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Open access

Cătălina Anca Cucoș, Radu Constantinescu, Ateș Barut, Iuliana Ionașcu and Constantin Vlăgioiu

Abstract

Chiari-like malformation represents a congenital anomaly that affects the bony cranial base and the hindbrain, leading to fluid filled cavities formation in the spinal cord, condition named Syringomyelia. This paper aims to assess the variety of the clinical signs and to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging findings in thirty- seven Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs. The study was performed over a four-year period, from 2013 to 2017, all cases underwent neurological examination, full diagnostic work-up, including magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain, cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord. Thirty-seven dogs were included in this study, 23 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 3.6±2.1years. The commonest clinical findings encountered were neuropathic pain and vocalization, seen in all 37 cases, followed by scratching, facial rubbing, paw licking, air licking, tail chasing, seizures and unilateral facial paralysis. Different grades of cerebellar herniation and cervical syrinxes were noted in all cases, other magnetic resonance imaging findings encountered were medullary kinking, presyrinx and ventriculomegaly. In establishing the diagnosis of the Chiari-like malformation and Syringomyelia, the breed, clinical history and the symptomatology are very important, but only magnetic resonance imaging technique can provide quantitative assessment of the nervous system lesions.

Open access

Anthony Singer, Eleni Markoutsa, Alya Limayem, Subhra Mohapatra and Shyam S. Mohapatra

Abstract

Biomedical Nanotechnology (BNT) has rapidly become a revolutionary force that is driving innovation in the medical field. BNT is a subclass of nanotechnology (NT), and often operates in cohort with other subclasses, such as mechanical or electrical NT for the development of diagnostic assays, therapeutic implants, nano-scale imaging systems, and medical machinery. BNT is generating solutions to many conventional challenges through the development of enhanced therapeutic delivery systems, diagnostic techniques, and theranostic therapies. Therapeutically, BNT has generated many novel nanocarriers (NCs) that each express specifically designed physiochemical properties that optimize their desired pharmacokinetic profile. NCs are also being integrated into nanoscale platforms that further enhance their delivery by controlling and prolonging their release profile. Nano-platforms are also proving to be highly efficient in tissue regeneration when combined with the appropriate growth factors. Regarding diagnostics, NCs are being designed to perform targeted delivery of luminescent tags and contrast agents that enhance the NC -aided imaging capabilities and resulting diagnostic accuracy of the presence of diseased cells. This technology has also been advancing the ability for surgeons to practice true precision surgical techniques. Incorporating therapeutic and diagnostic NC-components within a single NC can facilitate both functions, referred to as theranostics, which facilitates real-time in vivo tracking and observation of drug release events via enhanced imaging. Additionally, stimuli-responsive theranostic NCs are quickly developing as vectors for tumor ablation therapies by providing a model that facilitates the location of cancer cells for the application of an external stimulus. Overall, BNT is an interdisciplinary approach towards health care, and has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for humanity by significantly decreasing the treatment burden for patients, and by providing non-invasive therapeutics that confer enhanced therapeutic efficiency and safety

Open access

Rukiye Nur Kaçmaz, Bülent Yılmaz, Mehmet Sait Dündar and Serkan Doğan

Abstract

Computer-aided detection is an integral part of medical image evaluation process because examination of each image takes a long time and generally experts’ do not have enough time for the elimination of images with motion artifact (blurred images). Computer-aided detection is required for both increasing accuracy rate and saving experts’ time. Large intestine does not have straight structure thus camera of the colonoscopy should be moved continuously to examine inside of the large intestine and this movement causes motion artifact on colonoscopy images. In this study, images were selected from open-source colonoscopy videos and obtained at Kayseri Training and Research Hospital. Totally 100 images were analyzed half of which were clear. Firstly, a modified version of histogram equalization was applied in the pre-processing step to all images in our dataset, and then, used Laplacian, wavelet transform (WT), and discrete cosine transform-based (DCT) approaches to extract features for the discrimination of images with no artifact (clear) and images with motion artifact. The Laplacian-based feature extraction method was used for the first time in the literature on colonoscopy images. The comparison between Laplacian-based features and previously used methods such as WT and DCT has been performed. In the classification phase of our study, support vector machines (SVM), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and k nearest neighbors (k-NN) were used as the classifiers. The results showed that Laplacian-based features were more successful in the detection of images with motion artifact when compared to popular methods used in the literature. As a result, a combination of features extracted using already existing approaches (WT and DCT) and the Laplacian-based methods reached 85% accuracy levels with SVM classification approach

Open access

Luljeta Pinguli, Ilirjan Malollari, Rozana Troja, Hasime Manaj and Anisa Dhroso

Abstract

The best practice for filtration optimization process is to control biological and non biological particles at every stage of beer chain production. There are several processes that can be used to control beer filtration process, such as settlement of non-biological and biological particles through sedimentation, centrifugation, extended stabilization periods, addition of flocculants and clarifiers to reduce both, yeast and haze loadings etc. Filtration process is controlled by yeast, proteins and carbohydrates. Cell yeast number in suspension determines which is going to dominate filtration process. If yeast cell number is less than a million, filterability is dependent mainly from physico-chemical beer characteristics, otherwise biological phase control filtration process. In this paper we have proposed some enzymatic and yeast management techniques to improve filtration process. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and industrial scale. There were used free and immobilized enzymes and yeast. It was noticed a good correlation between laboratory and industrial application findings. Immobilized yeast in batch processes not only make easier yeast management but also increase beer filterability, excluding some energy consuming processes like centrifugation and long conditioning time

Open access

Electra Papadopoulou, Konstantinos Vaitsas, Ioannis Fallas, Giorgos Tsipas, Konstantinos Chrissafis, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Constantina Kottaridi and Konstantinos E. Vorgias

Abstract

Economic activity that takes environmental protection into account and uses the environmental benefits of an area or country may continuously combine growth with sustainability thereby providing prosperity and societal quality. This paper aims to complement European research on Bioeconomy by reviewing current situation and future trends in Greece. Current data testify that there are significant opportunities for Greece to progress towards a lucrative economy based on renewable resources. The effective growth of such Bioeconomy in Greece depends on the successful cooperation of all stakeholders (state, business, citizens). This is the first study that provides a numerical analysis of the Bio-economy opportunities for Greece and may constitute the foundation for future research, suggestions for policy measures and strategic planning

Open access

Loretta Mancinelli, Francesco Ragonese, Samuela Cataldi, Maria Rachele Ceccarini, Rossana G. Iannitti, Cataldo Arcuri and Bernard Fioretti

Abstract

Agmatine has been functionally characterized as an important hormone and co-neurotransmitter in mammals. Given its ability in binding Imidazoline sites, a regolatory site of monoaminoxydase, it has been suggested to be involved in many neurological aspects. However, its inhibitory effect on this enzyme still remains an unanswered question. This present study is aimed to asses whether different experimental conditions could affect the agmatine action on monoaminoxydase activity. We demonstrate that the monoaminoxydase inhibition by agmatine is obtained under alkaline conditions and a long time of incubation. No inhibitiory action was found for shorter times of reaction at elevated pH, or at neutral condition and long time of incubation. No inhibition was also detected by substituting the monoamineoxydase substrate tyramine with kynuramine, however, while in these conditions a remarkable inhibition was shown by two aminoxydase inhibitors tranylcypromine and idazoxan. Herein, we discuss a mechanism model and the functional consequences of agmatine action on monoaminoxydase.

Open access

Orsolya Borsai, Mohamad Al Hassan, Monica Boscaiu, Radu E. Sestras and Oscar Vicente

Abstract

Drought and soil salinity are at present the major factors responsible for the global reduction of crop yields, and the problem will become more severe in the coming decades because of climate change effects. The most promising strategy to achieve the increased agricultural production that will be required to meet food demands worldwide will be based on the enhancement of crop stress tolerance, by both, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. This, in turn, requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance which, although based on a conserved set of basic responses, vary widely among plant species. Therefore, the use of different plant models to investigate these mechanisms appears to be a sensible approach. The genus Portulaca could be a suitable model to carry out these studies, as some of its taxa have been described as tolerant to drought and/or salinity. Information on relevant mechanisms of tolerance to salt and water stress can be obtained by correlating the activation of specific defence pathways with the relative stress resistance of the investigated species. Also, species of the genus could be economically attractive as ‘new’ crops for ‘saline’ and ‘arid’, sustainable agriculture, as medicinal plants, highly nutritious vegetable crops and ornamentals.

Open access

Olga G. Babak, Natalia A. Nekrashevich, Konstantsia K. Yatsevich, Sergey V. Malyshev and Alexander V. Kilchevsky

Abstract

To develop tomato hybrids and varieties with a high fruit quality, we gradually solved the following tasks: development of DNA-marking methods for long shelf life genes; the genes modifying the biosynthesis of carotenoids and their composition; testing of the elaborated methods on the developed breeding material; the selection of samples with different allelic composition of fruit quality genes; the development of F1 hybrids using the method of successive crosses and their study; the selection of tomato forms by DNA-typing methods with target genes in F2 populations to develop valuable breeding samples; the study of carotenoids’ accumulation peculiarities and their inheritance.

We used DNA-identification methods for fruit quality genes: nor, rin, norA (long shelf life), B, ogc, hp2dg, gf-3 (carotenoid content). The tomato hybrids, combining two pigment content genes and one long shelf life gene and the model forms with different combinations of fruit quality genes (B/rin/gf-3, B/rin/hp2dg; B/nor/gf-3, B /nor/hp2dg; оgc/rin/gf-3, оgc/rin/hp2dg; оgc/nor/gf-3, оgc/nor/hp2dg) in a homozygous state were developed.

Use of the developed accessions with carotenoid content genes (ogc/hp2dg, B/hp2dg) as maternal forms and the accessions with complex fruit quality genes (ogc/hp2dg/nor, ogc/hp2dg/rin, B/hp2dg/nor, B/hp2dg/rin, ogc/gf-3/nor, ogc/gf-3/rin, B/gf-3/rin, B/gf-3/nor) as paternal forms for hybridization contributes to high accumulation of carotenoids and a lond period of fruit storability.

Open access

Martin Vanek, Filip Mravec, Martin Szotkowski, Dana Byrtusova, Andrea Haronikova, Milan Certik, Volha Shapaval and Ivana Marova

Abstract

Red yeast Cystofilobasidium capitatum autofluorescence was studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to reveal distribution of carotenoids inside the cells. Yeasts were cultivated in 2L fermentor on glucose medium at permanent light exposure and aeration. Samples were collected at different times for CLSM, gravimetric determination of biomass and HPLC determination of pigments. To compare FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy) images and coupled data (obtained by CLSM) with model systems, FLIM analysis was performed on micelles of SDS:ergosterol and SDS:coenzyme Q with different content of ergosterol and coenzyme Q, respectively, and with constant addition of beta-carotene. Liposomes lecithin:ergosterol:beta-carotene were investigated too. Two different intracellular forms of carotenoids were observed during most of cultivations, with third form appeared at the beginning of stationary phase. Observed behavior is probably due to formation of some kind of carotenoid protective system in membranes of different compartments of yeast cell, especially cytoplasmic membrane.

Open access

Miroslav Ondrejovič and Stanislav Miertuš

Abstract

The paper presents main results and recommendations of the recent European Workshop dedicated to the evaluation of current state and prospects for Biotechnology with the attention to Central and European countries. The contribution of Biotechnology to the RIS3 strategy is also briefly presented. It is believed that there is still insufficient integration of research and innovation, especially in Central and Eastern European countries. Another problem is the weak interest and lack of mechanisms for the entry of potential investors into biotechnology capital-intensive areas. Series of proposals and recommendations coming from the Workshop on how to increase the regional cooperation in the field of Biotechnology is briefly described together with the potential role of international institutions (JRC-EC, CEI, ICGEB, EBTNA) in such cooperation.