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B. Tsai, E. Birgersson and U. Birgersson

Abstract

An approximate semi-analytical solution based on a Hankel transform of a mechanistic model for electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is derived for a non-invasive axisymmetric concentric probe with m electrodes measuring the response of n layers of human skin. We validate the semi-analytical solution for the case when the skin is treated as a three-layer entity - (i) stratum corneum, (ii) viable skin comprising living epidermis and dermis and (iii) adipose tissue – on the volar forearm in the frequency range 1 kHz to 1 MHz with experimental EIS measurements of 120 young subjects. Overall, we find good agreement for both the mean magnitude and phase of the impedance as well as the natural variability between subjects. Finally, the semi-analytical solution is verified with the full set of equations solved numerically: Good agreement is found for the point-wise potential distribution in the three skin layers.

Open access

Muhammad Salman Khan, Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Gold electrodes are often not suitable for dopamine measurements as dopamine creates a non-conducting polymer layer on the surface of the electrodes, which leads to increased amount of electrode passivity with the gradual increase in voltammograms measurement. This work presents the impedance spectroscopy and cyclic-voltammetry comparative study for dopamine detection with two modifications for the surface of Au electrodes; cysteamine and mercaptopropionic acid for thermally bonded and ultrasonically welded microfluidic chips, respectively. The effects of optimized tubing selection, bonding techniques, and cleaning methods of the devices with KOH solution played crucial role for improvements in dopamine detection, which are observed in the results. Furthermore, comparison for the modification with unmodified chips, and finding the unknown concentration of dopamine solution using flow injection techniques, is also illustrated.

Open access

Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Although liquid-liquid extraction methods are currently being applied in many areas such as analytical chemistry, biochemical engineering, biochemistry, and biological applications, accessibility and usability of microfluidics in practical daily life fields are still bounded. Suspended microfluidic devices have the potential to lessen the obstacles, but the absence of robust design rules have hampered their usage. The primary objective of this work is to design and fabricate a microfluidic device to quantitatively monitor the drug uptake of cancer cells. Liquid-liquid extraction is used to quantify the drug uptake. In this research work, designs and simulations of two different microfluidic devices for carrying out multiplex solution experiments are proposed to test their efficiency. These simplified miniaturized chips would serve as suspended microfluidic metabolites extraction platform as it allows extracting the metabolites produced from the cancer cells as a result of applying a specific drug type for a certain period of time. These devices would be fabricated by making polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds from the negative master mold using soft lithography. Furthermore, it can leverage to provide versatile functionalities like high throughput screening, cancer cell invasions, protein purification, and small molecules extractions. As per previous studies, PDMS has been depicting better stability with various solvents and has proved to be a reliable and cost effective material to be used for fabrication, though the sensitivity of the chip would be analyzed by cross contamination and of solvents within the channels of device.

Open access

Mirele S. Mialich, Bruna R. Silva and Alceu A. Jordao

Abstract

The objective of this study was to improve the cutoff points of the traditional classification of nutritional status and overweight / obesity based on the BMI in a Brazilian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1301 individuals of both genders aged 18 to 60 years. The subjects underwent measurement of weight and height and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Simple linear regression was used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The sample consisted of 29.7% men and 70.3% women aged on averaged 35.7 ± 17.6 years; mean weight was 67.6 ± 16.0 kg, mean height was 164.9 ± 9.5 cm, and mean BMI was 24.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2. As expected, lower cutoffs were found for BMI than the classic reference points traditionally adopted by the WHO for the classification of obesity, i.e., 27.15 and 27.02 kg/m2 for obesity for men and women, respectively. Other authors also follow this tendency, Romero-Corral et al. (2008) suggested 25.8 to 25.5 kg/m2 for American men and women as new values for BMI classification of obesity. Gupta and Kapoor (2012) proposed 22.9 and 28.8 kg/m2 for men and women of North India. The present investigation supports other literature studies which converge in reducing the BMI cutoff points for the classification of obesity. Thus, we emphasize the need to conduct similar studies for the purpose of defining these new in populations of different ethnicities.

Open access

Sepideh Mohammadi Moqadam, Parvind Kaur Grewal, Zahra Haeri, Paris Ann Ingledew, Kirpal Kohli and Farid Golnaraghi

Abstract

An electrical Impedance based tool is designed and developed to aid physicians performing clinical exams focusing on cancer detection. Current research envisions improvement in sensor-based measurement technology to differentiate malignant and benign lesions in human subjects. The tool differentiates malignant anomalies from nonmalignant anomalies using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). This method exploits cancerous tissue behavior by using EIS technique to aid early detection of cancerous tissue.

The correlation between tissue electrical properties and tissue pathologies is identified by offering an analysis technique based on the Cole model. Additional classification and decision-making algorithm is further developed for cancer detection. This research suggests that the sensitivity of tumor detection will increase when supplementary information from EIS and built-in intelligence are provided to the physician.