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Paulina Wróbel-Knybel, Michał Flis, Rafał Dubiel and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

Abstract

The aim of this work is to present the most important information about the disorder known as sleep paralysis - its history, cultural context, pathophysiology, prevalence, symptomatology, coexistence with other somatic and mental disorders as well as diagnostics and available forms of prevention and treatment.

Open access

Aleksandra Iwanicka, Joanna Iwanicka and Anna Urbańska

Abstract

The aim of the article is to point out to the specificity and difficulties an expert psychologist faces while producing a court expertise in family and guardianship cases. Such a diagnosis is prepared at the request of a family court. The questions asked by the court in family and guardianship cases determine the range and aim of diagnosis including the type of examined case. Having considered the court’s questions, a psychologist formulates hypotheses and operationalizes variables. This article will present the main areas of problems which arise while developing opinions in family and guardianship cases. The two main issues will be discussed: the range of an expert psychologist’s competences in the light of the court’s expectations frequently exceeding an expert’s capabilities and the impact of the choice of research methods on the quality of an opinion issued to obtain the final ruling in the court case.

Open access

Małgorzata Futyma-Jędrzejewska, Ewelina Drzał and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

Summary

Pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood are new situations for women and require adjustment. Women suffering from schizophrenia require special attention due to the course of the disease. Physiological changes that occur in the body during pregnancy may be unacceptable for women suffering from schizophrenia. They may delusively deny the existence of the pregnancy, lead an unhealthy lifestyle (stimulants, poor diet, lack of gynaecological check-ups), which in turn causes an increased risk of complications. In the research conducted so far, it has been proven that three kinds of complications are associated with schizophrenia: complications concerning pregnancy itself (bleeding, diabetes, Rh-incompatibility, pre-eclampsia), intrauterine growth restriction (low birth weight, congenital malformations, small head circumference) and complications regarding labour (uterine atony, asphyxia, emergency Caesarean section). The course of the labour itself in this specific group of patients has not yet been sufficiently examined. It has also been proven that perinatal complications are one of the factors determining an increased risk of schizophrenia.

Open access

Aneta Perzyńska-Starkiewicz

Abstract

In creating his Psychophysiological Theory, Jan Mazurkiewicz transplanted John Hughlings Jackson’s method into the field of psychiatry. Like his precursor, he distinguished four evolutionary levels, but this time with regard to mental activity. According to Mazurkiewicz’s approach, disease is the reverse of evolution. Doing damage to the highest evolutionary level, it allows evolutionarily lower levels to take control of the patient’s psyche. Distorted by the etiological factor, the lower mental levels manifest as mental disease. In his Psychophysiological Theory, Mazurkiewicz distinguishes three types of dissolution: intra-level dissolution (psychoneuroses), slow dissolution or dissociation proper (schizophrenia), and rapid, delirium-like dissolution (impaired consciousness). Kaczyński noted that, based on an in-depth analysis of the phylogenetic and ontogenetic development of the successive evolutionary levels of the nervous system, Mazurkiewicz transposed the principles of the Jacksonian concept of hierarchical evolution – dissolution. Within a dozen or so years from birth to maturity, the process of evolution of mankind is recapitulated, with the speed of lightning, in an individual – from instincts, which are phylogenetically the oldest, to the highest functions of the frontal lobes. The present paper makes mention of research conducted at Lublin’s Department of Psychiatry which expands on Mazurkiewicz’s theory.

Open access

Aneta Gerhant, Ewa Krzewicka-Romaniuk, Dagna Siedlecka, Magdalena Derewianka-Polak and Marcin Olajossy

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the range of socio-demographic variables, selected clinical variables, temperament and character traits, coping with stress strategies and the level of aggression in alcohol addicts with or without a history of suicide attempt(s). Methods: The study involved 90 people addicted to alcohol, treated in inpatient alcohol dependence treatment program. In order to collect data on socio - demographic variables and selected clinical variables, a self-made questionnaire was used. The severity of alcohol dependence was verified using the MAST and SADD scales. Characteristics of temperament and character were examined with the TCI questionnaire. The BPAQ and COPE questionnaires were used to examine the level of aggression and styles of coping with stress. Results: Out of 90 subjects with alcohol dependence syndrom, 20% had attempted suicide in the past. The respondents with a history of suicide attempts were statistically significantly younger, were characterized by a younger age of alcohol drinking initiation and the initiation of regular alcohol drinking, and a greater severity of alcohol dependence in the MAST and SADD scales. A significantly larger percentage of respondents who had attempted suicide inflicted self-injury in the past, used other psychoactive substances as well as hypnotics and sedatives. The subjects with a suicide attempt in the interview obtained statistically significantly higher scores in terms of the level of aggression, harm avoidance and self-directedness, and more often used the style of coping with stress based on avoidance and accepting the situation. Conclusions: The obtained results correspond with data available in the literature and may provide a foundation for theoretical models explaining the phenomenon of suicidal behavior in alcohol addicts as well as for suicide prevention programs in this group of patients.

Open access

Masoume Rambod, Farkondeh Sharif, Zahra Molazem and Kate Khair

Abstract

Background: Pain management can prevent long-term burdens in haemophilia patients and improve their quality of life. The present study aimed to describe and interpret pain experiences in haemophilia patients, focusing on pain self-management in their lives. Methods: This was a qualitative study undertaken using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The study involved 14 haemophilia patients referred to a haemophilia clinic affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and field notes. Thematic analysis with van Manen’s methodological framework was applied. Data analysis was performed using MAX. QDA qualitative software (2010). Results: Four themes emerged: a sense of self-awareness and recognition of pain and the factors that affect it, the ability to control and self-manage pain, gradually achieving self-efficacy in pain control, and using cognitive and spiritual strategies for pain relief. Conclusions: The study highlighted the essence of the lived experience of pain self-management and generated its linguistic description. By providing complementary therapy interventions, healthcare providers and family members could increase patients’ self-awareness, recognition, ability to self-manage and control pain effectively, and competence in developing cognitive and spiritual strategies for pain relief.

Open access

Sharon Alavian, Wendy Hutchinson, Abigail Morris, Heather Williams and Debra Pollard

Abstract

Introduction and objective: In the UK, the National Service Specification for haemophilia stipulates that all patients with mild inherited bleeding disorders must be reviewed annually by their haemophilia centre. For those patients who rarely experience problems relating to their bleeding disorder, attending a yearly hospital-based appointment may be viewed as a low priority. This can result in missed appointments and disconnection from their haemophilia centre, leading to poor understanding of how to manage their condition in emergencies, or when surgical or other invasive procedures may be necessary. The inherited nature of these conditions also has implications for reproduction, and it is of vital importance that the risk of bleeding around labour, delivery and the neonatal period are fully understood and mitigated against. The introduction of a structured, nurse-led telephone clinics across the North London Adult Haemophilia Network (NLAHN) offered an alternative method for patients to be reviewed. This strategy was then evaluated to assess whether the needs of patients were being fulfilled. Materials and methods: Clinical nurse specialists (CNS) from the NLAHN devised a short service evaluation questionnaire with Likert scales and one open question. Patients across the NLAHN sites who had received a telephone review in 2016 were sent an anonymised questionnaire, with a stamped addressed envelope and a six-week return date. Results: 514 questionnaires were distributed, 174 were returned, and 18 were excluded as returned incomplete, giving a return rate of 28%. Overall, 89% (139/156) of patients rated the new service between excellent and very good; 89% (139/156) reported that they were very satisfied with the information received in the review; and 95% (149/156) were happy to continue to receive telephone reviews. Conclusion: Patients found the telephone reviews a viable alternative to traditional hospital-based appointments. The telephone clinics are more convenient for patients in terms of time and resources; they also helped those surveyed to re-engage with their haemophilia centre, ensuring continued education about their condition and the services offered. Overall attendance rates for the follow-up of patients with mild bleeding disorders have improved, with a reduction in traditional clinic appointments for this group. This has an ongoing positive impact on waiting lists and the financial burden of missed hospital appointments without impacting patient care.

Open access

Oleg Gorbaniuk, Andrij Mirowich, Władysława Leoszko, Julia Gorbaniuk, Aleksandra Kordon, Maria Świderska, Olena Kuts and Anna Korczak

Abstract

The aim of the psycholexical study was to classify the terms describing individual differences in the Ukrainian language.

Method. To accomplish this objective, we analysed 220,000 entries included in a universal dictionary of Ukrainian and identified 20,024 terms – adjectives, participles, type-nouns, and attribute-nouns – used to describe human characteristics. The identified person-descriptive terms were classified by a team of five trained judges into 13 categories and subcategories. The judges’ taxonomic decisions were tested for validity and interjudge agreement.

Results. This procedure yielded lists of Ukrainian personality descriptors, consisting, respectively, of 2,426 adjectives, 2,255 participles, 1,653 attribute-nouns, and 1,474 type-nouns. The analysis of semantic redundancy of terms representing different parts of speech but having the same common morpheme among dispositional descriptors identified a total of 1,634 morphemes that differed in terms of meaning. The analysis identified 212 (22.0% of morphemes) type-nouns that could not be replaced by any different part of speech with the same morpheme to describe the same personality trait.

Conclusions. Ukrainian personality lexicon has a comparable or higher diversity of personality-descriptive vocabulary, attested to by the presence of 96% Big Factors markers from international comparative analyses of psycholexical structures of natural languages. The results of the study contribute to the debate on universals in the description of individual differences and constitute the basis for future questionnaire-based studies aimed at identifying the psycholexical structure of the Ukrainian language.

Open access

Jakub Siembida, Piotr Frończuk, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Aleksandra Siek and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

Abstract

Introduction According to the data obtained in the EZOP Poland study (2015), the prevalence of alcohol dependence in lifetime in Poland amounts to about 2.2% of the population, entailing enormous social, family and personal harm, including health damage. It is estimated that about 72% of alcohol-dependent patients complain about one or more problems related to the sexual sphere, which may result from both the development of somatic complications in the course of alcohol dependence, and from psychiatric complications that themselves can lead to sexual dysfunction. There are reports and clinical observations indicating that the occurrence of sexual dysfunction (SD) can affect the shortening or interruption of the period of abstinence.

Aim The aim of this work is to show sexual dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent men and to discuss the factors that may affect the occurrence of the above-mentioned dysfunctions.

Material and methods The available literature was reviewed using Medline, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect browsers by entering the keywords: alcohol dependence, sexual dysfunction, comorbidity, alcohol-caused diseases and time descriptors: 1979-2016.

Results

• Alcohol dependence is associated with the occurrence of various types of sexual dysfunctions (SD).

• The diagnosis of SD should take into account all possible causes that may lead to the development of SD in this group of patients, including the comorbidity of somatic diseases or the negative impact of drugs on sexual function.

• Occurrence of SD is connected with a higher risk of abstinence interruption.

• There is a need to carry out more research in order to better understand the relationship between alcohol dependence and the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions.

Open access

Aneta Perzyńska-Starkiewicz

Abstract

The aim of this study is to acquaint the readers with some pieces of practical guidance on the therapy of neurotic disorders offered by Professor Mieczysław Kaczyński to his colleagues and students at the Lublin Clinic of Psychiatry. Patients who report so-called neurotic complaints are a group that requires a very thorough clinical analysis. Professor Kaczyński emphasized that it was necessary to make a distinction among patients with a neurotic reaction, a pseudoneurotic syndrome, and ‘neurosis proper’ or psychoneurosis. The first group includes patients who report a psychological trauma as a trigger of their complaints. Therapeutic intervention brings good outcomes leading to resolution of the condition. A group of patients that is very important from the point of view of diagnosis are those in whom neurotic complaints are masking an onset of a somatic or mental illness or an existing illness which is running a mild course. In such cases, a cursory examination leading to a mistaken diagnosis of neurosis can have devastating effects. A misdiagnosis is easy to make, for example, in patients with increased intracranial pressure (“the neurasthenic stage of a brain tumour”) or an onset of a mental illness (the pseudoneurotic syndrome of early schizophrenia). Therefore, often, before the final diagnosis is arrived at, multiple follow-up examinations are needed to monitor the structure and dynamics of the disease. Only when the first two diagnostic options have been excluded, can the physician classify the disorder as a neurosis (psychoneurosis). In such cases, it is necessary to find the etiological agent, which, more often than not, is a situation of conflict or frustration that the patient is unconscious of. A failure to analyze a case in this way may result in the patient’s resignation response, potentially leading to suicide. It appears that Professor Kaczyński’s remarks on the clinical picture of neurotic disorders largely round out the information provided in ICD-10 under F.40–F.48.