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Open access

Renata Rutckeviski, Francisco Humberto Xavier, Andreza Rochelle Do Vale Morais, Lucas Amaral-Machado, Everton Do Nascimento Alencar, Julieta Genre, Adriano Antunes De Souza Araujo and Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa Do Egito

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop, optimize, and characterize a stable therapeutic bullfrog oil based nanoemulsion for oral application using a rational experimental design approach. The optimized oral nanoemulsion contained 0.2 % sodium benzoate and 0.02 % propyl-paraben as preservatives; 0.1 % sucralose and 0.4 % acesulfam K as sweeteners and 0.1 % tutti-frutti as flavoring to mask the unpleasant organoleptic characteristics of bullfrog oil. The oral O/W-nanoemulsion showed the droplet size, PDI, zeta potential, and pH of 410 ± 8 nm, 0.20 ± 0.02, –38 ± 2.5 mV, and 6.43 ± 0.05, respectively. The optimized oral nanoemulsion showed a milky single-phase and optimal physical stability at 25 °C for 90 days. Indeed, higher oxidation induction time and lower formation of peroxides in the oral nanoemulsion were responsible for improving its stability. A therapeutic delivery system containing bullfrog oil for oral application was successfully developed and optimized with ideal thermo-oxidative stability.

Open access

Maja Preskar, Tomislav Vrbanec, Franc Vrečer, Primož Šket, Janez Plavec and Mirjana Gašperlin

Abstract

Ibuprofen, a weakly acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug having poor aqueous solubility, is a challenging drug for the development of pharmaceutical formulations, resulting in numerous research attempts focusing on improvement of its solubility and consequently bioavailability. Most studies have been done for solid dosage forms, with very little attention paid to parenterals. Hence, the main purpose of the present study was to enhance ibuprofen solubility as a result of formulation composition and the freeze drying process. Moreover, the purpose was to prepare a freeze dried dosage form with improved ibuprofen solubility that could, after simple reconstitution with water for injection, result in an isotonic parenteral solution. Solubility of ibuprofen was modified by various excipients suitable for parenteral application. Drug interactions with selected excipients in the final product/lyophilisate were studied by a combined use of XRPD, DSC, Raman and ss-NMR. Analyses of lyophilized samples showed solubility enhancement of ibuprofen and in situ formation of an ibuprofen salt with the alkaline excipients used.

Open access

Martin Ambrož, Markéta Šmatová, Michaela Šadibolová, Eva Pospíšilová, Pavlína Hadravská, Michaela Kašparová, Veronika Hanušová Skarková, Věra Králová and Lenka Skálová

Abstract

The present study is designed to find out if sesquiterpenes, α-humulene (HUM), valencene (VAL), β-caryphyllene-oxide (CAO) and trans-nerolidol (NER), are able to improve the antiproliferative effect of classical cytostatic drugs, 5-fluorouracil (FU) and oxaliplatin (1,2-diaminocyclohexaneoxalato-platinum, OxPt), in colon cancer cell lines Caco-2 and SW-620. In addition, the possible mechanisms of sesquiterpene action are studied. The results show significant ability of HUM and especially of CAO to enhance the anti-proliferative effects of FU and OxPt in cancer cell lines Caco-2 and SW-620. On the other hand, VAL and NER are ineffective. The action of CAO could be partly based on its ability to disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential and to activate initiator caspases, but other mechanisms are probably also involved. Based on these results, CAO seems to have the potential for combination therapy of colon cancers and deserves further study.

Open access

Imad I. Hamdan, Violet N. Kasabri, Yusuf M. Al-Hiari, Dina El-Sabawi and Hiba Zalloum

Abstract

Twenty-five structurally diverse compounds have been tested in vitro for their pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activity. Despite the diversity of tested compounds, the relationship comprising structural attributes of the compounds could be established to correlate with the observed inhibitory activity. Compounds that exerted inhibitory action through surface activity were of different profile from the rest of compounds. When co-incubated with orlistat (OsT), important synergistic effects for some compounds (orphenadrine, gliclazide, cefuroxime and sulfacetamide) were revealed, while antagonistic effects were demonstrated for others (camphor sulfonic acid and dinitro salicylic acid). Docking studies for the most active molecules were performed and molecular interaction forces with the PL active site were identified. The results suggested co-binding of OsT along with the other inhibitor in the binding site in cases of synergistic effect but not in the case of antagonistic effect. These results were additionally supported by affinity capillary electrophoresis. In conclusion, synergistic lipase inhibitory activity between OsT and some other pharmaceutical compounds was demonstrated for the first time, which might help improve the pharmacological effect of OsT.

Open access

Ana Testen, Miha Plevnik, Bogdan Štefane and Irena Kralj Cigić

Abstract

Development of safe and effective drugs requires complete impurity evaluation and, therefore, knowledge about the formation and elimination of impurities is necessary. During impurity profiling of a key intermediate during synthesis of candesartan cilexetil (1-(((cyclohexyloxy)carbonyl) oxy)ethyl 1-((2’-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-yl) methyl)-2-ethoxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxylate, TCV-116), a novel compound, which had not been reported previously, was observed. Structural elucidation of impurity was achieved by liquid chromatography hyphenated to different high resolution mass analyzers. Based on exact mass measurements and fragmentation pattern, a chloro alkyl carbonate ester analogue of the intermediate was identified. Structure of the impurity was confirmed by mass spectro-metric and NMR analyses of the target substance. Identified impurity could represent a hazard if it is transferred to the final API stage and its presence should be kept below allowed limits. Further investigation could reveal whether bis(1-chloroethyl) carbonate is a precursor to impurity formation. Therefore, synthesis should be regulated so as to minimize impurity production. Analysis of the final product indicated that the amount of impurity did not exceed 50 mg L−1, which represents the detection limit, determined according to the signal/noise ratio.

Open access

Eduardo José Barbosa and Humberto Gomes Ferraz

Abstract

The aim of this work was to evaluate gellan gum as binder in pellet formulations, with theophylline as the model drug, in comparison with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). A full 32 factorial design was realized, with binder and diluent factors at three levels each. Pellets were produced by the extrusion/spheronization technique, and dried in a fluid-ized bed. Physical tests and dissolution tests were conducted. The results showed that the binder factor was not significant for pellet size and granulometry distribution. Rather, trends of a different response of gellan gum were identified, in comparison with PVP, in aspect ratio and dissolution tests: more round pellets were obtained in formulations with gellan gum, and more variable dissolution resulted when this polysaccharide was present. Therefore, if the usage of this compound in immediate release pellet formulations is verified, this justifies the interest in the development of sustained release systems using gellan gum.

Open access

Affidah Sabran, Endang Kumolosasi and Ibrahim Jantan

Abstract

Recent studies suggest that annexin A1 (ANXA1) promotes apoptosis in cancerous cells. This study aims to investigate the effects of ANXA1 on apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in K562, Jurkat and U937 cells and peripheral blood mononu-clear cells (PBMC). Cells were treated with ANXA1 and cyclophosphamide prior to flow cytometry analysis for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induction. At 2.5µM, ANXA1 induced significant apoptosis in K562 (p ≤ 0.001) and U937 (p ≤ 0.05) cells, with EC 50 values of 3.6 and 3.8 µM, respectively. In Jurkat cells, induction was not significant (EC 50, 17.0 µM). No significant apoptosis induction was observed in PBMC. ANXA1 caused cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase in K562 and U937 cells with p ≤ 0.001 for both, and (p ≤ 0.01) for Jurkat cells. ANXA1 induced apoptosis and cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase in K562 and U937 cells, causing only cell cycle arrest in Jurkat cells.

Open access

Londiwe Simphiwe Mbatha, Fiona Chepkoech Maiyo and Moganavelli Singh

Abstract

Use of exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) has shown potential in gene silencing. The need for target-specific siRNA delivery vehicles is crucial to successful gene silencing. This study is aimed at developing and evaluating the safety and efficiency of siRNA delivery using unmodified and folic acid (FA) modified poly(amidoamine) generation 5 (PAMAM G5D) functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au:G5D/Au:G5D:FA) in vitro. All formulations were physico--chemically characterized and nanocomplexes were evaluated using the band shift, dye displacement, nuclease protection, MTT cell viability, and luciferase reporter gene assays. Nanocomplexes bound and protected siRNA against degrading RNases, and were well tolerated by the cells. The Au:G5D:FA nanocomplexes elicited excellent gene silencing in folate receptor expressing HeLa-Tat-Luc cells, decreasing significantly in the presence of excess FA ligand, indicating nanocomplex uptake by the mechanism of receptor mediation. These results highlight the synergistic role played by Au and the dendrimer in enhancement of transgene silencing.

Open access

Saima Sattar, Mobasher Ahmad, Hamid Saeed, Zikria Saleem, Zeeshan Danish and Muhammad Akhlaq

Abstract

Despite growing prevalence of ovarian cancer (OC) in Pakistan, no literature evidence exists regarding its clinic-pathological characteristics, survival and compliance of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer on various chemo-protocols. An observational study was conducted by enrolling 251 recurrent OC patients on 7 different chemo-protocols, from a specialized cancer care hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, using convenient judgmental sampling. The study was conducted for a period of 6 months. Most of the patients were between 18 and 70 years of age, with IIIC FIGO stage and papillary serous histological grade. As per RECIST, improved partial response (PR) (63.3 %) and complete response (CR) (52.1 %) was observed in the CP (carboplatin + paclitaxel) arm, substantiated by improved median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in CP and CD (carboplatin + docetaxel) arms, respectively, yet with no significant differences in survival curves, PFS (p = 0.12) and OS (p = 0.22). Interestingly, the highest and the lowest patient non-compliance were observed in CG (carboplatin + gemcitabine) (81.6 %) and paclitaxel (4.5 %) arms, resp. As per the hazard model for survival, topotecan showed significant association with the therapy related events/deaths compared to other protocols. These data suggest that CP regimen exhibited improved clinical efficacy and decreased toxicity related non-compliance in recurrent ovarian cancer patients of Lahore.

Open access

Xue Wang, Shuaishuai Huang, Xia Xin, Yu Ren, Guobin Weng and Ping Wang

Abstract

Umbelliferone exhibits extensive pharmacological activity, including anti-immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antigenotoxicity activities. However, its antitumor properties still remain unclear in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Our results have revealed that treatment of human RCC cells (786-O, OS-RC-2, and ACHN) with umbelliferone reduced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and induced dose-dependent apoptotic events. In addition, cell cycle analysis determined that umbelliferone treatment induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blotting analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in Ki67, MCM2, Bcl-2, CDK2, CyclinE1, CDK4, and CyclinD1 and a dose-dependent increase in Bax in RCC cells cultured with umbelliferone. Similarly, umbelliferone exhibited a dose-dependent reduction of p110γ when using western blotting analyses. Taken together, these results provide an insight into the pharmacology regarding the potential application of umbelliferone, which contributes to cell death by decreasing p110γ protein expression.