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Krzysztof Jarosza, Piotr Niesłonya and Piotr Löschnera

Abstract

In this article, a novel approach to computer optimization of CNC toolpaths by adjustment of cutting speed vcand depth of cut apis presented. Available software works by the principle of adjusting feed rate on the basis of calculations and numerical simulation of the machining process. The authors wish to expand upon this approach by proposing toolpath optimization by altering two other basic process parameters. Intricacies and problems related totheadjustment of apand vcwere explained in the introductory part. Simulation of different variant of the same turning process with different parameter values were conducted to evaluate the effect of changes in depth of cut and cutting speed on process performance. Obtained results were investigated on the account of cutting force and tool life. The authors have found that depth of cut substantially affects cutting force, while the effect of cutting speed on it is minimal. An increase in both depth of cut and cutting speed affects tool life negatively, although the impact of cutting speed is much more severe. An increase in depth of cut allows for a more significant reduction of machining time, while affecting tool life less negatively. On the other hand, the adjustment of cutting speed helpsto reduce machining time without increasing cutting force component values and spindle load.

Open access

Michal Greguš, Pavlo Ďurč, Julia Lačná, František Foreti and Peter Kubáň

Abstract

In this work, various parameters that influence the ionic content and pH of exhaled breath condensate in of the noninvasive diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied. Exhaled breath condensate samples were collected using a miniature and inexpensive sampling device. Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection was used to monitor the ionic content of exhaled breath condensate. Background electrolyte composed of 20 mM of 2-(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 20 mM of L-Histidine, 2 mM of 18-Crown-6 and 30 M of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide facilitated the rapid separation of anions and cations, both in less than 2 minutes. The possibility of contamination of the exhaled breath condensate by saliva is discussed in detail. The day-to-day repeatability (n=5) of the ionic content and pH of the exhaled breath condensate was studied and was satisfactory, reflecting mainly the physiological variability

Open access

Dana Moravcová and Josef Planeta

Abstract

The monolithic capillary columns (0.1 mm x 150 mm) prepared by the acidic hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and urea were modified by zwitterionic stationary phases and evaluated under HILIC separation conditions by employing a mixture containing nucleosides and nucleotides. The polymeric layer of zwitterions did not affect the high separation efficiency of the original silica monolith. The prepared zwitterionic columns exhibited high separation efficiencies in a range 61,000-289,000 theoretical plates/m for a 2- methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-based stationary phase and in a range 59,000-135,000 theoretical plates/m for a [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide-based stationary phase under optimal separation conditions. The grafted layer of zwitterions on the silica monolithic surface also significantly improved the separation selectivity to compounds of interest

Open access

Kateřina Hamáková, David Potěšil, Ondřej Bernatik, Igor Červenka, Matěj Rádsetoulal, Vitězslav Bryja and Zbyněk Zdráhal

Abstract

The focus of this paper is the human Dishevelled 3 protein (hDvl3), an essential component of the Wnt signalling pathway that contributes to their regulation. Mass spectrometry-based analysis of hDvl3 phosphorylations induced by eight associated kinases was performed revealing several dozens of phosphorylation sites. The main outcome of this study was the description of Dvl phosphorylation “patterns” induced by individual kinases

Open access

Anikό Kilár, Ágnes Dornyel, Viktor Sándor, Ferenc Kilár and Béla Kocsis

Abstract

Much interest is at present focused on bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as they are responsible for the development of clinical symptoms of Gram-negative sepsis which is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Endotoxicity is associated with the special phosphoglycolipid part of LPS, termed lipid A. Main challenges in the structural elucidation of lipid A arise from its amphiphilic character and inherent heterogeneity. A mass spectrometrybased de novo method combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography for the detailed structural characterization of complex lipid A mixtures (obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of LPS) from different bacterial sources has been developed. Tandem mass spectrometric measurements were performed with an electrospray-ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometer in both negative- and positive-ionization modes in order to explore fragmentation pathways. It was found that characteristic product ions in the positive-ion mode could be used for the unambiguous assignment of the phosphorylation site, whereas the use of both ionization modes provided consistent and/or complementary information about the fatty acyl distribution between the two glucosamine moieties of lipid A. Since the immunostimulatory (advantageous) vs. proinflammatory (endotoxic) effect of the lipid A is closely related to the fine chemical structure, our relatively simple structural elucidation strategy could offer great potential in the bioanalysis of native lipid A samples and lipid A-based vaccines

Open access

Peter Troška, Anna Mandžáková, Jasna Hradski, Juraj Ševčík and Marián Masár

Abstract

An online combination of isotachophoresis (ITP) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was employed on a microchip with a column-coupling technology for the determination of homocysteine in various body fluids. ITP with its high concentration ability was used as a sample pretreatment and injection technique for CZE, which facilitated the rapid and sensitive determination of homocysteine. The resolution of the analyte from other constituents present in real complex samples was enhanced by discrete spacers, which were added to the injected sample. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) pretreatment technique based on silver- and barium-form resins was used prior to the ITP-CZE analysis to remove high concentrations of chloride and sulfate naturally present in the analyzed samples. The combination of the micropretreatment and microelectrophoresis techniques facilitated the determination of trace concentrations of homocysteine in samples of urine and saliva

Open access

Marek Stiborek, Jan Preisler, Masoud Shekargoftar, Viktor Kanickŷ and Jakub Kelar

Abstract

This work deals with the preparation of model biological microsamples for Substrate-Assisted Laser Desorption Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SALD ICP-MS). This technique provides the direct and fast analysis of liquid samples deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plates (substrates) in the form of dried droplets with minimal sample preparation and submicrolitre sample volume requirements. Furthermore, SALD ICP-MS allows for the direct analysis of samples in organic solvents, which cannot be directly nebulised to ICP-MS. These benefits are, however, balanced out by the low degree of repeatability of the assay, which is typically about 30%. One of the approaches to increase the repeatability is a modification of the substrate surface by Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) with the addition of an internal standard to the sample. Using this approach, a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 10% for model biological samples can be achieved. The only limitation of this technique is the occurrence of the so-called “aging effect”, i.e. the gradual return of the modified physicochemical surface properties to their original state

Open access

Robert Bodor, Andrea Nečasová, Alena Pechová and Marián Masár

Abstract

A capillary isotachophoresis (CITP) method performed in a column-coupling apparatus has been developed for the simultaneous determination of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentrations in blood samples. The determination of GSSG and GSH concentrations in biological samples is important because of their roles in oxidative stress. Different concentrations of a leading ion in the coupled columns (concentration cascade) and a large volume (37 µ ) of the injected sample facilitated a GSSG concentration of between 2 and 25 µmol/l. A reaction between iodoacetate and GSH under alkaline conditions was used to prepare the sample in order to avoid oxidation of GSH to GSSG. This step eliminated the main source of systematic errors with regard to the determination of the GSSG concentration. A linear relationship (R2=0.9969) between the zone length of S-(carboxymethyl)glutathione (the product of the reaction between GSH and iodoacetate) and the concentration of GSH (40-120 µmol/l) was obtained. The method was applied to the analysis of bovine blood samples that had been diluted by a factor of ten with satisfactory results