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Open access

Shuaishuai Huang, Pinger Cui, Shuangxia Lin, Xuping Yao, Xue Wang, Yu Ren and Guobin Weng

Abstract

Our previous reports showed that the cyclic-AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) served as a proto-oncogene in the process of tumorigenesis and mediated the growth and metastatic activity of renal cancer cells. Our study, therefore, explored the role of CREB in sorafenib- -inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Renal cancer cells were cultured in medium containing sorafenib for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The MTT assay was used to study the cytotoxic effects of sorafenib. Cell invasion and migration were assayed in wound healing and transwell experiments, respectively. Protein expression levels were evaluated by western blotting. The results show that sorafenib treatment decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sorafenib inhibited cell migration and invasion and decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, addition of the recombinant plasmid pCI-neo/ CREB (PN) reversed the sorafenib-induced inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These results show that CREB is associated with the sorafenib-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion.

Open access

Naureen Shehzadi, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Islam, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Muhammad Salman, Sabahat Zahra Siddiqui, Aziz-Ur Rehman and Muhammad Athar Abbasi

Abstract

The study describes the development and preliminary validation of a simple reverse-phase chromatographic method for determination of a novel drug candidate, 5-[(4-chlorophenoxy) methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (OXCPM), in bulk and stressed solution, in order to find out the intrinsic stability behavior of the compound. Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 through a Promosil C18 column maintained at 25 °C, using the mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and aqueous o-H3PO4 (pH 2.67) (1:1, V/V). Detection was performed at 258 nm. The response of the detector was linear in a concentration range of 1.25-50.00 μg mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9996 ± 0.0001. Cumulative intra-day, inter-day and inter-instrument accuracy (99.5 ± 1.0, 100.2 ± 1.0 and 100.3 ± 0.4 %, resp.) with RSD less than 5 % indicated that the method was accurate and precise. The resolution and selectivity factor (>2 and >1, resp.), particularly in copper metal- and dry-heat-stress solutions, depicted the selectivity of the method. OXCPM remained stable under hydrolytic (acidic and neutral pH, ≤ 37 °C), photolytic and moist heat stress conditions. Under alkaline conditions (hydrolytic and photolytic), polar products were formed that eluted very fast through the column (tR < 3.75 min). At room temperature, the compound was susceptible to oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and transition metals. The ionogram of most of the stress solutions indicated the presence of a product having m/z 256, which might be a result of N- or Smethylation or -SH oxidation. The results of the study indicate that the method is selective, sensitive and suitable to be used for determination of OXCPM in bulk and under stress conditions.

Open access

Min Han, Qin Yu, Xuerong Liu, Fuqiang Hu and Hong Yuan

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to investigate a novel aqueous dispersion (Eudragit® L100-55) f or e nteric c oating o f drugs. Three different casting solutions, Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersion, Eudragit® L 100-55 o rganic s olution, and Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion, were used to prepare free films by the casting method. Drug-loaded pellets, prepared by the extrusion-spheronization method, were coated with one of these three coating solutions using the fluidized-bed spray coating technology. Properties of the free films were thoroughly investigated. Films formed by Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersions showed similar properties to those formed by Eudragit® L100-55 organic solution regarding thermodynamic properties, moisture permeability, solubility and acid tolerance ability. Furthermore, the performance of the novel film was better than that formed by Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion. Among the three enteric coating solutions, Eudragit® L100- 55 aqueous dispersion will be a promising aqueous dispersion for enteric coating and can be used in the development of enteric-coated preparations.

Open access

Eva Kralova, Eva Racanska, Anna Vicenova, Iveta Boselova, Ivan Malik and Tatiana Stankovicova

Abstract

Four phenylcarbamic acid derivatives, (1-(4-fluorophenyl)- 4-[3-(4-methoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride (1), (1-(2-methylphenyl)-4-[3-(4-methoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)- 2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride) (2), (1-(2-methylphenyl)-4-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)- 2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride) (3) and (1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-4-[3-(4-methoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)- 2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride) (4) were investigated for their ability to affect various cardiovascular functions and to establish their chemical structure-biological activity relationship. The compounds were evaluated for their antiarrhythmic efficacy using ouabain-induced rhythm disturbances and the ability to inhibit the positive chronotropic effect of isoproterenol in isolated atria of Wistar rats. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters in isolated hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) perfused according to the Langendorff method and ability to decrease phenylephrine- -induced contraction of the aortic strips after repeated administration of the compounds were also analyzed. Only compound 3 delayed significantly the evaluated parameter of arrhythmogenicity and was able to antagonize the isoproterenol- induced positive chronotropic effect in normotensive rats’ atria. Similarly, in SHR rats, only compound 3 was able to decrease heart frequency significantly without influencing the duration of QT (time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave) and QTc (frequency corrected QT) intervals. The evaluated endothelial function was improved after administration of compound 2. Fluorine-containing structures (1 and 4) were less effective compared to 2´-methylphenylpiperazine derivatives (2 and 3). The latter two compounds showed suitable efficacy, which supported their use for futher pharmacological research.

Open access

Akinleye Akinrinde, Trevor Koekemoer, Maryna Van De Venter and Graeme Bradley

Abstract

The corms of Hypoxis argentea are widely used as a traditional remedy for diabetes mellitus in South Africa. In this study, we investigated the effects of non-toxic concentrations (12.5-100 μg mL-1) of the aqueous extract of H. argentea (HAA) corms on glucose uptake, pancreatic beta cell proliferation, and adipocyte differentiation. HAA stimulated glucose uptake in HepG2 cells up to 19.6 % and 17.0 % in L6 myotubes. Live-cell imaging microscopy revealed significant increases (p < 0.001) in total INS-1 cell numbers exposed to HAA, although no effect was observed on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. HAA produced weak to moderate inhibition of porcine pancreatic α-amylase, α-glucosidase, porcine pancreatic lipase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities, as well as protein glycation. Our results suggest that the acclaimed anti-diabetic effects of H. argentea could be mediated by its promotion of glucose utilization and preservation of pancreatic beta cell populations while preventing fat accumulation in adipocytes.

Open access

Shada Y. Elhayek, Mohammad A. Fararjeh, Areej M. Assaf, Eman Y. Abu-Rish and Yasser Bustanji

Abstract

Tigecycline is a glycylcycline antibiotic approved by the FDA for the treatment of complicated infections. Despite its effectiveness, the FDA announced a warning of increasing mortality associated with its use. There is, however, no clear explanation for this side effect. Previous reports found a possible effect of tigecycline on leukocyte proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine release. We t herefore i nvestigated the effect of tigecycline on the immune components and response in Balb/c mice in vivo and in vitro. It was found that tigecycline enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and significantly increased cellular infiltration within the footpad, as based on DTH testing, but reduced the hemagglutination titer. In splenocyte cultures, tigecycline suppressed splenocyte proliferation with IC50 3-5 mmol L-1, significantly increased IL-2 secretion and reduced IL-17 secretion in a dose dependent mode. In conclusion, tigecycline is safe at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic doses, but it could still have an immunomodulatory effect at higher doses. Use of higher doses of tigecycline requires further investigation.

Open access

Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Husam A. Alsalamat, Shereen M. Aleidi and Rasha M. Bashatwah

Abstract

Extensive in vitro studies have been conducted to evaluate the anticancer activity of oral hypoglycemic agents. Many of these studies experienced detrimental limitations, since they were conducted on cancer cells commonly grown in culture media consisting of extremely high concentrations of growth factors and glucose. The present study was aimed at exploring the antiproliferative effects of the commonly studied metformin and the less frequently reported phenformin oral hypoglycemic agents on different molecular subtypes of breast cancer under rich glucose and glucose deprived conditions. Our results indicate that under glucose deprived conditions, which better reflect the factual glucose-starved solid tumors in vivo, biguanides exert more antiproliferative activities against the three molecular subtypes of breast cancer cell lines examined in this study. In addition, the observed antiproliferative activities of biguanides appear to be mediated by apoptosis induction in breast cancer cells. This induction is significantly augmented under glucose deprived conditions.

Open access

Kristina Pavić Zrinka Rajić, Zvonimir Mlinarić, Lidija Uzelac, Marijeta Kralj and Branka Zorc

Abstract

In the current paper, we describe the design, synthesis and antiproliferative screening of novel chloroquine derivatives with a quinoline core linked to a hydroxy or halogen amine through a flexible aminobutyl chain and urea spacer. Synthetic pathway leading to chloroquine urea derivatives 4-10 includes two crucial steps: i) synthesis of chloroquine benzotriazolide 3 and ii) formation of urea derivatives through the reaction of compound 3 with the corresponding amine. Testing of antiproliferative activity against four human cancer cell lines revealed that chloroquine urea derivatives 9 and 10 with aromatic moieties show activity at micromolar concentrations. Therefore, these molecules represent interesting lead compounds that might provide an insight into the design of new anticancer agents.

Open access

Mohammed M. Safhi, Mohammad Firoz Alam, Gulrana Khuwaja, Sohail Hussain, Mohammed Hakeem Siddiqui, Farah Islam, Ibrahim Khardali, Rashad Mohammed Al-Sanosi, Hassan A. Alhazmi, Andleeb Khan and Fakhrul Islam

Abstract

Cathinone, the active principle of khat (Catha edulis), stimulates, excites and produces euphoric feelings in khat users. Locomotor and rearing activities, either individual or in groups, of male Swiss albino mice were decreased significantly compared to the control. Motor coordination tests (rotarod, rope climb and grip tests) have shown decreased motor performance in the mice treated with cathinone compared to the control. The elevated plus maze test has shown significant anxiety in the mice compared to the control. Contents of dopamine and its metabolite, homovanillic acid, were increased in the limbic areas compared to the control group. In contrast, contents of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid were depleted significantly and dose dependently compared to the control group in the limbic areas of mice. In conclusion, natural cathinone has depleted motor coordination, accelerated anxiety in mice and altered the contents of dopamine and its metabolites.

Open access

Olajumoke A. Oyebode, Ochuko L. Erukainure, Neil A. Koorbanally and Md. Shahidul Islam

Abstract

In this study, we identified bioactive compounds from the ethanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark of Acalypha wilkesiana through GC-MS analysis and investigated the effects of these extracts on some of the enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Plant parts were extracted sequentially with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of long-chain alkyl acids, esters, ketones and alcohols including phytol and phytol acetate along with some secondary metabolites such as xanthone, vitamin E and various types of sterols including stigmasterol, campesterol and sitosterol. Ethanolic extracts of all the parts showed a dose- -dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. The extracts also demonstrated anti-lipase activity. The ethanolic extract of root bark showed the highest inhibition of enzymes compared to other extracts. The EC50 values (concentrations for 50 % inhibition) of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase inhibition were 35.75 ± 1.95, 6.25 ± 1.05 and 101.33 ± 5.21 μg mL-1, resp. The study suggests that A. wilkesiana ethanolic extracts have the ability to inhibit the activity of enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Further studies are needed to confirm the responsible bioactive compounds in this regard.