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Paul Morris

Abstract

Is religion simply a part of culture? Can religious diversity be managed as a subset of intercultural diversity? This article explores intercultural dialogue and its relationship to “religion’ in the policies, documents and debates of the European Community. The argument is advanced that religious realities and concerns are misconstrued when religion is subsumed into culture. Religion needs to be historically and conceptually rethought and that for cultural and religious diversities to be skillfully managed in the interests of social solidarity and positive intercommunal relations both need to be addressed discretely and in tandem.

Open access

Gary D Bouma AM

Abstract

The use of intercultural dialogue (ICD) to promote intergroup understanding and respect is considered as a key to reduce tensions and the likelihood of conflict. This paper argues that understanding the differences among religions – those between packaged and lived religion – enhances the chances of success and makes the effort more challenging. Religions contained and packaged are found in formally organised expressions of religion – churches, denominations, synagogues, mosques, temples and so on. For packaged religions, religious identity is singular and adherents are expected to identify with only one religion and are assumed to accept the whole package of that religion. ICD in this context involves communicating with religious groups such as organisations and encouraging different leaders to speak with each other resulting in platforms filled with ‘heads of faith’ – bishops muftis, ayatollahs, chief rabbis, swamis and so on. In contrast, lived religions involve ritual practices engaged in by individuals and small groups, creation of shrines and sacred spaces, discussing the nature of life, sharing ethical concerns, going on pilgrimages and taking actions to celebrate and sustain hope.There is some evidence that, although packaged religions are declining, lived religions continue at persistent levels. Violent extremism is more likely to be associated with lived rather than packaged forms of religion, making a more balanced intercultural competences approach to ICD critical to countering conflict.

Open access

Geoffrey Brahm Levey

Abstract

In recent years, an international debate has erupted over whether and how interculturalism differs from multiculturalism as a response to cultural diversity. An influential argument in this debate is that multiculturalism itself militates against intercultural dialogue. This article scrutinises this argument and challenge its applicability in the Australian context. I examine two case studies of fraught intercultural dialogue: the 2006 clash between the Howard government and the Ethnic Communities’ Council of Victoria over the proposed introduction of a citizenship test; and the Abbott government’s proposed reform of the anti-vilification provisions of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) during 2013–14. The cases suggest that far from undermining intercultural dialogue, respecting the terms of Australian multiculturalism would help to make it possible. Moreover, the cases suggest that if pursued genuinely, intercultural dialogue could contribute improved policy outcomes.

Open access

Deinibiteim Monimah Harry

Abstract

The study examined the value addition in the Nigeria’s export processing zones, comparing it with the experiences from Asian economies. Upon the recommendation of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Nigeria adopted the EPZ scheme via Decree No 63 of 1992 to accelerate industrialization through increasing manufacturing for exports, among others. The Calabar Free Trade Zone was established as the pioneer zone in the country. The objective of this research work is to determine the extent of Value Addition at the zones in Nigeria. As at 2008, 25 zones have registered with NEPZA, the regulatory authority in the country. Out of the 25 registered zones, 11are operational, 9 under construction and 5 merely declared. Four (4) zones, namely, Calabar, Oil and Gas and Snake Island Integrated Free Trade Zones and Alscon Export Processing zone, were systematically selected from the 11 operational zones for the study. Two hundred and ninety copies of questionnaire were administered on 290 respondents drawn from 54 firms and 4 zonal management boards. Out of the 290 copies of questionnaire 242 copies were properly filled and returned. The 242 copies of questionnaire returned served as the primary source of data, while textbooks, journals, fasimiles, etc served as the secondary sources of data. The paper argued that for EPZs to help in the industrialization of a nation value addition and production segmentation must be made central to the manufacturing/ production processes; because the higher the level of value addition the greater the impact/contribution of EPZs to socio-economic development. The study revealed that the level of value addition in the Nigerian zones is very low, only labour element of value addition is visible, technology and material elements were absent. Hence, the paper recommends that value addition should be made compulsory in the production processes at the zones and emphasis should be on the technology and material elements. This, it is believed would enhance backward linkages with the domestic economy.

Open access

Youcef J-T. Zidane, Bjørn Otto Elvenes, Knut F. Samset and Bassam A. Hussein

Abstract

Ex-post evaluation is starting to be recognized in the Algerian different government institutions (e.g., ministries); and evaluation is becoming part of any program or project for two main reasons, justify the legitimacy of the programs and projects, and collect lessons learned for the next similar programs and projects. On the other hand, academicians believe that programs and projects can be improved by conducting proper evaluations and extracting lessons learned. Program/Project evaluation is comprehensive evaluation, which mainly applies to ex-post evaluation. This paper will look closer at an ex-post evaluation of an Algerian highway megaproject based on PESTOL model, this evaluation is already conducted in the period of 2014 – 2016. Considering ex-post evaluation of projects has many purposes and among them is linked to learning and knowledge sharing and transfer. In this regard, the paper describes very briefly the approach used to the post project evaluation. In addition, link it to learning and to other types of evaluations – i.e., ex-ante, monitoring, midterm, terminal evaluations, and using system-thinking approach, and proposes a framework for learning in projects by evaluations. This paper is based on qualitative case study approach.

Open access

Khukrit Silalaiy, Thanin Ratanaolarn and Malai Thaveesuk

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to study the leaders’ characteristics, situation management, behaviors and roles affecting sustainable leadership development and examine the compatibility of the structural equation model regarding sustainable leadership for vocational education administrators, as developed from the empirical evidence and determined influence of each factor. The quantitative research utilized questionnaires, given to a sample of 404 vocational education principals and vice-principals, derived using a multistage sampling method from 413 vocational public schools in Thailand. To test the confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model were conducted. This research findings suggest that the structural equation models for sustainable leadership development of vocational education administrators were in accordance with the empirical data. The leaders' characteristics factors had the weight of the maximum gross effects towards the sustainable leadership development. This study suggest that the sustainable leadership development for vocational education administrators can be carried out by developing leaders’ characteristics.

Open access

Deinibiteim Monimah Harry and Winston Madume

Abstract

The study examined the nature of state intervention during economic and/or financial crisis, focusing on Nigeria and US. These two nations have embarked on various kinds of bailouts to stabilize their economies and move their nations on the path of economic recovery and growth. However, the bailout effort is more successful in the US than Nigeria. This is largely due to the approach adopted in these countries. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to ascertain the extent to which government invention has helped stabilize the Nigerian economy, when compared with the experience of the United States. The study revealed that in the US every state intervention/ bailout is approved by congress through legislation, therefore well-guided in its administration or execution, with specific time lines. On the other hand, in Nigeria bailouts are by “executive fiat”, as a result they suffer from poor execution. Hence, the paper concluded that state intervention/bailout in Nigeria has not been very successful because of the approach adopted by the government. The study recommended that subsequently, every bailout from the Nigerian government should be a product of an Act of Parliament, bailout schemes should have specific tools for measuring performance and be guided by specific lines, among others.

Open access

Badu Ahmad

Abstract

This article aimed to determine and analyze the implementation of innovation forms as well as the factors supporting and inhibiting the implementation of innovation in local government level. The research was conducted in three regions in South Sulawesi province: Bantaeng, East Luwu, and Makassar. The results of the research showed that the service innovation implemented in South Sulawesi was quite varied but has the same objective, i.e giving satisfactory service of business licenses for society. Bantaeng Regency Government implemented click innovation, changes employees’ behavior without illegal charges and license delivery to applicant's home. Similarly, the East Luwu Regency government intensively innovated the management and one-day issuance of business license. While the Makassar Municipal Government focused more on weekend service innovation, delivering and picking up license documents. Supporting factors for service innovation in the three regions were regulation and commitment of the local governments while the inhibiting factors of innovation implementation were the limited fund and incompetent personnel in service duties.

Open access

Simin Simin, Bambang Tri Harsanto, Slamet Rosyadi and Wahyuningrat Wahyuningrat

Abstract

Local government law changes in Indonesia have brought a significant change in terms of authority management in particular kelurahan government as the lowest bureaucracy. Previously, some Kelurahans have the authority to manage and develop funds to improve the community welfare. However, they just recently conduct the administrative functions to implement some duties from the upper government level. This change negatively influences the performance level of Kelurahans. Using some kelurahans in Wonosobo Regency Central Java with a qualitative method, this research tries to explore what consequences may occur as the result of local governance law changes. The results suggest that there should be various efforts to strengthen the institutional capacity of Kelurahans instead of letting them have poor performance. This research provides the theoretical and practical knowledge on the semi autonomous model of lowest bureaucracy for strengthening institutional capacity. Implication of findings from this research is the lowest governmental institution needs to be empowered with more authorities and development budgets in order to improve their actions for the community welfare.

Open access

Chinedu Eugenia Anumudu, Mal-Imran Yasin, Ahmad Ghazali Akmar and Muhammad Pauzi Latif

Abstract

The review paper intensively explored immediacy factors influencing communication satisfaction through asynchronous computer mediated communication mediums. Immediacy is one of the constructs of social presence theory deemed capable of compelling communication satisfaction on asynchronous computer mediated communications. It has been established in numerous related studies conducted on asynchronous virtual mediated channels. However, little or no consideration seemed to have been given to exploring these immediacy factors towards ascertaining communication satisfaction via email, as one of the asynchronous mediated communications. The need to study this via email is essential, especially towards making it more efficient since it still remained the third means of communication predominantly used for dispatching corporate issues. In this review, prompt feedback, approachability and similarity personality were the dimensions of immediacy explored in relations to the effectiveness towards attaining communication satisfaction on asynchronous virtual communications. The findings showed that these dimensions examined were capable of inspiring immediacy towards achieving communication on asynchronous computer mediated channels. Therefore, it is expected that these may equally motivate communication satisfaction via email as one of asynchronous virtual mediums. It also showed that most of the studies so far conducted were dominated by qualitative and mixed-method approaches. Few quantitative studies encountered in the review appeared lacking the capacity of generalizing the outcomes due to respondents’ poor turnout rate and inadequate sample sizes issues. Thus, empirical quantitative studies are still needed via email mode of interaction in order to resolve these issues and for revalidating the outcomes of the review.