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Zoran Avramović

Abstract

Spirit and body of the man living in the world of modern technology are discussed in the paper. The entire life of modern man is under the pressure of rapid and far‐reaching changes in economy, organisation, education, self‐image. The relations between the spirit and the body on the one side and illness and health, money, media, narcissism, morality and national identity on the other side are studied in the article. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the world of modern science and technology and the quality of life focusing on the mind and body. The fact emphazised in the conclusion is that the nature of Western ‐ European civilization has been changing with predominant turning to the SELF, to the absolute interest of an invidual in terms of materialism. The result of this civilizational turn is jeopardizing the spirit and the body of modern man.

Open access

Marek Madro

Abstract

Introduction: Nowadays we are looking for help and answers to our questions more and more often on the Internet. People use social networks to search for communities or groups whose members experience similar difficulties. These are often online groups that focus on psychological problems, domestic violence, etc. Members receive instant feedback and at the same time, due to the online disinhibition effect, they do not feel the fear, shame or worries they would feel in personal contact (Griffiths, 2005). The content of such self-help groups is not always helpful, but may rather induce pathological behaviour. However, the group administrator can influence the atmosphere in the group and its content itself (Niwa & Mandrusiak, 2012).

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to find a space to perform professional psychological interventions inside online self-help groups on social networks. The concept of a field worker was used in this research. The field worker offers helping services to clients in an environment natural to them and where the worker can provide the client with emergency help during the crisis and prevent other clients from offering risk advices (Ambrózová, Vitálošová, & Labáth, 2006).

Methods: We have conducted qualitative research using the method of content-frequency analysis. The sample for this study consisted of 10 closed online self-help groups focusing on topics such as depression, anxiety disorder, domestic violence, self-injurious and suicidal thoughts and tendencies, etc. For the purpose of this research we created an online group moderated by professionals, focusing on similar topics of mental disorders.

Conclusions: The research results indicated that group members exchanged useful information (35.43%), described their current difficulties they were experiencing (32.33%), shared their own experiences (10.53%), and also published information on what had helped them manage the difficult feelings and situations they had been experiencing (6.39%). However, we also identified risky statements and threatening recommendations in posts and comments. Based on the results, we outlined the possibilities of online field worker interventions and described techniques of interventions that the professional can use for the benefit of group members.

Open access

Nenad Živanović and Zoran Milošević

Abstract

Physical culture with the man in its centre has always been an integral part of social events and troubles in various times and ages. Regardless the need to adjust its theory and practice to the given requirements and social circumstances of the time it has always been stretched between rationalism and theanthropos‐centrism. Rationalism and its right wing the Enlightenment had formed deep furrows in the area of physical culture, (too) since the age of Pythagoras, Epicurus, Plato and later Origen and the Neoplatonists and Descartes' ''I think, therefore I am''. The great Njegoš made a clear judgement of the general effects of Rationalism in his work The Ray of the Microcosm: ''You, Pythagoras and you, Epicurus, ... You have degraded a being a man.'' Indeed, only a glimpse at today's events and the development of sport and physical exercise is enough to prove his words to be true. On the other hand, thenathropos‐centrism with its theory and practice bring back hope that not all is lost, when everything is lost (R.P. Nogo). Theanthroposcentrism or, God‐man centrism as it can be called, approaches man with Love and belief that physical exercises is divine food for the human being. And that the food is given to him so that he can master the good as gifted from the Creator, to stand firm, get strong and divinized. Therefore, we can say that Rationalism and Thanthropos‐centrism are two views of and two approaches to man (even) in modern times. Behind the first one there is pridewhereas behind the second one there isLove. It is up to man himself to choose his way.

Open access

Đorđe Stefanović, Violeta Šiljak, Slađana Mijatović and Vladan Vukašinović

Abstract

The scientific contribution of this paper consists of an innovative approach to the issues of Orthodox faith and sport, which opens up a new creative area for theology itself, where sport also gets new opportunities. Given the known "affair" in almost all sports branches, which illustrate the state of "alarming helplessness", the contribution of faith in solving it is indisputable, especially in the way advocated in this research work. The primary goal is to extract from the plethora of theological literature those contents that can encourage the creative responsibility of all positive factors of sports events, from the athletes themselves, through their managers and club officials to the fans. Recognizing these problems and referring to theological sources as "clear content", without the bias of the members, with critical awareness, qualifies work to search and find adequate answers to the asked questions. The mere fact that a new research field has been opened, without the intention to make the last word on this, points to the scientific contribution of this paper.

Open access

Ljubiša Despotović

Abstract

The paper analyzes spiritual stumbling of modern man which in addition to other general aspects of life has also led to sport degradation to only one dimesion ‐ the dimension of the result covering particular material interests of having power and being popular to which all other sport components including playing as the most honourable ingredient, which in terms of anthropology defines man as a being whose essential characteristic is playing, are inferior. Spiritual stumbling of modern man is a result of ratiocentrism (that is, his abandoning the concept of theocentrism) with dispair and loss of morality turning the complex body‐spirit bond into an instrument and the sport competition itself into an alienating form of achieving results at all costs. As a result, athletes themselves as main participants in competitions (either against other competitors or against themselves) have become an instrument‐tool for gaining profit. Spiritual stumbling have generated moral crisis and left sports and their participants without any human dimension of existence degrading them to a single physical dimension and its merciless and brutal exploitation.

Open access

Ivica Živković

Abstract

In his critique of the excessive influences of the personalistic philosophy on the theological construct that some of the most significant orthodox authors of the present are guided by, Jean‐Claude Larchet widely explains why the relation of the christian toward the body in the spiritual education of the more recent generations of the orthodox christians is vastly neglected. On another place he exposes a voluminous summary of the orthodox church tradition on the christian faith as a method of healing the passions, picturing the role of the traditional christian terms ascetism, athletics and agon (struggle) in the orthodox theology and advocating for the neccessity of their reafirmation in the christian upbringing of the modern people. The physical culture of the orthodox christians should be determined in the shape of explication of the christian endeavour as bodily discipline, considering the neccessary role of the body in bringing up the virtues, and also the importance of healing the body from the passions and other forms of attachment as the disorders of spiritual health.

Open access

Martin Brestovanský, Janette Gubricová, Kristína Liberčanová, Naďa Bizová and Zuzana Geršicová

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to find out what is the understanding of relatively new terms coming into the cultures of Middle-European countries – inclusion, diversity, and equality (hereinafter referred to as IDE) – from the point of view of young people (n=30) and youth workers (n=16) in Slovakia.

Methods: For data gathering, we used a method of focus groups (4 meetings). Data analysis was based on three criteria: consistency in understanding the terms, an overview of types of obstacles that keep young people from self-realisation and an explicit or implicit expression of understanding the basic principles of inclusion in education. The content of IDE terms was mostly from the area of the social field. The term diversity was closely explained in the psychological-personal fields.

Results: The most frequent obstacles for applying IDE approaches were seen in the social, health and religious spheres. From the pedagogical and methodological point of view, the problem is also in the difficulty of preparing the projects based on the principles of IDE while the youth workers proclaim autonomy in solutions and do not trust the possibilities of using general methods because of specific need resulting from the specific context of their work. Also, they proclaim natural applying of the IDE principles and the existence of specific needs in the informal education does not represent any problem for the inclusion of the group members in the activities of the organisation.

Limitations: Work with youth is very varied. Performs in different areas of life and also involves working with different groups of young people. The selected research sample consists of youth and youth workers who are only a partial sample of the sample. It is assumed that in a larger group of respondents (both youth workers and youths themselves), respondents' views may differ somewhat in some of the areas studied.

Conclusions: This research provides information on understanding, implementation and obstacles to applying the principles of inclusion, equality and diversity in practice. We believe that the information we receive is very valuable as it opens the imaginative door to the specific kitchens of individual youth organizations where these principles are directly implemented. They show their nature of application in practice, they suggest some risks, as well as a certain bias towards the application of the terms emerging (probably?) from theory. As can be seen from the results of our research, the emergence of specific needs in non-formal education in practice does not pose a problem in the inclusion of group members in leisure activities.

Open access

Ivachenko Sergey and Trachuk Sergey

Abstract

The main attention in this article is devoted to the question of the influence of generally recognized measures of preventive medicine on the process of physical education of different categories of the population in the historical aspect. In this case, such conditions ensure the effectiveness of work on physical training, mainly young people as a character and level of their physical activity, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the diet, the presence of bad habits, and so on. The necessity of formation of the appropriate infrastructure, which will allow specialists working in the field of physical culture and sports, is substantiated, to focus on the priority directions of organization of physical activity for children and adolescents with the purpose of positive influence on their health.

Open access

András Semjén, Marcell Le and Zoltán Hermann

Abstract

Introduction: A robust process of centralization in education administration and school finance has taken place in Hungary in the course of the present decade. The governance, control, and funding of schools has been taken from local government by the state, and the autonomy of headmasters and teachers has diminished. However, neither the objectives of, nor the motives behind this centralization seem to be completely clear. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of these objectives and motives, and explores whether the reform has been successful in achieving its declared objectives.

Methods: The clarification of the objectives and motives relies not only on an analysis of the existing literature, but on the textual analysis of various legal texts, together with the use of structured research interviews and press interviews with education policy makers and people working in education administration. Simple statistical methods (including inequality measures and concentration indicators) are employed to determine the impact of the centralization process via the analysis of administrative data on school finances, teacher earnings and student performance.

Results: It was found that while the declared objectives of the centralization included the reduction of inequalities in resource availability and teachers’ wages, and an improvement in equality of educational opportunity, in the first two post-reform years there was a significant drop in the level of resources per student, resulting in a slight increase of inequality of resources. A drop in expenditure may in principle indicate a growth in efficiency, but in this instance this seems actually to have been achieved at the expense of shortages and other school-level problems with a negative effect on the quality of education.

Discussion: The usual requirements to be observed in public sector governance reforms were deliberately neglected, and the reform was carried through in the absence of any pilot study or systematic impact assessment. This is all the more problematic as the recent literature on the experience of other countries does not provide unanimous support for centralization. Further, given the declared objectives of the reforms, it is rather remarkable that no systematic monitoring of results was put into place.

Limitations: The analysis offered here is confined to the short term effects of the reform. A more complete evaluation of the reform will only be possible later, when the longer term effects of the process become clear. The relatively short time since the reform does not allow the definitive identification and evaluation of the effects of the centralization on student performance. However, the short-term effects on inequalities in school finances and teacher salaries are worth investigating at this point. The limited availability of school budget data from the pre-reform period restricts somewhat the reliability of the analysis of the effects of the reform on school expenditure. A further limitation is that the statistical analysis presented here is restricted to basic schools2 only, in the interests of simplifying comparisons. However, a preliminary analysis of secondary schools showed very similar patterns.

Conclusions: The empirical results are to a certain degree inconclusive. As far as school funding is concerned, the inequality of funding increased right after the centralization, then stagnated and started to diminish significantly only after 2015. At the same time, from the perspective of school funding per student on the basis of the income of various local authorities, the results seem somewhat more satisfactory, and it is possible to identify some positive effects in this respect.

Open access

Jana Škrabánková and Martina Martínková

Abstract

Introduction: The paper deals with a possible level of risk in cerebrally gifted pupils in relation to bullying at lower secondary schools and grammar schools. In terms of personality characteristics, gifted pupils form a very diverse group, but some research suggests that they might be a risky group concerning school bullying. In the Czech Republic, the most of cerebrally gifted pupils attend ordinary primary schools or grammar schools and they are in daily contact with other pupils. Due to ambiguous research results, there is a question if it is really possible to think of certain risks in the case of cerebrally gifted pupils in relation to their school environment. Quantitative research tried to answer these questions.

Methods: The research was focused on the perception of selected areas in the class social environment by the diagnosed cerebrally gifted pupils, the undiagnosed gifted ones and the ordinary pupil population. A quantitative research strategy for bullying incidence mapping in primary and grammar schools were determined. As a research tool, a questionnaire was chosen. Gathered data from the initial questionnaire were evaluated by the following methods: dispersion analysis (ANOVA) for data spread by Gauss curve, Kruskal-Wallis test for data with non-Gauss distribution, arithmetic mean, Pearson Chi-Square Test, correlation analysis and contingency tables.

Results: There are differences among the class climate in ordinary classes and the classes with diagnosed cerebrally gifted pupils and undiagnosed pupils. The comparison was at the level of schools, it means among primary schools and grammar schools. It was found out that the cerebrally gifted respondents repeatedly met some form of bullying.

Discussion: On the basis of the findings, the authors assumed that cerebrally gifted pupils (GP) represent a risky group in social interaction with their peers and are more prone to different symptoms of bullying. This has not been statistically confirmed. The overall score was similar in other groups.

Limitation: The views of teachers and the views of some psychologists suggest that within the GP group, there is a special group of GP that is not identifiable by traditional questionnaires. For further research, it is worthwhile to consider opting for such research methods that could reveal those pupils.

Conclusions: Based on these results, it is possible to support those authors who consider GP as a specific group with their own problems, different values and perceptions, but similar to their peers.