Bilingual partnerships (Piller & Pavlenko, 2004) and transnational families (Hirsch & Lee, 2018) are on the rise. With mothers spending more time with their children at home, even in dual career partnerships (Hochschild & Machung, 1989), the labor of family language policy (FLP) implementation often falls on them. While increasingly more new hires in academia are women (Finkelstein, Seal, & Schuster, 1998), only 31% of them are mothers (Perna, 2003). In this work, we examine the dominant discourses regarding bilingualism and FLP among academic mothers who find themselves at an intersection of multiple and often competing social positions. Data was collected from 46 academic mothers residing in linguistically-different host societies but all whom gather in an online community they have co-created. Data collection procedure included 22 open-ended questions exploring bilingualism and FLP orientations. Iterative and recursive content analysis was performed, yielding thematic patterns centering around language ideologies, practices, and bilinguality.
We examined the understanding of emotional speech by deaf children with cochlear implant (CI). Thirty deaf children with CI and 60 typically developing controls (matched on chronological age or hearing age) performed a computerized task featuring emotional prosody, either embedded in a discrepant context or without any context at all. Across the task conditions, the deaf participants with CI scored lower on the prosody-bases responses than their peers matched on chronological age or hearing age. Additionally, we analyzed the effect of age on determining correct prosody-based responses and we found that hearing age was a predictor of the accuracy of prosody-based responses. We discuss these findings with respect to delay in prosody and intermodal processing. Future research should aim to specify the nature of the cognitive processes that would be required to process prosody.
In a forced-choice mouse-tracking paradigm, true and false statements (ranging from very true, to ambiguous, to very false) were tested in both affirmative and negated forms. Replicating prior research, mouse trajectories reveal subtle differences in a continuum of true to false statements. However, negation modifies this process, particularly for very true statements (i.e. Bread is not made from sand). The mouse trajectories were more curved with negated sentences, with end-points of the continuum of truth (very true and very false statements) having the greatest area under the curve. The proposed explanation is the pragmatic meaning of a negated statement such as “Gummie bears are not alive” is infelicitous, whereas a true statement “People live on Earth” is felicitous. This study reveals the online dynamics of processing these statements and possible confusion, particularly when very true statements contain a negation.
Is it possible to speak of the compulsion to create? And if so, what underlies it? In this article, I set out to offer a comprehensive explanation of what may cause the strong desire for creative activity observable in many artistically-inclined individuals. To describe this desire, I use the term compulsion to create, and drawing upon examples from both pop-culture and the lives of famous artists on the one hand, and philosophical and scholarly writings on the other, I seek its sources in the individual’s psyche. I discuss how the compulsion to create depends, among other factors, on an individual’s personality and mental state (in the sense of Sigmund Freud’s and Elaine N. Aron’s theories), transcendental circumstances (in the sense of Carl Jung’s theory) and character traits (as defined by Jordan Peterson). Then, I frame the phenomenon studied within the 4Ps Model of Creativity. I point to a significant correlation between the compulsion to create and high levels of an individual’s creativity. Additionally, I discriminate between the notions of the drive to create and the compulsion to create. The article proposes a definition of the compulsion to create which allows for a clear understanding of this notion and its popular application in the field of creatology.
The text aims to present how creativity and creative behaviours, understood as an act of transcending oneself and the world, can positively influence the fields of art, science, education and upbringing. A constitutional feature of creativity is its ability to transcend what is fixed, tamed and predictable, both individually and globally, at the microcosmic and macro-cosmic level; to transcend what is within us and outside us. The author of the article analyzes the following issues: is there a positive aspect to creativity understood as the act of transcendence? And, given such an understanding of creativity, are all acts of creation, whether they involve the creation of great works of art, the pursuit of science, the processes of education and upbringing, or simply the resolution of daily problems, more spiritual than intellectual?
In the interview with Robert J. Sternberg, one of most prolific creativity researchers, we discuss his career, main areas of research interest, chosen research methods and share his thoughts about the future of research on creativity and effectiveness in scientific work.
The purpose of the research was to investigate different types of training in insight problem solving. In doing so, we reviewed the literature on experimental tests of procedures for training insight problem solving. The results revealed that most procedures focused either on restructuring or divergent thinking, and provided some evidence for the effectiveness of both approaches. However, we found no studies that compared the effects of the two approaches. The article reports two experiments that compared different training procedures based on restructuring and divergent thinking. For the latter, the methods focused separately on fluency, flexibility and originality training. The first experiment compared a restructuring approach with fluency training and a placebo control condition. The results indicated that the restructuring training was significantly more effective than the others, but only when instructions were verbal, not in script form. The second experiment compared restructuring training with flexibility, fluency and originality training, all presented in script form, and the results indicated that the restructuring training was significantly more effective than both fluency training and flexibility training. Implications for future research are discussed.
Parent-child interactions are influenced by cultural expectations, beliefs, and values. Chinese parenting is shaped by Confucian principles. Chinese children tend to be more academically successful but less creative than American children. Yet, little is known about how actual parent-child interactions might contribute to this finding. We conducted three case studies using a social constructivist approach to parenting to explore how parent-child interactions in early childhood education might influence children’s academics and creativity. We studied 11 participants from three families: Chinese, interracial (Chinese mother and American father), and American. Through interviews, observations, and artifacts, we found that parenting decisions are influenced by parents’ cultural climates. Chinese parents trained children to learn for academic achievement; American parents encouraged children to pursue their own interests; and inter-racial parents did some of both.