bigger proportions. We will further continue our studies in this direction

Open access

Szilvia Simándi

Abstract

Introduction: Nowadays, providing the access to learning appears as an emphasized priority for every stage of life, due to the demographic changes, even near the place of residence or with the utilization of the possibilities of the new informational and communicational technologies, which bring new possibilities also in the dimension of learning between generations. Purpose: Intergenerational learning can also be defined as a mutual learning relationship and interaction between the young and the old. The starting point of the study is that the younger and older age groups can learn from each other in their free time, in a non-formal learning environment in the framework of study circles. This paper drafts some practical directives for planning and organizing intergenerational study circles in a non-formal learning environment. Methods: We intend to make a synthesis based on former research and literature - learning between generations, spending free time, learning at an old age, study circles - and following this, a methodological guide is going to be made for planning and organizing intergenerational study circles. Conclusions: Study circles can be seen as intergenerational learning possibilities - young and old people with different preliminary knowledge can make a profit from the experiences gained during joint work, and from the topics examined from different points of views. The younger and older generations can work together in a non-formal learning environment and there is an opportunity for common learning and knowledge sharing as well.

Open access

Petra Trávníčková

Abstract

Introduction: This paper presents the results of research focused on identification of preschool teachers’ progress in relation to the use of children’s preconceptions in formal pre-elementary education. It represents the theoretical concepts that are applied in the work with children’s preconceptions in schools. It analyses them and creates a platform for their own empirical investigation. This research was carried out in the Czech Republic. Methods: The empirical part of the study was conducted in the form of a qualitative research. Participant observation and interviews with preschool teachers were used for the data collection. The research findings were analysed and a model for using children’s preconceptions was created and interpreted subsequently. Results: The presence of children’s preconception in educational activities in preschool was found in the realised participant observation. The ways and types of practice of preschool teachers in relation to using children’s preconception are interpreted based on the research findings. Afterwards, based on the participant observation, in-depth interviews were carried out. From the collected data, it was observed that the practices of the teachers in connection to using children’s preconceptions are determined by the agency of the child, the experience of the teacher and the overall philosophy of the preschool. Limitations: This research was realised in the Zlín region in the spring of 2017. Data from the research cannot be generalised for the whole population. However, the following research will address agency theory in connection with children’s preconceptions. Discussion and conclusions: The practices of teachers in relation to using children’s preconceptions in formal education in preschools. The results show that the approach of teachers in connection with using children’s preconceptions differs. There are three ways interpreted out of the research findings: 1. A preschool teacher notices the preconception but does not react to it. 2. A preschool teacher notices the preconception and reacts to it. 3. A preschool teacher intentionally identifies the preconception and uses it further during the educational activity. The results show that a child’s agency plays an important role in relation to using children’s preconception. Additionally, they show that the decision to use or not to use children’s preconceptions is influenced by the preschool teacher’s experience and the philosophy of the preschool

Open access

Ezra K. Maritim and Daniel Makini Getuno

Abstract

Globally, ODL institutions experience mismatch between scalability of numbers and scalability of success rates. This study explored the scalability of success rates in open, distance e-learning as perceived by the learners within the Chain of Response Model. The primary aim of the study was to look at online learners’ success rate by focusing on two institutional factors drawn from the Model, namely: the learner’s study modules related challenges and support services. The results of an online survey of 180 undergraduate and postgraduate online learners of Egerton University, Kenya, showed: (a) the response rate of 16%; (b) a mixture of hardware, software and personal factors were identified as pre-requisites for e-learning success: (c) a number of mathematically-based modules were identified as risks to success in online studies; and (d) while the learners saw the learner support services as important they were less satisfied with their provision. The present study points to two broad areas that require further studies. First, qualitative look into specific challenges that learners face with respect to learner support service provisions, modules interactivity, and those identified as difficult to follow and thus posing risks to the learners’ success. Second, investigation into tutor-learner contacts with the view of identifying whether such contacts are reactive or proactive.

Open access

Rajabalee Yousra Banoor, Frank Rennie and Mohammad Issack Santally

Abstract

In this research we studied the correlation between the level of students’ online participation and their overall performances. We examined in this study, the participation level in different learning activities assigned to two large cohorts of learners, and compared them with their final grades at the end of the year. We defined the quality of their participation in the online course as being classified into the level of learning activities in which they participated. Learning activities were grouped into four levels which were identified namely at the knowledge, understanding, critical thinking skills and practical competencies. The findings revealed that participation in higher-order online learning activities, that is the higher ability to show critical skills and practical competencies, resulted in better grades of the learners in the module. However, the results also highlighted that overall students had a tendency to score more marks in the knowledge category as the activities required lower order cognitive skills. It was further observed that low performers demonstrated a tendency to obtain lower marks in all the four grouping levels and vice-versa for high performers. Two key elements can be concluded from the findings. The first aspect is about instructional design of such online courses where there is a need for the inclusion of learning activities targeted at the development of different types of skills, and second is the distribution and weighting given to these categories. The recommendation is that for first year students, a greater weighting of marks toward knowledge level activities will generally encourage good performances, and this could be gradually reviewed when they move on to level 2 onwards in their studies.