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Open access

Sina Amirnahavandirahbar and Mohammad Reza Nasirzadeh

Abstract

Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a disorder in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. The liver as a non-insulin dependent organ plays an important role in the regulation of blood fat and glucose. Most blood glucose lowering drugs that are introduced for treatment have side effects in long-term consumption. Therefore, to control diabetes and its complications, the use of herbal drugs is widely considered nowadays. The present study investigates the biochemical effects of oleuropein in diabetic male rats. In this study, 30 adult male Wistar rats with a weight range of 190±30 gr were equally divided into 3 groups randomly: 1) control group or intact animals, 2) diabetic animals, and 3) treatment group, which received 60 mg/kg oleuropein for 30 days by gastric gavage. Diabetes was induced in diabetic and treatment groups by injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. At the end of the treatment, the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, blood glucose, HbA1C, and activity of AST and ALT were determined. The results showed that the serum lipid profile and blood glucose increased significantly in the diabetic group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Also, HbA1C and atherogenic index decreased significantly in the treatment group compared with the diabetic group (p<0.05). This study showed that oral administration of oleuropein has hypoglycemic effects, which can reduce the serum levels of the lipids profile and the atherogenic index in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

Open access

Alena Pechová and Andrea Nečasová

Abstract

Ketosis is still an important problem which must be solved in dairy herds. Early precise diagnosis and proper evaluation of the cause of the disease is essential for good management of ketosis on dairy farms. The aim of our work was to analyse the occurrence of rumen dysfunction in connection with subclinical ketosis in dairy herds and to evaluate the relationships between beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and metabolic parameters in blood, urine and rumen fluid. We analysed the results of metabolic profile tests performed in dairy cattle herds from 1,338 cows. The concentration of BHB significantly correlate with glucose, NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids), bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (γ -glutamyl transferase), urea, magnesium and calcium in blood serum and with following parameters of rumen fluid - acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate/propionate and infusoria. Significant but weak correlations were found between BHB and urine parameters (pH, specific gravity, potassium, magnesium, chloride). Subclinical ruminal acidosis was found in 23.1% and 16.7% of dairy cows with light (BHB 1.2 - 2 mmol/L) and more severe subclinical ketosis (BHB >2 mmol/L) and simple ruminal indigestion in 16.7% and 30% respectively. On the basis of performed analysis we can conclude that rumen dysfunction is an important factor for the development of ketosis. Veterinary practitioners should imply checking the feeding management in their diagnostic work with the aim to distinguish primary and secondary ketosis. Only complex and precise diagnostic work allows to apply correct and successful therapy not only for individual animals but also for herd health management.

Open access

Saied Jafari, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Yong M. Goh, Mohamed A. Rajion, Mohamed F. Jahromi and Wisam S. Al-Jumaili

Abstract

A wide range of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have been shown to have the potential to modulate the fermentation process in the rumen. The use of plants and plant extracts as natural feed additives has become an interesting topic not only among nutritionists but also other scientists. Although a large number of phytochemicals (e.g. saponins, tannins and essential oils) have recently been investigated for their methane (CH4) reduction potential, there have not yet been major breakthroughs that could be applied in practice. However, the effectiveness of these PSM depends on the source, type and the level of their presence in plant products. The aim of the present review was to assess ruminal CH4 emission through a comparison of integrating related studies from published papers, which described various levels of different PSM sources being added to ruminant feed. Apart from CH4, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in this review.

Open access

Anna Czech, Martyna Kiesz, Adrian Kiesz, Tomasz Próchniak, Paweł Różański and Kamila Klimiuk

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine whether the type of use, age and gender of Malopolski horses affect the level of selected haematological and biochemical parameters of their blood and whether there is an interaction between these factors. The research was carried out on 30 horses of the Malopolski breed, which were divided according to gender (18 mares and 12 stallions), age (2-6 years, 7-9 years and 10-16 years) and use (recreational vs. sport). To sum up, the gender of horses significantly affects erythrocyte indices, as evidenced by their significantly higher values in the stallions as compared to the mares, as well as by the interactions between gender and type of use and between the gender and age of the horse. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts increase with the age of horses, and the interaction between age and type of use indicates that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts in training horses is closely linked to their age. Systematic physical exercise in sport horses increases leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and contributes to osteogenesis (increase in ALP activity and plasma content of calcium and phosphorus), which has a beneficial effect on their health. The correlations obtained may improve breeders’ awareness of the effect of various factors, such as age, gender or type of use, on blood indices in horses and can be helpful in evaluating the health of Malopolski horses.

Open access

Fernando Forcada and José Alfonso Abecia

Abstract

Indoor environmental conditions in intensive pig farms are influenced by both the outdoor air temperature and humidity, and the heat, moisture and gas exchanges between the animal and the air. As ventilation rate in pig facilities is usually estimated in temperature, moisture and even CO2 balances, estimation of heat losses or gains, and moisture and CO2 production from the animal is needed, but the contribution of other sources of the barn, such as slurry or wet surfaces have also to be taken into account. Some recent studies have been conducted to update total heat and moisture production at farm level, showing that current, historical standards of latent heat transfer are consistently lower than those reported recently at facility level, for both adult and growing animals. Also, CO2 production needs to be updated by including an estimation of its release from slurry. These new values will help with updating the standards for ventilation rate recommendations and design of the modern intensive pig buildings.

Open access

Joanna Stadnik, Anna Czech and Katarzyna Ognik

Abstract

In this study, the effect of the halved dosage of RRR-d-α-tocopherol (with respect to dl-α-tocopherol acetate) in diets containing oil rich in linoleic or α-linolenic acid (soybean or linseed oil, respectively) on the quality characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of turkey meat was studied. The experiment was conducted using 480 one-week-old turkey hens Big 6 line reared until the 16th week of life. The hens in Groups I and II received soyabean oil added to their feed mixture, in Groups III and IV linseed oil was the source of supplementary fat. Turkeys in Groups I and III received dl-α-tocopherol acetate, whereas those in Groups II and IV RRR-d-α-tocopherol. No influence of dietary manipulation was observed on the chemical composition of turkey meat. The combined effect of the type of dietary fat and vitamin E source added to the feed was assessed using the color parameters. The addition of natural vitamin E to the feed mixture with linseed oil significantly increased the proportion of PUFA in breast muscle lipids compared with group receiving soybean oil with this form of vitamin E. The inclusion of linseed oil increased the content of α-linolenic acid and total n-3 FA concentration in both muscles, compared with the diet that contained soybean oil. This modification of FA composition led to lower n-6/n-3 ratio in both the breast and thigh muscles regardless of the dietary vitamin E source. The use of natural form of tocopherol in diets containing linseed oil may help to improve the nutritional quality of turkey meat, especially by enhancing n-3 PUFA levels with no detrimental effect of lipid addition on the chemical composition and quality of meat.

Open access

Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Jerzy Księżak and Ewa Hanczakowska

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to examine the possibility of replacing part of soybean meal in sow, originated from them piglets and fatteners nutrition by two varieties of high- or low-tannin faba bean seed. 24 sows were allocated to 3 groups 8 animals in each. Group control (C) received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as main protein source. Next groups received standard feed mixture in which part of soybean meal was replaced by high tannin variety Bobas (Group HT) or low tannin variety Kasztelan (Group LT). Faba bean was added to diets for sows at level of 12 and 14 % (pregnant and lactating), for piglets 6 % and for fatteners 12 and 16 % (grower and finisher). Diets for half piglets and fatteners were supplemented with enzyme Ronozyme VP. Apparent digestibility of nutrients was evaluated in parallel experiment, using the same feeds on 18 barrows weighing about 40 kg (grower) and 80 kg (finisher). There was almost no difference in sow reproductive rates, litter weight and body weight of piglets at first day of life were similar. Until 35th day of life piglets receiving faba bean grew faster than control ones. Control piglets grew fastest from 35th to 84th day of life but differences were not significant. Enzyme supplement had positive effect on body weight only from 56 to 84 day of piglet life. Digestibility of nutrients was lower in pig fed with faba beans especially in the grower period. Faba bean HT had lower nutrients digestibility in both period of fattening. Almost all carcass traits were better in control pigs than in those fed with bean variety Bobas. Meat of these pigs had also the lowest content of unsaturated fatty acids and highest atherogenic indices. In sensory evaluation this meat had also the worst smell and taste. It can be stated that faba bean seeds, in moderate amounts, can be partial replacers of soybean meal in feed for pigs, but some lowering of body weight gain and meat quality is possible especially when high tannins varieties are used.

Open access

H. Javaheri Barfourooshi, A. Towhidi, H. Sadeghipanah, M. Zhandi, S. Zeinoaldini, E. Dirandeh and R.M. Akers

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding oil supplement on mammary gland development and milk production responses in Holstein cows. Ten multiparous Holstein cows (42.2±9.2 d before calving, 3.25±0.25 body condition score, and 620±35 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were a diet with oil added as palm oil (PO;n=5), or fish oil (FO;n=5) given to cows until 63 d in milk. Milk yield was recorded daily, milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solid and somatic cell count) was measured weekly and fatty acid profiles of milk fat were determined at first and last week of the experiment. Samples of mammary tissue were obtained at 7th and 63rd d in milk by biopsy gun. Tissue slides were analyzed by Image J software. Results showed that fish oil supplemented diet compared to the palm oil supplemented diet increased milk production after 6th weeks of lactation (P<0.05), content of polyunsaturated fatty acids milk fat (P<0.05) and docosahexaenoic acid (P<0.01). Moreover, n-6: n-3 ratio was decreased by fish oil supplement (P<0.05). Histological studies showed that FO increased the relative percentage of tissue area occupied by epithelial cells as well as a number of total alveoli in each microscopic field (P<0.05). Data suggested that feeding fish oil during the dry period and early lactation could improve development and function of the mammary gland in the dairy cow.

Open access

Iwona Radkowska, Eugeniusz Herbut and Adam Radkowski

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the yield and chemical composition of milk from TMR- (group I) and pasture-fed Simmental cows (group II). The study was conducted with second and third lactation Simmental cows between 30 and 200 days of lactation. The present research showed that compared to TMR feeding, the use of summer pasture feeding and proper supplementation with high-energy feeds allow for higher milk yield and higher nutritive value of the milk. Compared to TMR-fed cows (group I), milk from pastured cows (group II) was characterized by a more beneficial composition of protein fractions, and a higher content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin. It also contained more vitamins A and E, calcium, magnesium and iodine, and had a significantly (p≤0.05) lower cholesterol content. The milk of cows from group II contained over twice as much CLA (1.59% of all acids) and 35% more n-3 PUFA, which resulted in a more beneficial n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of 2.88. In addition, this milk contained significantly (p≤0.05) less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and significantly more (p≤0.05) mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Consequently, the MUFA:SFA and PUFA:SFA ratios in this group were more favourable at 0.448 and 0.066, respectively. Also the content of desirable fatty acids (DFA) with hypocholesterolemic effects was higher in group II, which resulted in a more beneficial DFA:OFA ratio of 0.8 in this group. In conclusion, the use of summer pasture feeding and a proper supplemented feeding dose in Simmental cows with high-energy feeds allow for high milk yield and high nutritive value of the milk.

Open access

Magdalena Hryhorowicz, Joanna Zeyland, Agnieszka Nowak-Terpiłowska, Jacek Jura, Wojciech Juzwa, Ryszard Słomski, Jan Bocianowski, Zdzisław Smorąg, Anna Woźniak and Daniel Lipiński

Abstract

The use of pigs as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation can overcome the growing shortage of human donors. Human NK cells play an important role in the cell-mediated rejection of pig-to-human xenografts. In this paper we report the generation and extensive characterization of three generations of transgenic pigs with HLA-E gene encoding the antigen which can inhibit the human NK cell-mediated response. The gene construct pHLAE-GFPBsd containing the human gene encoding the human leukocyte antigen under the promoter of the EF-1α elongation factor ensuring systemic expression was introduced by microinjection into a pronucleus of the fertilized porcine oocyte. PCR analysis revealed and FISH analysis confirmed that the pHLAE-GFPBsd gene construct was present in the genome of the founder female pig. As a result of interbreeding, an additional 7 transgenic animals were obtained (one individual from F1 generation and six individuals from F2 generation). The transgene expression was shown by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Real Time PCR analysis estimated the approximate number of transgene copies at 16 - 34. Karyotype analysis did not show any changes in the structure or the number of chromosomes. The expression level of the transgene was stable in the next generation of genetically modified pigs. An NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay showed the increased viability of the transgenic cells in comparison with the wild-type, which confirmed the protective influence of HLA-E expression.