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Natalia Golnik and Maciej G. Maciak

Abstract

The paper discusses the theoretical background in terms of the use of in-phantom recombination chambers in mixed radiation fields, with special attention paid to the question of how the experimentally determined, linear-energy-transfer-dependent (LET) parameters can be applied with regard to the more accurate determination of the chamber response and absorbed dose in mixed radiation fields. Methods of taking the recombination index of radiation quality (RIQ) measurements and theoretical consideration concerning the determination of the absorbed dose are described. Classical Bragg-Gray and Spencer-Attix cavity theories were analysed and their relationship to in-phantom recombination chambers was specifi ed. Methods concerning the estimation of correction factors with regard to RIQ measurements and their importance are highlighted.

Open access

Stanisław Kilim, Elżbieta Strugalska-Gola, Marcin Szuta, Marcin Bielewicz, Sergej I. Tyutyunnikov, Walter I. Furman, Jindra Adam and Vladimir I. Stegailov

Abstract

Neptunium-237 samples were irradiated in a spallation neutron field produced in accelerator-driven system (ADS) setup QUINTA. Five experiments were carried out on the accelerators at the JINR in Dubna - one in carbon (C6+), three in deuteron, and one in a proton beam. The energy in carbon was 24 GeV, in deuteron 2, 4 and 8 GeV, respectively, and 660 MeV in the proton beam. The incineration study method was based on gamma-ray spectrometry. During the analysis of the spectra several fission products and one actinide were identified. Fission product activities yielded the number of fissions. The actinide (Np-238), a result of neutron capture by Np-237, yielded the number of captures. The main goal of this work was to find out if and how the incineration rate depended on parameters of the accelerator beam.

Open access

Md. Akhtaruzzaman and Pawel Kukolowicz

Abstract

Introduction: Commissioning of the treatment-planning system includes the accuracy of dose calculations in the inhomogeneous absorber. Several results of measurements with regard to inhomogeneity correction factors (CFs) have been published. However, the dependence of CFs on photon-beam energy may preclude such results from being applied to the photon beams of general users. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the dependence of CFs on the photon-beam energy. Materials and methods: CFs were calculated by the Batho method for several slab geometries comprised of concentrations of lung tissue and water of 0.25 and 1.00 g/cm3, respectively. The CFs were calculated at 6 MV (TPR20 10 = 0.67 ± k * 0.01) and 15 MV (TPR20 10 = 0.76 ± k * 0.01) where k = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3. All calculations were performed in the region where a charged-particle equilibrium exists. Results: Changes in CFs of less than 2% were observed across the considered energy ranges. With a change in TPR20,10 of 0.01, both at 6 and 15 MV at a depth of 5 cm below the lung; and lung thicknesses of 3, 5 and 8 cm over a fi eld surface area of 10 × 10 cm2, the change in CF never exceeded 2.4%. The dependences of changes in CFs in terms of TPR20,10 were 1.74% and 1.20% for field surface areas of 5 × 5 cm2 and 20 × 20 cm2, respectively. A comparison of 42 linear accelerators (LINACs) exhibiting 6 MV and 15 MV of energy installed in Poland showed that the maximum differences in terms of TPR20,10 at 6 MV and 15 MV were 4.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusion: A linear dependence of CFs on energy was observed. According to observations, the smaller the surface area of the field and deeper the point of interest below the lung, the more dependent CFs are on energy.

Open access

Jefferson V. Bandeira and Lécio H. Salim

Abstract

The present work is a contribution to rescue the history of development of the application of 99mTc, widely used in nuclear medicine, to its use as tracer for the study of the transport of fine sediment in suspension, in water environment. It addresses the usefulness of its application in obtaining important parameters in environmental studies, illustrating them with some applications already performed and the results obtained. This kind of study, when associated with information on hydrodynamic parameters, for example, river, tidal, wind and wave currents, are powerful tools for the understanding and quantification of fine sediment transport in suspension. Fine sediment is an important vector in the transportation of heavy metals, organic matter and nutrients in water environment, and the quantitative knowledge of its behaviour is mandatory for studies of environmental impacts. Fine sediment labelled with 99mTc, can also be used to study the effect of human interventions, such as dredging of reservoirs, access channels and harbours, and the dumping of dredged materials in water bodies. Besides that, it can be used to optimize dredging works, evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of dumping sites and their environmental impact. It is a valuable support in the calibration and validation of mathematical models for sediment dynamics.

Open access

Metali Sarkar, Vikas K. Sangal, Haripada Bhunia, Pramod K. Bajpai, Harish J. Pant, Vijay K. Sharma, Anil Kumar and A. K. Naithani

Abstract

The pulp and paper industry is highly dependent on water for most of its processes, producing a significant amount of wastewater that should be treated to comply with environmental standards before its discharge into surface-water reservoirs. The wastewater generated primarily consists of substantial amounts of organic, inorganic, toxic and pathogenic compounds in addition to nutrients, which are treated in an effluent treatment plant that often combines primary, secondary, tertiary and advanced treatments. However, the treatment methods vary from industry to industry according to the process utilized. The effective performance of effluent treatment plants is crucial from both environmental and economic points of view. Radiotracer techniques can be effectively used to optimize performance and detect anomalies like dead zones, bypassing, channelling, etc. in wastewater treatment plants. Experiments on the distribution of residence time were performed on the aeration tank and secondary clarifier of a full-scale pulp and paper mill to study the flow behaviour as well as locate system anomalies and hence evaluate the performance of the treatment plants using the radiotracer I-131. The convolution method was applied to model the system with an imperfect impulse radiotracer input. The aeration tank was working efficiently in the absence of any dead zones or bypassing. Various hydrodynamic models available in the literature were applied on the aeration tank and secondary clarifier to obtain the hydraulic representation of the systems.

Open access

Ioan Valentin Moise, Mihaela Ene, Constantin Daniel Negut, Mihalis Cutrubinis and Maria Mihaela Manea

Abstract

Radiation sterilization has been considered a mass decontamination technique for biodegradable cultural heritage (CH) since its widespread application in the medical field. Initial experiments have revealed advantages, for example, efficiency and effectiveness, but also disadvantages, namely “side effects” concerning CH materials. More than 50 years later, the adequacy of ionizing radiation for some CH artefacts is still the subject of discussion. The main reason why is that science and industry are not yet able to provide a more efficient technique for treating mass decontamination. For wooden items, there is general agreement that the irradiation dose required for insect eradication is not damaging, even in the case of polychromed wood. For cellulose pulp (paper), there is a reduction in polymerization degree (DP) at the high doses necessary to stop the attack of fungi, but this should be considered taking into account the purpose of the treatment. Emergency or rescue treatments are necessary to mitigate the consequences of accidents or improper storage conditions. In some cases (archives), the value of written information is greater than the historical value of the paper support. For other materials, namely textiles, leather and parchment, less research has been published on the effect of ionizing radiation treatment. As a general rule, irradiation is not necessary when only a few CH elements are present that are affected by biological contamination since restorers can solve the problem by classical means. The need for radiation treatment arises when large collections (hundreds, thousands or even more elements) are heavily affected by the biological attack. In Romania, the IRASM gamma irradiator of IFIN-HH is receiving an increasing number of requests for CH treatment, mainly due to an intensive research programme concerning this topic and close liaison with CH owners or administrators. Besides reviewing the scientific results obtained in Romania and abroad, this paper presents some examples from experiences in Romania.

Open access

Stefania Baccaro and Alessia Cemmi

Abstract

Since the 1980s, research and qualification activities are being carried out at the 60Co gamma Calliope plant, a pool-type irradiation facility located at the Research Centre ENEA-Casaccia (Rome, Italy). The Calliope facility is deeply involved in radiation processing research and on the evaluation and characterization of the effects induced by gamma radiation on materials for different applications (crystals, glasses, optical fibres, polymers and biological systems) and on devices to be used in hostile radiation environment such as nuclear plants, aerospace and high energy physics experiments. All the activities are carried out in the framework of international projects and collaboration with industries and research institutions. In the present work, particular attention will be paid to the cultural heritage activities performed at the Calliope facility, focused on two different aspects: (a) conservation and preservation by bio-deteriogen eradication in archived materials, and (b) consolidation and protection by degraded wooden and stone porous artefacts consolidation.

Open access

Natesan Ramamoorthy

Open access

Denis D. Aquino, Janice P. Mallillin, Ramoncito F. Sulit, Frederick C. Hila, Ivy Angelica A. Nuñez and Adelina D. M. Bulos

Abstract

Rectifier columns are considered to be a critical component in petroleum refineries and petrochemical processing installations as they are able to affect the overall performance of these facilities. It is deemed necessary to monitor the operational conditions of such vessels to optimize processes and prevent anomalies which could pose undesired consequences on product quality that might lead to huge financial losses. A rectifier column was subjected to gamma scanning using a 10-mCi Co-60 source and a 2-inch-long detector in tandem. Several scans were performed to gather information on the operating conditions of the column under different sets of operating parameters. The scan profiles revealed unexpected decreases in the radiation intensity at vapour levels between trays 2 and 3, and between trays 4 and 5. Flooding also occurred during several scans which could be attributed to parametric settings.

Open access

Vivek Yelgaonkar, Gaurav Agrahari, Dhakar Vikrant, Rao Prasanna and B. K. Pathak

Abstract

Gamma scanning and radiotracer applications are very effective and inexpensive tools to understand and optimize the process as well as troubleshoot the various types of problems in many chemical, petrochemical industries and refineries. These techniques are non-invasive; hence, the problems can be pinpointed online, which leads to reduce the downtime, schedule the shutdown and maintenance of the plant equipment, rendering huge economic benefits. In a leading refinery of India, the catalytic cracking unit (CCU) was malfunctioning. It was suspected by the refinery engineers that the catalyst powder was being carried over to the fractionator, which could have led to erosion of the fractionator column internals resulting in their rupture, and consequentially, to the fire hazard. To understand the flow behaviour of the catalyst powder and to ensure the mechanical integrity, catalyst accumulation and choking, both radiotracer study and gamma scanning of the CCU reactor was carried out. The reactor consists of a riser, three primary cyclones and three secondary cyclones. Gamma scanning of the reactor was carried out with the help of an automatic gamma scanner using 1.8 GBq of Co-60 sealed source. Results showed that the catalyst powder was accumulated in one of the secondary cyclones and uneven density distribution was observed in another secondary cyclone. The radiotracer study was carried out using the irradiated catalyst powder as a radiotracer, which contains 0.9 GBq of Na-24. The radiotracer was injected in the reactor through the specially fabricated injection system. Radiation measurement was done using the thermally insulated and collimated NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors located at various strategic locations coupled to a multi-detector data acquisition system. The data were mathematically analysed. It was confirmed that the catalyst powder was accumulated in one of the secondary cyclones with no flow downwards. This resulted in excess powder available to travel along with hydrocarbon towards fractionator. Since the quantity of powder released through the hydrocarbon outlet of CCU was higher than the designed value, the catalyst powder was observed in various zones of the fractionator. Mathematical modelling of the radiotracer data obtained at various locations corroborated the scanning results; also, the flow pattern was obtained. Partially blocked secondary cyclone showed plug flow with recirculation; normal working cyclone had plug flow behaviour and the vortex breaker showed parallel flow.