The article discusses the problem of people who are working, but struggle with poverty. The phenomenon of ‘working poor’ is subjected to a taxonomic analysis, in which the subjective scope is limited to selected European states and the time span to the last twelve years. The aim of the article is to show the relation between work and poverty on European labour markets, including clarifying the level and structure of ‘working poor’. In order to achieve such a research goal, the results of The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions were used, and thanks to the information obtained from the Eurostat database, it was possible to carry out comparable statistical analyses. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that the working poor phenomenon exists in Europe and in future may get stronger and pose a serious challenge for European labour markets.
This article explores tensions between visibility and invisibility of irregularity in Sweden. It focuses on irregular migrants’ social rights and their self-representation. The analysis builds mainly on ethnographic material mapping migrants’ and activists’ experiences of seeking asylum, living in irregularity and/or getting involved in struggles for migrants’ rights in Sweden. Furthermore, material from news media and political debate on migration and asylum rights is used to contextualise the interview material. The analysis suggests that the lived experiences of irregularity are shaped not only between systematic invisibility and violent forms of visibility but also visibility in terms of increased self-representation and autonomy. Furthermore, the analysis shows a shift towards increased social rights for irregular migrants from mid-2000s to 2013 and the establishment of irregular migrants as a social category and as political actors in their own right. However, the article also points towards increased repression against this ‘new’ category.
Sirpa Korhonen and Marko Siitonen
This study explores how social inclusion and exclusion manifest as a dynamic continuum in the everyday lived realities of irregular migrants. Based on narratives of Iraqi Kurdish asylum seekers, who were eventually deported from Finland, the analysis depicts the ways in which societal structures, personal negotiations as well as relationships and social networks interplay in lives characterized by multiple locations, transitions and positions. Establishing and maintaining social contacts, belonging to various networks and being able to decide and act are primary factors that help us understand how the narrators relate to the continuum. The participants construct narratives illustrating several viewpoints or positions regarding participation, agency and dependency on outside actors and networks.
Micropractices of control, tactics of everyday life and access to healthcare
Norway provides limited healthcare for irregular migrants, partly to make the country an unattractive option for ‘would-be refugees’. Drawing on fieldwork and interviews, this article discusses the use of healthcare to regulate migration and how irregular migrants make use of different tactics (creative access, selfcare, ignoring symptoms and raison d’être) to gain access to healthcare despite legal restrictions. The migrants’ tactics are adaptations to the micropractices of control and are about a diseased and politicised biology. They illuminate ways to care or not care for the body from a marginal position. This research, then, highlights how migrants work to restore a political life against the sovereign construction of them as mere biology. While some of these tactics are ways in which migrants can survive without healthcare rights in the short run, other tactics may contest and disrupt how the government is defining and treating irregular migrants in the longer run
Bordering practices in the lives of Russian-speaking women engaged in commercial sex in Finland
Anastasia Diatlova and Lena Näre
As the external borders between Finland and its neighbouring countries have become more permeable for some migrants after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the EU enlargement, the internal borders have become more ubiquitous and enforced by various kinds of bordering practices. Drawing on a qualitative research on Russian-speaking women engaged in commercial sex in Finland, we have examined the everyday material consequences of policies and bordering practices. We have distinguished different sites in which everyday bordering takes place: rental markets, banking and law enforcement. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of analysing commercial sex from an everyday perspective. This perspective reveals that even women with formal citizenship can be subjected to various bordering practices due to the criminalisation of commercial sex and the stereotypes attached to Russianspeaking women. We have argued for the need to expand on the notion of “deportability” as it not only concerns non-citizens but also naturalised foreigners.
Latent class analysis has been widely used in the measurement models. Models based on latent variables have a wide range of applications in the presence of repeated ob-servations, longitudinal data, and multilevel data. In this paper we present and apply log-linear analysis as a method for the analysis of multi-way tables. We also present a latent variable model based on a variable that is not directly observed. The basic model postulates an underlying categorical latent variable; within any category of the latent variable the manifest or observed categorical variables are assumed independent of one another (axiom of conditional independence). In this paper we present the results of a survey research based on categorical data and the author`s questionnaire. We present the results of the latent class analysis in the classification of respondents into clusters characterized by similar attitudes and features in economic research. We also conduct a prior log-linear analysis for a multi-way contingency table. All the calculations are conducted in R.
Maria M. Grzelak, Iwona Laskowska and Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz
In contemporary research and economic discussions, a great deal of attention is paid to issues concerning the relationship between competitiveness and research and development (R&D) activity. The measurement and assessment of the impact of R&D activity are extremely difficult but at the same time very important, in particular for authorities determining the level of expenditure on R&D and the method of spending public funds as well as for enterprises assessing the expected profits derived from R&D. The main aim of the article is an attempt to quantify the impact of R&D expenditure on three selected characteristics defining the competitiveness of manufacturing enterprises (gross value added, sold production and labour productivity). The analysis was carried out using panel models. The study makes use of statistical data published by the Central Statistical Office for individual divisions of manufacturing (Section C of the Polish Classification of Activities - PKD) in the years 2009-2016. The conducted analyses indicate that R&D expenditure constitutes a significant determinant of the competitiveness of the analysed divisions of manufacturing.
Miika Tervonen, Saara Pellander and Nira Yuval-Davis
Artur Mikulec and Małgorzata Misztal
The article presents the results of the duration analysis for 21,163 enterprises (natural persons conducting economic activity) established in the Łódzkie Voivodship in 2010 and observed until December 31, 2015. The Kaplan-Meier estimation of the survival function, the Cox proportionalhazards model and the recursive partitioning method (the CTree algorithm) are applied to achieve the goal of the conducted research i.e. to answer the following question: does the type of business activity and location of the enterprise affect its duration? Prediction error curves based on the bootstrap crossvalidation estimates of the prediction error are used to assess and compare predictions obtained from all three models. On the basis of the analysis results it can be assumed that the type of business activity makes firms more varied due to their duration compared to their location.