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Amir Hossein Sarkeshikian, Abdol-Majid Tabatabaee and Maryam Taleb Doaee

Abstract

This study investigated the psychometric properties of self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale (Tseng, Dornyei, & Schmitt, 2006) in the Iranian EFL context. For this purpose, a sample of 1167 high school students completed the Persian SRCvoc in the main phase. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. It showed acceptable reliability in both piloting and main phases. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed that the SRCvoc is composed of three factors. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the three-factor model of the SRCvoc and Tseng et al.’s (2006) five-factor model of the SRCvoc with item-level indicators showed that both models did not fit the data. The findings of this study imply that the item-parcels in Tseng et al. (2006) may have masked the nature of the factor structure of the self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale. It should therefore be re-theorized.

Open access

Melisa Stevanovic and Sonja E. Koski

Abstract

Intersubjectivity is a concept central to human interaction, broadly understood as the sharing of minds. There is a rich diversity of conceptualizations of intersubjectivity, but detailed operationalization for its component processes in social interactions are scarce. We propose a novel approach to examine detailed variation in intersubjectivity in interaction. Our approach combines two previously formulated frameworks: the hierarchically organized developmental levels of intersubjectivity put forth in the field of developmental psychology, and three domains or orders of social interaction - affect, deontics, and epistemics - discussed in conversation analytic research literature. The interdisciplinary integration of these two frameworks allows a more crystallized view of intersubjectivity, which will benefit our understanding of the fine-scale social interaction processes as they vary in the course of the moment-to-moment unfolding of social action, across different stages of human social development, and between individuals belonging to different clinical groups and even to different species.

Open access

Douglas S. Wilbur

Abstract

This qualitative research project employed semi-structured interviews (analyzed with qualitative coding techniques) to examine how (N = 22) male American combat veterans manage privacy. The two-fold purpose of this study was to determine how combat veterans adhere to or deviate from the principles of communication privacy management theory (CPM). Secondly, to provide new knowledge that can shape counseling strategies and transition programs to account for how veterans manage their privacy. Some of the significant findings are that veterans believe that merely participating in combat implicitly creates a collective boundary that all veterans must maintain to protect the group. Secondly, the veterans did not use boundary coordination or privacy rule development. Instead, they relied upon internal rules that helped them craft a disclosure that minimized risk. Veterans reported having dense privacy boundaries by default, even towards members of their own family. These dense boundaries present significant obstacles to therapists working with veterans and their families.

Open access

Irina Ovchinnikova

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of the hesitations in adolescents’ narratives. The speech disfluencies in the adolescents differ from those of the adults by frequency of self-corrections and pauses of hesitation. The adolescents rarely turn to repair their narratives but often interrupt the speech flow by pauses while telling a story stimulated by a wordless book. The lack of self-corrections reflects the specific problems with self-control and self-regulation due to immaturity of the executive function. Narrating about a complex multi-propositional event, the adolescents often experienced hesitation that provoked more self-repairs and hesitation pauses compared to the telling the story about a simple event. The description of the relatively simple content was more complicated syntactically than that of the multi-propositional event. Meanwhile, the content complexity significantly influences frequency of the silent hesitation pauses.

Open access

Soile Loukusa, Leena Mäkinen, Ilaria Gabbatore, Päivi Laukkanen-Nevala and Eeva Leinonen

Abstract

This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.

Open access

Kyung Hee Kim

Abstract

Kim’s CATs framework (2016) identified creative climates (C), attitudes (A) and thinking (T) skills for innovation. Creativity can be measured by testing and non-testing methods. Testing methods include creativity tests for climate, attitude and thinking skills. Among the creativity tests available, two versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking - Figural and Verbal (TTCT-F and V) are most commonly used. I examined the relationships between the two versions as well as their reliability across gender. From preschool children to adults, 994 participants’ scores on the two versions were used. The results showed that scores on the two versions are significantly related, yet TTCT-F is a more comprehensive, reliable and valid measure of creativity than the TTCT-V.

Open access

Marlena Bartczak

Abstract

Much evidence from theory and research points towards difficulties in processing metaphors by elderly people. These difficulties are usually associated with working memory and inhibitory control deficits observed in this age group, as these very functions play a crucial part in efficient metaphor processing. However, results of research on understanding metaphorical content by elderly people are inconclusive. The following article reviews studies showing that metaphor processing relies on a set of complex variables, which might explain the inconclusiveness of previous results. Though we acknowledge the role of interindividual factors (differences in cognitive functioning among the elderly), we focus on the properties of the metaphor stimuli themselves, especially those of conventionalization and valence, as they might influence the processing of verbal metaphors by people in older age groups.

Open access

Katarzyna Patro and Maciej Haman

Abstract

Literate subjects from Western cultures form spatial-numerical associations (SNA) in left-to-right direction, which follows their reading habits. In preliterate children, sources of SNA directionality are more disputable. One possibility is that SNA follows children's early knowledge about text orientation. It could also reflect ipsilateral/contralateral tendencies in manual task execution. Furthermore, SNA's characteristics could differ depending on the evaluation method used. In this study, we test SNA in preliterate preschoolers using object counting, finger counting, and numerosity arrangement tasks. We examined the relations of SNA to children's directional reading knowledge and their manual response tendencies. Left-to-right SNA was pronounced for object counting, disappeared for the numerosity task, and was reversed for finger counting. In all tasks, left-to-right SNA dominated in children who responded contralaterally with their hand. Reading knowledge was partially related to numerosity-based SNA, but not to other SNAs. Based on these findings, we discuss developmental characteristics of different forms of number-space associations.

Open access

Klára Pirklová

Abstract

The article deals with the topic of play as the background for creativity. Methodologically, the study is based on a phenomenological- hermeneutical approach. This means we do not base our questions on predefined terms, but rather aim to search for them. Thus, in pursuit of questioning the phenomenon of creativity, we explore other phenomena - play, education (paideia) and utility (pragma). To picture the relationships between these phenomena we borrow two symbolic figures - Socrates and Pippi Longstocking. Socrates appears here as the symbol of wondering and the antidote to all false sophistication (and thus true education), and Pippi as the exemplar par excellence of free, joyous and thoroughly inutile play. In the article we aim to expose the inutile and creative character of play as its greatest benefit. Our line of questioning follows the traditions of Czech philosophy of education, represented by Jan Patočka.