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Antonina Starzyńska and Magdalena Budziszewska

Abstract

One of the premises of developmental psycholinguistics is that we live our life according to certain narratives that are learned through language and media. These narratives teach children to express emotions and to attribute actions in a variety of life situations; they construct the way in which the threatening feelings such as anger, injustice, or the urge of vengeance are experienced. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the gendered discourse in popular American cinema, based on the plot analysis of 60 films featuring male or female protagonist seeking revenge. We use critical discourse analysis to decipher the patterns of the gender roles, behaviors, and emotions, which these movies intent to force upon the viewer. As the psychological research does not clearly testify to gender differences in the experience and expression of the trait anger, we would like to argue that it is a matter of the socially moderated narrative patterns, rather than inborn tendencies, that urges boys and girls to play such different roles in those situations as well as experience them in distinct ways. Our most crucial conclusion is that Western societies have developed the narrative-based mechanisms which later helped to successfully discourage women from expressing anger in the form of physical aggression, under the threat of being left out of the discourses of femininity and, in some cases, humanity.

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Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi and Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

Open access

Thomas Wiben Jensen

Abstract

In adopting new theoretical advancements within linguistics and ecological psychology, this paper investigates humor from an ecological perspective in naturally occurring social interaction. In doing so, it is claimed that the notions of language as coordination and values-realizing can provide a new understanding of humor as it appears in human interaction. This argument will be unfolded as a rethinking of Wallace Chafe’s notion of nonseriousness (Chafe, 2007) that re-conceptualizes Chafe’s idea of a ‘mental state’ of nonseriousness in terms of interactional affordances and values realizing. This perspective is laid out in in-depth analyses of video recordings of two real-life examples from different settings: two siblings playing and a sequence from a couple-therapy session. It is claimed that both examples of interactional humor can be explained by re-conceptualizing humor as a distinct way of being together. Thus, the emergence of humor is enabled by a shift in the coordinative dynamics rather than by a transfer of semantic ‘content’ from a speaker to a hearer. Finally, humor is investigated as a temporal phenomenon integrating immediate ’here-and-now’ environmental features with socio-cultural expectations on a longer time-scale. In this way humor is viewed as a particular type of values-realizing activity that constrains our actions, re-directs our attention, and thereby enables us to act in a more playful and joyous manner.

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Nicholas J. Shipp, Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau and Susan H. Anthony

Abstract

The behavioural evidence of sensorimotor activity during conceptual processing, along with that from neurological research, ignited the debate around the extent to which concept representations are embodied or amodal. Such evidence continues to fuel the debate but it is open to interpretation as being consistent with a variety of the theoretical positions and so it is possible that further, similar evidence may not lead to its resolution. In this paper we propose that independent value accrues from following this line of research through the enhanced understanding of the factors that influence agents’ conceptual processing of action and how this interacts with the agent’s goals in real environments. This approach is in line with broad principles of embodied cognition and is worthy of pursuit regardless of what the results may (or may not) tell us about conceptual representation.

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Sarah Bro Trasmundi and Matthew Isaac Harvey

Abstract

In this paper we present a micro-analytic description of the role vocalizing plays in a single case of professional dance instruction. We use a novel mix of qualitative and quantitative tools in order to investigate, and more thoroughly characterize, various forms of vocal co-organization. These forms involve a choreographer using vocalization to couple acoustic dynamics to the dynamics of their bodily movements, while demonstrating a dance routine, in order to enable watching dancers to coordinate the intrabodily dynamics of their own simultaneous performances. In addition to this descriptive project, the paper also suggests how such forms of coordination might emerge, by identifying those forms of voice-body coupling as potential instances of “instructional vocal sonification”. We offer a tentative theoretical model of how vocal sonification might operate when it is used in the teaching of movement skills, and in the choreographic teaching of dance in particular. While non-vocal sonification (both physical and computer-generated) is increasingly well-studied as a means of regulating coordinated inter-bodily movement, we know of no previous work that has systematically approached vocal sonification. We attempt to lay groundwork for future research by showing how our model of instructional vocal sonification might plausibly account for some of the effects of vocalization that we observe here. By doing so, the paper both provides a solid basis for hypothesis generation about a novel class of phenomena (i.e., vocal sonification), and contributes to bridging the methodological gap between isolated descriptions and statistical occurrences of a given type of event.

Open access

Simon Borchmann

Abstract

The established descriptions of information structure assume that the basic cognitive unit is a categorization, and that the basic semantic structure is a predication. Descriptions based on these assumptions, however, cannot provide an adequate analysis of certain types of utterances that form a part of activities. The article presents a solution to this problem based on Wittgenstein’s private language argument and the concept of information in Gibson's theory of affordances. The basic cognitive assumption is that performers of activities attend to variations in the environment, for example visibility, and perceive the states of variations (e.g., 3000 feet). A state is defined as a local, temporary occurrence of a stimulus configuration that specifies an affordance. The basic pragmatic assumption, then, is that performers of activities share the states of variations by means of utterances. This ecological-pragmatic assumption allows for a rethinking of the usefulness of the reference-predicate distinction and bring forward different dimensions of informational analysis of utterances. It is claimed that an informative and accurate analysis of utterances that form a part of activities relies two distinctions: a distinction between a convention based regulation of attention and a convention based specification of an affordance, and a distinction between sharing information and nesting information

Open access

Åsa Harvard Maare

Abstract

This paper looks at how players of a card game create spatial arrangements of playing cards, and the cognitive and communicative effects of such arrangements. The data is an episode of two 8-year old children and a teacher playing the combinatorial card game Set, in the setting of the leisure-time center. The paper explores and explains how the visual resources of the game are used for externalizing information in terms of distributed cognition and epistemic actions. The paper also examines how other participants attend to the visual arrangements and self-directed talk of the active player. The argument is that externalizing information may be a strategy for reducing cognitive load for the individual problem-solver, but it is also a communicative behaviour affecting other participants and causing them to engage with the problem and the problem-solver. Seeing and hearing players who have succeeded in finding a set provide observers with rich learning opportunities, and increases their motivation to play the game. From the point of view of learning design, the consequence of this is that bystanders merit to be considered as the potential learners of a pedagogical game as much as the players themselves

Open access

Grzegorz Grzegorczyk

Abstract

Among a number of teaching practices, personalized education is gaining in popularity owing to its enticing appeal of a novel, humanistic attitude with unparalleled pedagogical results unlike those observed in traditional standardized mass education models. As part of the fourth moment in the history of education (according to the timeline in Davis, Sumara and Kapler, 2015), personalized education under the guise of tutoring or educational coaching is boldly re-entering schools and the academic world. Observing the daily practices of tutors and educational coaches on various levels of schooling, we can note a number of features which contribute to the emergence of a model where learning becomes an autonomous, lived experience. In this model communication is understood as a collaborative dialogical practice, which leads us to see learning as a result of interactivity in the learner-tutor dyad afforded by geo-spatial conditions, physio-psychological elements and language. All these contribute to the occurrence of transformative results as evidenced in student post-tutoring narratives. In this paper we present learning in the dialogical tutor-tutee paradigm as a distributed, embodied, and enacted meaning-making process rather than mere ‘sending’ and ‘receiving’ of substantive information (e.g., De Jaegher and DiPaolo, 2007; Neuman and Cowley, 2013). Described as such, the method fits in the paradigm of self-regulated learning. We therefore postulate the claim that personalised education as exemplified by tutoring is co-agential and prompts learning on multiple timescales. Consequently, cognition and learning in tutoring is enactment of knowledge, while coordinating speech rather than knowledge transmission

Open access

Jasper C. Van Den Herik

Abstract

This paper proposes an ecological-enactive account of utterances of concrete words - words used to indicate observable situations, events, objects, or characteristics. Building on the education of attention model of learning, utterances of concrete words are defined as attentional actions: a repeatable form of behaviour performed by a person to indicate (i.e. point out) a particular aspect of the current situation to someone in order to achieve something. Based on recent empirical evidence on categorical colour perception, attentional actions are proposed to constrain the ongoing phenotypic reorganisation of persons into task-specific devices. The paper ends by situating the proposed account in a wider theoretical perspective on language. This paper serves two purposes: first, it undermines the scope objection against the ecological-enactive approach, and second, it provides a novel explanation for recent empirical evidence with respect to the role of language in categorical colour perception

Open access

Amir Hossein Sarkeshikian, Abdol-Majid Tabatabaee and Maryam Taleb Doaee

Abstract

This study investigated the psychometric properties of self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale (Tseng, Dornyei, & Schmitt, 2006) in the Iranian EFL context. For this purpose, a sample of 1167 high school students completed the Persian SRCvoc in the main phase. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. It showed acceptable reliability in both piloting and main phases. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed that the SRCvoc is composed of three factors. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the three-factor model of the SRCvoc and Tseng et al.’s (2006) five-factor model of the SRCvoc with item-level indicators showed that both models did not fit the data. The findings of this study imply that the item-parcels in Tseng et al. (2006) may have masked the nature of the factor structure of the self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale. It should therefore be re-theorized.