Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 498 items for :

  • Applied Psychology x
Clear All
Open access

Monika Modrzejewska-Świgulska

Abstract

The aim of this work is to reconstruct the convictions and opinions of Polish female film directors concerning work competences that actuate work and success in the field of film directing. Qualitative data are presented in the text, which were collected by the Author herself in free interviews carried out with twelve Polish female film directors.

Open access

Dorota M. Jankowska and Iwona Omelańczuk

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to weigh the empirical and hypothetical evidence to assess the claim that imaginative play supports the acquisition and development of social and emotional competence. We analyse children’s play and social skills using a development-based perspective. On this basis, we describe the developmental trajectories of imaginative play and the components of socio-emotional competence during childhood, especially in the pre-school period. In addition, we review the research literature on the possible link between imaginative play and creativity in children, and on how this type of play is predictive of later life creativity. Finally, we discuss hypothetical mechanisms that may account for the relationship between imaginative play and social competence in the preschool years and beyond.

Open access

Beata Kunat

Abstract

In this paper I will attempt to compare two categories of passion and creativity. I will try to answer the question: What has passion got in common with creativity? What is the common denominator and what is different? What is the role of passion in the creative process? Searching for the mechanism of passion and its components is necessary to discover its relation to creativity I will refer to passion psychology (Vallerand, 2015). The basis of my analysis will be the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand 2008, 2010, 2015), the concept of Grit: The Power of Passion and Perserverance (Duckworth et al., 2007; Duckworth & Quinn, 2009, Duckworth 2016) and the concept of Flow (Csíkszentmihályi, 1996). In the process of mapping the areas that connect passion with creativity I will refer to four ways of its understanding: creativity as a process, a personality trait complex, a product and the interaction between the creative individual and the context or environment. I will also refer in my comparisons to The four C Model of Creativity (Kaufman & Beghetto 2009).

Open access

Ahmed M. Abdulla, Mark A. Runco, Hanadi N. Alsuwaidi and Huda S. Alhindal

Abstract

Personal obstacles to creativity were investigated by sampling 297 Arab women from four Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The Obstacles to Personal Creativity Inventory, as self-report, was used. It assesses four types of obstacles (a) inhibition/shyness, (b) lack of time/opportunity, (c) social repression, and (d) lack of motivation. The results showed that the highest mean was reported for the lack of time/opportunities factor, followed in order by the three other factors: lack of motivation, inhibition/shyness, and social repression. (A high mean is indicative of more obstacles.) A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that reported obstacles to creativity significantly differed by field of study. Women in the arts reported experiencing fewer obstacles related to social repression in comparison with women in engineering, who showed the highest mean. No significant effects were observed for level of education, country and income in the GCC countries. The MANOVA also showed significant interactions between (a) education and sector (i.e., government vs private), (b) country and sector, (c) income and field of study, and finally (d) between field of study and sector. Results from this study were compared to two other studies, in Brazil and Mexico, that used the Obstacles to Personal Creativity Inventory. The high mean found for the lack of motivation in GCC countries deserves further investigation, given that motivation is so important for creativity and often is something that can be encouraged.

Open access

Jessica Jacobs

Abstract

As the problem-solving methodology of design thinking has gained legitimacy in business and educational environments, this article suggests we also think about incorporating “art thinking” into approaches in design pedagogy. To study what skills and techniques can be useful in other disciplines, we can first review the stages of the creative process which are centered around preparation, incubation, ideation, illumination, and evaluation. Within those stages, we can tease out specific elements unique to the artistic process that can be particularly useful, including mindsets of emotional engagement, intuition, and tolerance of ambiguity as well as cognitive strategies such as the use of metacognition, resource banks, generators and constraints, prolonged research, problem-creation, conversation with the work, closure delay, and reflection and thematic coherence. Emphasizing these elements and strategies in design pedagogy can expand possibilities for creativity and innovation.

Open access

Kamila Witerska

Abstract

The text is a case study report concerning research on a drama/theatre project called Jutka’s Sleeplessness that was performed in the public space of Łódź. The purpose of the research was to address the question of how this creative - new and valuable product - in the form of the drama/ theatre project Jutka’s Sleeplessness was created and what aspect of creativity decides on the success of a project that combines drama with theatre. The discussion represents an attempt to demonstrate how the four Ps of creativity work in a drama/theatre project.

Open access

Wendy Ross and Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

Abstract

Folk and scholarly conjectures on the nature of creative genius often focus on intrapsychic processes: The explanations centre on the person, the creator, transcending the more prosaic forces that shape everyday, routine cognition. Focusing on the alleged extraordinary character of a creator deflects attention from the emergent, distributed and relational nature of creativity. A more productive research agenda considers a range of factors, operating at different time scales, that guide and constrain the manufacture of creativity. We argue that a transactional perspective is particularly fruitful for the analysis of the dramatic work of William Shakespeare. Drama is an inherently relational art form created by the writer, the director, actors and audience. Further, Shakespeare’s output is a palimpsest of classical texts and writers contemporary to him, and was shaped by practical constraints. Viewing his work as situated in a historical time period and in a dialogue with other voices gives us a fuller account of the ontological locus of his creativity.

Open access

Antonina Starzyńska and Magdalena Budziszewska

Abstract

One of the premises of developmental psycholinguistics is that we live our life according to certain narratives that are learned through language and media. These narratives teach children to express emotions and to attribute actions in a variety of life situations; they construct the way in which the threatening feelings such as anger, injustice, or the urge of vengeance are experienced. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the gendered discourse in popular American cinema, based on the plot analysis of 60 films featuring male or female protagonist seeking revenge. We use critical discourse analysis to decipher the patterns of the gender roles, behaviors, and emotions, which these movies intent to force upon the viewer. As the psychological research does not clearly testify to gender differences in the experience and expression of the trait anger, we would like to argue that it is a matter of the socially moderated narrative patterns, rather than inborn tendencies, that urges boys and girls to play such different roles in those situations as well as experience them in distinct ways. Our most crucial conclusion is that Western societies have developed the narrative-based mechanisms which later helped to successfully discourage women from expressing anger in the form of physical aggression, under the threat of being left out of the discourses of femininity and, in some cases, humanity.

Open access

Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi and Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

Open access

Thomas Wiben Jensen

Abstract

In adopting new theoretical advancements within linguistics and ecological psychology, this paper investigates humor from an ecological perspective in naturally occurring social interaction. In doing so, it is claimed that the notions of language as coordination and values-realizing can provide a new understanding of humor as it appears in human interaction. This argument will be unfolded as a rethinking of Wallace Chafe’s notion of nonseriousness (Chafe, 2007) that re-conceptualizes Chafe’s idea of a ‘mental state’ of nonseriousness in terms of interactional affordances and values realizing. This perspective is laid out in in-depth analyses of video recordings of two real-life examples from different settings: two siblings playing and a sequence from a couple-therapy session. It is claimed that both examples of interactional humor can be explained by re-conceptualizing humor as a distinct way of being together. Thus, the emergence of humor is enabled by a shift in the coordinative dynamics rather than by a transfer of semantic ‘content’ from a speaker to a hearer. Finally, humor is investigated as a temporal phenomenon integrating immediate ’here-and-now’ environmental features with socio-cultural expectations on a longer time-scale. In this way humor is viewed as a particular type of values-realizing activity that constrains our actions, re-directs our attention, and thereby enables us to act in a more playful and joyous manner.