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Open access

Andrzej Sikora, Magdalena Moczała and Bartosz Boharewicz

Abstract

In this paper, we present a novel approach developed in order to increase the reliability and accuracy of AFM investigation of morphological changes in a nanocomposite due to exposure to the media causing its degradation. By precise sample positioning and repetitive determination of the roughness changes at specific spots, we were able to create space-related degradation profiles. As the multi-step experiment based on exposure/scanning cycle was performed, we were able to observe a unique response of investigated samples revealing spatial inhomogeneity of the material. In order to present the measurement methodology, we used polystyrene samples containing various quantities of PC61BM nanofiller (0 %, 5 %, 10 % and 20 % of mass proportion), which was exposed to 370 nm UV radiation. Obtained data can be recognized as specific fingerprints of investigated materials. The solution based on creation and analysis of degradation profiles can be particularly useful for diagnostics of nanomaterials and nanocomposites to test their resistance to various conditions.

Open access

Raad S. Sabry and Roonak Abdul Salam A. Alkareem

Abstract

ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures were successfully prepared by combining hydrothermal and dip coating methods. Flower-like hetero-nanostructures of ZnO-CuO were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-Vis. The sensing properties of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated in a chamber containing acetone or isopropanol gas at room temperature. The sensitivity of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to VOCs was enhanced compared to that of pure leafage-like ZnO nanostructures. Response and recovery times were about 5 s and 6 s to 50 ppm acetone, and 10 s and 8 s to 50 ppm isopropanol, respectively. The sensing performance of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures was attributed to the addition of CuO that led to formation of p-n junctions at the interface between the CuO and ZnO. In addition, the sensing mechanism was briefly discussed.

Open access

Praveen Kumar and Kanupriya Sharma

Abstract

Organic/inorganic hybrid materials consisting of quantum dots and conjugate polymers are important for the application in light emitting devices. In the present work, we have studied the effect of CdS and CdS/ZnO nanoparticle addition on the structure and fluorescence properties of spin coated PVK (poly(N-vinyl carbozole)) nanocomposite films. CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique and ZnO shell was grown on the CdS nanoparticles by simple wet chemical approach. The nanoparticles and the hybrid nanocomposites have been characterized by using XRD, SEM, FT-IR, optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The absorption peak for pure PVK remains at 345.5 nm accompanied with minor hump ~480 nm resulting from the incorporation of nanoparticles. It has been observed that the addition of nanoparticles to the hybrid material results in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity at 410 nm to 450 nm spectral regions. These results are important for the development of new light emitting devices at low fabrication costs.

Open access

Fatemeh Mostaghni and Yasaman Abed

Abstract

In this study, we present a systematic study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of Para Red with the aim of Z-scan technique and quantum mechanical calculations. The Z-scan experiments were performed using a 532 nm Nd: YAG (SHG) CW laser beam. Para Red exhibited a strong nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order nonlinear susceptibility 3.487 × 10−6 cm2/W, 2.341 × 10−1cm/W and 2.157 × 10−4 esu, respectively. Also, quantum chemical analysis was used for the calculation of the dipole moment μ, dipole polarizability α, anisotropy of polarizability Δα and molecular hyperpolarizabilities (β,γ). The results revealed that Para Red has large first and second hyperpolarizabilities. However, from the obtained results, it was found that Para Red can be a promising material for applications in the development of non-linear optical materials.

Open access

Maxwell Selase Akple and Holali Kwami Apevienyeku

Abstract

A novel and low-cost synthesis of tungsten disulfide (WS2) transition metal dichalcogenide was carried out via gas-solid reaction in a horizontal quartz reactor. In this process, the prepared hollow WO3 precursor was sulfided with CS2 at 550 °C at different durations under N2 gas atmosphere. The as-prepared WS2 samples were formed by substitution of O by S during the sulfidation process. The characterization of these samples was performed employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The characterization results showed that the as-prepared WS2 samples were of high quality and purity. No significant differences were observed in various WS2 samples synthesized during different sulfidation periods. The calculated results obtained from the density functional theory (DFT) indicate that WS2 has an indirect band gap of ca. 1.56 eV, which is in agreement with experimental band gap of ca. 1.50 eV. Combining the experimental and DFT results suggests that the novel method used in the synthesis of WS2 has a potential application for large scale production. The obtained WS2 are of high quality and can be implemented in photocatalysis, catalysis, photovoltaics, optoelectronic devices and photosensor devices.

Open access

Nasar Ahmed, Abdul Majid, M.A. Khan, M. Rashid, Z.A. Umar and M.A. Baig

Abstract

Self-assembled Zn/ZnO microspheres have been accomplished on selected sites of boron doped P-type silicon substrates using hydrothermal approach. The high density Zn/ZnO microspheres were grown on the Si substrates by chemical treatment in mixed solution of zinc sulfate ZnSO4·7H2O and ammonium hydroxide NH4(OH) after uniform heating at 95 °C for 15 min. The Zn/ZnO microspheres had dimensions in the range of 1 μm to 20 μm and were created only on selected sites of silicon substrate. The crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of as-prepared samples were studied by using scanning electron microscope SEM, X-ray diffraction XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra DRS. The energy band gap Eg of about 3.28 eV was obtained using Tauc plot. In summary, this study suggests that interfacial chemistry is responsible for the crystal growth on indented sites of silicon substrate and the hydrothermal based growth mechanism is proposed as a useful methodology for the formation of highly crystalline three dimensional (3-D) Zn/ZnO microspheres.

Open access

Subhash Chand and Pankaj Sharma

Abstract

Bottom-up technique has been used to synthesize Ag-chalcogenide nanoparticles. This work reports on the synthesis of Ag2Se by varying the molar ratio of capping agent and pH of the solution. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized in terms of structural parameters using X-ray diffraction. By this technique, various parameters such as crystallite size, dislocation density and strain of the nanoparticles were calculated. The crystallite size decreased with the increase in pH of the solution. The optical characterization was carried out by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. With the decrease in the crystallite size, a blue shift in the absorption peak of the nanoparticles was observed. These properties are suitable for energy harvesting with the help of photovoltaics.

Open access

B. Ying and W.G. Sheng

Abstract

A new hydrated rare earth borate K2O·CaO·4B2O3·12H2O:Eu was prepared by water solution method. The crystal structure, morphology, luminescence properties were investigated via XRD, IR, TG-DSC and SEM, respectively, and it was shown that one single crystal was obtained via spontaneous crystallization. The luminescent properties were also investigated by F-4600 spectrophotometer.

Open access

M. Abbas, N. A. Shah, K. Jehangir, M. Fareed and A. Zaidi

Abstract

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) polycrystalline films have been grown on well-cleaned glass substrates by thermal vacuum evaporation technique using 99.99 % pure ZnTe powder as an evaporant. The samples were prepared at different substrate temperatures, rates of evaporation and thicknesses. The X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of the films. The structures of the samples were found to be polycrystalline with preferred (1 1 1) orientation. Transmission spectra of all ZnTe films were recorded in the range of 300 nm to 2500 nm. The films were electrically characterized using Hall effect measurements at room temperature. It has been stated that the electrical resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration are strongly influenced by the substrate temperature. From the SEM results, it is clear that the surface of ZnTe is very smooth with occasional large particles on it.

Open access

Durga Verma, R. P. Patel and Mohan L. Verma

Abstract

In the present paper, TL and PL study of Dy3+ doped Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphor is reported. A polycrystalline sample of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+, Dy3+ was prepared by combustion method. The obtained phosphor was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, PL and thermoluminescence. The results of the XRD studies obtained for Sr2SiO4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor revealed its monoclinic structure. The average crystallite size was calculated as 12.77 nm. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor using UV irradiation and a single glow peak was found. The thermoluminescence glow curves of the samples were measured at various concentrations of co-dopant. The kinetic parameter has been calculated using Chen’s glow curve method. In this paper, the photoluminescence and afterglow behavior of these phosphors are reported.