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Richard M. Weist

Abstract

As toddlers begin the language acquisition process, event memory and the capacity for dead-reckoning are developing in the cognitive domain, providing the potential to think about the relative location of events in time and objects in space. While the language they happen to be learning varies in structure, every language has a way of coding the location of events / objects in time / space. We can think of the toddler as a code breaker who arrives at the acquisition problem with a set of language information processing abilities. Depending how temporal and / or spatial location is coded in the language, it will make the toddler’s code-breaking problem more or less difficult, providing the potential to facilitate acquisition. Benjamin Whorf argued that the structure of a child’s language influences the course of conceptual development within the realms of temporal and spatial thinking. If the structure of a particular language matches the toddler’s processing capacities in either the temporal or spatial domain, then the resulting precocious acquisition in that domain provides the potential to influence conceptual development. This paper investigates such a potential in child language, i.e., a developmental Whorfian hypothesis.

Open access

Andrea Angell Zevenbergen, Ewa Haman and Jason Andrew Zevenbergen

Abstract

The present study examined references to cognitive states and emotions in narratives produced by mothers and preschoolers (aged 3 or 5 years) in Polish and American families. Participants were 32 mother-child dyads from Poland and 32 mother-child dyads from the United States. The two samples were matched with regard to child age, child gender, maternal age, and maternal education. The mother-child dyads were asked to tell three personal narratives. The co-constructed narratives were coded for mother and child references to cognitive states and emotions. Polish mothers were found to include significantly more references to cognitive states in their narratives than American mothers. Results also revealed significant correlations between mothers’ and children’s references to cognitive states across both samples. Related to child development, 5-year-olds produced significantly more tokens in the narratives than 3-year-olds. This study shows that mothers’ use of cognitive state terms in shared narratives with their young children differs across two Western cultural contexts. The results of this study are discussed with regard to two themes in developmental psycholinguistics: relations between maternal and child language use, and cross-cultural variation.

Open access

Ewa Pisula, Monika Pudło, Monika Słowińska, Rafał Kawa, Anna Banasiak and Emilia Łojek

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to compare the functioning of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing adolescents matched for age and IQ, in terms of right hemisphere language communication. Sex differences in that area were also analyzed. Seventy-nine individuals with normal intelligence with ASD, fluent in their native spoken language and aged 10-20 years (41 females), and 79 typically developing individuals (control group, 39 females) were tested. The Polish adaptation of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL) was used for participants aged 13-20 years, while children aged 10-12 years were tested using an experimental version of the RHLBPL for young children designed by E. Łojek. Individuals with ASD scored lower in the Humor Test and Discourse Analysis, and made more remarks in the Comments Test about the tasks than the control group. The two groups scored differently in two measures of verbal intellectual skills in the Wechsler Scale: Arithmetic and Comprehension. Individuals with ASD scored lower than controls on both of those measures. No sex differences were found for any of the measured variables.

Open access

Azizuddin Khan and Purnima Bajre

Abstract

Phonological and orthographic processing are important cognitive skills required in reading. The present study attempts to investigate the role of phonological processing and orthographic knowledge, in reading alphasyllabic Hindi orthography. The sample constituted 65 children from Grade 4. The result of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that the variance in reading fluency was significantly explained by phonological processing and orthographic knowledge measured through the tasks of rapid automatized naming, syllable deletion and dictation. The variance in reading accuracy was significantly explained only by orthographic knowledge measured through a dictation task. Phonological short-term memory showed significant correlations with all the reading measures but was non-significant in explaining the unique variance in reading. The limitation of the study and suggestions for future research is discussed.

Open access

Agnieszka Szymańska

Abstract

The study focused on verifying the relationship between the ability to meet parental goals, parental difficulty, the child's representation in the parent's mind, and aggressive directiveness. The project refers to Tomaszewski’s theory of action as well as to Gurycka's theory of parental mistakes, in which the inability to achieve parental goals is treated as the main cause of experienced parental difficulties. The analyses were performed on data collected from 158 mothers of preschool children. The analyses were performed using structural equations as well as associative algorithms and artificial intelligence algorithms: cluster analysis and artificial neural networks. The structural model revealed strong relations between variables. The cluster analysis revealed three characteristic profiles in the maternal population that are distinguished by the level of analyzed variables. The artificial neural network revealed that, on the basis of the variables included in the model, the parents’ results in aggressive directiveness can be predicted.

Open access

Anett Wolgast, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Ulrike Hartmann and Jasmin Decristan

Abstract

Social perspective taking (SPT) and the coordination of subjective and alternative perspectives are paramount to social behavior. Scholars tend to agree that approaches to conceptualizing SPT relate to interpersonal understanding and to language skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether interrelations exist between children’s SPT and experience in reading because reading requires the reader to take various perspectives. Additionally, receptive vocabulary and reading fluency of 2,105 children were assessed and they completed a questionnaire at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of fifth grade. Results indicated that the students’ SPT was determined by gender and reading experience with books and newspapers. We conclude that this reading experience affects students’ SPT levels positively; that finding can contribute to the development of school-based activities to enhance SPT levels.

Open access

Andrea Levitt and Margery Lucas

Abstract

Stimuli produced by a female speaker with four different voice qualities - modal, girlish, breathy and creaky - were manipulated to have more or less formant dispersion and were rated on four scales (dominance, attractiveness, sexiness and youthfulness) by men and women. Stimuli with less formant dispersion were rated more dominant and those with more dispersed formants were rated as less dominant. Breathy voice and girlish voice were rated more attractive and sexy. Stimuli with a creaky voice were rated less attractive and sexy, as were stimuli with less formant dispersion. Girlish voices and those with greater formant dispersion were rated as more youthful; creaky voices and those with less formant dispersion were rated as less youthful. There were also gender differences in ratings of attractiveness and youthfulness. Our results suggest that women’s voice qualities can affect perceptions of their attractiveness, sexiness and youthfulness. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of social signaling.

Open access

Monika Modrzejewska-Świgulska

Abstract

The aim of this work is to reconstruct the convictions and opinions of Polish female film directors concerning work competences that actuate work and success in the field of film directing. Qualitative data are presented in the text, which were collected by the Author herself in free interviews carried out with twelve Polish female film directors.

Open access

Dorota M. Jankowska and Iwona Omelańczuk

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to weigh the empirical and hypothetical evidence to assess the claim that imaginative play supports the acquisition and development of social and emotional competence. We analyse children’s play and social skills using a development-based perspective. On this basis, we describe the developmental trajectories of imaginative play and the components of socio-emotional competence during childhood, especially in the pre-school period. In addition, we review the research literature on the possible link between imaginative play and creativity in children, and on how this type of play is predictive of later life creativity. Finally, we discuss hypothetical mechanisms that may account for the relationship between imaginative play and social competence in the preschool years and beyond.

Open access

Beata Kunat

Abstract

In this paper I will attempt to compare two categories of passion and creativity. I will try to answer the question: What has passion got in common with creativity? What is the common denominator and what is different? What is the role of passion in the creative process? Searching for the mechanism of passion and its components is necessary to discover its relation to creativity I will refer to passion psychology (Vallerand, 2015). The basis of my analysis will be the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand 2008, 2010, 2015), the concept of Grit: The Power of Passion and Perserverance (Duckworth et al., 2007; Duckworth & Quinn, 2009, Duckworth 2016) and the concept of Flow (Csíkszentmihályi, 1996). In the process of mapping the areas that connect passion with creativity I will refer to four ways of its understanding: creativity as a process, a personality trait complex, a product and the interaction between the creative individual and the context or environment. I will also refer in my comparisons to The four C Model of Creativity (Kaufman & Beghetto 2009).