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Open access

Joe Murphy, Paul Biemer and Chip Berry

Abstract

This article discusses the critical and complex design decisions associated with transitioning an interviewer-administered survey to a self-administered, postal, web/paper survey. Our approach embeds adaptive, responsive, and tailored (ART) design principles and data visualization during a multi-phased data collection operation to project the outcomes of each phase in preparation for subsequent phases. This requires rapid decision making based upon experimental results using a data visualization system to monitor critical-to-quality (CTQ) metrics and facilitate projections of outcomes from the current phase of data collection to inform the design of the subsequent phase. We describe the objectives of the overall design, the features designed to address these objectives, components of the visual adaptive total design (ATD) system for monitoring quality components and relative costs in real time, and examples of the visualization elements and functionalities that were used in one case study. We also discuss subsequent initiatives to develop an interactive version of the monitoring tool and applications for other studies, including those employing adaptive, responsive, and tailored (ART) designs. Our case study is a series of pilot studies conducted for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), sponsored by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Open access

Gina Walejko and James Wagner

Abstract

Researchers are interested in the effectiveness of adaptive and responsive survey designs that monitor and respond to data using tailored or targeted interventions. These designs often require adherence to protocols, which can be difficult when surveys allow in-person interviewers flexibility in managing cases. This article describes examples of interviewer noncompliance and compliance in adaptive design experiments that occurred in two United States decennial census tests. The two studies tested adaptive procedures including having interviewers work prioritized cases and substitute face-to-face attempts with telephone calls. When to perform such procedures was communicated to interviewers via case management systems that necessitated twice-daily transmissions of data. We discuss reasons when noncompliance may occur and ways to improve compliance.

Open access

Asaph Young Chun, Steven G. Heeringa and Barry Schouten

Abstract

We discuss an evidence-based approach to guiding real-time design decisions during the course of survey data collection. We call it responsive and adaptive design (RAD), a scientific framework driven by cost-quality tradeoff analysis and optimization that enables the most efficient production of high-quality data. The notion of RAD is not new; nor is it a silver bullet to resolve all the difficulties of complex survey design and challenges. RAD embraces precedents and variants of responsive design and adaptive design that survey designers and researchers have practiced over decades. In this paper, we present the four pillars of RAD: survey process data and auxiliary information, design features and interventions, explicit quality and cost metrics, and a quality-cost optimization tailored to survey strata. We discuss how these building blocks of RAD are addressed by articles published in the 2017 JOS special issue and this special section. It is a tale of the three perspectives filling in each other. We carry over each of these three perspectives to articulate the remaining challenges and opportunities for the advancement of RAD. We recommend several RAD ideas for future research, including survey-assisted population modeling, rigorous optimization strategies, and total survey cost modeling.

Open access

Bin Liu, Cindy Long Yu, Michael Joseph Price and Yan Jiang

Abstract

In this article, we consider a generalized method moments (GMM) estimator to estimate treatment effects defined through estimation equations using an observational data set from a complex survey. We demonstrate that the proposed estimator, which incorporates both sampling probabilities and semiparametrically estimated self-selection probabilities, gives consistent estimates of treatment effects. The asymptotic normality of the proposed estimator is established in the finite population framework, and its variance estimation is discussed. In simulations, we evaluate our proposed estimator and its variance estimator based on the asymptotic distribution. We also apply the method to estimate the effects of different choices of health insurance types on healthcare spending using data from the Chinese General Social Survey. The results from our simulations and the empirical study show that ignoring the sampling design weights might lead to misleading conclusions.

Open access

Debolina Ghatak and Bimal Roy

Abstract

Privacy protection and data security have recently received a substantial amount of attention due to the increasing need to protect various sensitive information like credit card data and medical data. There are various ways to protect data. Here, we address ways that may as well retain its statistical uses to some extent. One such way is to mask a data with additive or multiplicative noise and revert to certain desired parameters of the original distribution from the knowledge of the noise distribution and masked data. In this article, we discuss the estimation of any desired quantile of a quantitative data set masked with additive noise. We also propose a method to choose appropriate parameters for the noise distribution and discuss advantages of this method over some existing methods.

Open access

Jonathan Lisic, Hejian Sang, Zhengyuan Zhu and Stephanie Zimmer

Open access

Andrew Keller, Vincent T. Mule, Darcy Steeg Morris and Scott Konicki

Abstract

The U.S. Census Bureau is conducting research on using administrative records to reduce the cost while maintaining the quality of the 2020 Census Nonresponse Followup (NRFU). Previous census tests have implemented approaches that use predictive models and optimization procedures to identify vacant and occupied housing units using administrative records. This article details a modification to previous approaches, introducing a simple distance metric to define a quality ranking of housing units to enumerate using administrative records. The distance approach is illustrated, assessed, and compared to a previous approach via a retrospective study of the 2010 U.S. Census.

Open access

Hanyu Sun

Open access

William Cecere

Open access

Stephanie Coffey