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Open access

Ana Oliveira, Joana S.P. Devesa, Peter B. Hill, Vanessa Silva and Patrícia Poeta

Abstract

Introduction: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis often cause skin diseases in dogs.

Material and Methods: An online survey was e-mailed to veterinary practices nationwide covering demographics, diagnosis methods, and oral and topical treatment options. Of the 740 surveys sent, 100 complete replies were obtained.

Results: The majority of clinicians were unaware of the existence of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases guidelines or did not follow them (53%). Oral antibiotics were used universally for superficial bacterial folliculitis treatment, particularly amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalexin (94%), enrofloxacin (67%), or marbofloxacin (60%). For fold dermatitis (FD) and otitis externa (OE), oral antibiotics were also given as treatment in 88% and 82% of cases, respectively. Oral antifungals were often prescribed for generalised Malassezia dermatitis (85%), FD (70%), and OE (59%). S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis were frequently treated topically, particularly with antibacterials or antifungals only, or a combination of antibacterials, antifungals, and glucocorticoids. Alternative options such as honey-based products were not frequently used.

Conclusion: Our survey suggests that oral antibiotics are overused by Portuguese clinicians despite the spread of antibiotic resistant S. pseudintermedius. Oral antibiotics and antifungals are commonly prescribed for skin conditions manageable with topical treatments.

Open access

Beata Szymczyk, Witold Szczurek, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Zbigniew Sieradzki, Małgorzata Mazur, Dariusz Bednarek and Michał Reichert

Abstract

Introduction: The influence of feeding genetically modified MON 810 hybrid maize on the growth and haematological and biochemical indices of rats was tested.

Material and Methods: Two conventional (non-GM) and two test (MON 810) lines of maize were used in semi-purified diets at the level of 40% w/w. The non-GM I, MON 810 I, non-GM II, and MON 810 II maize lines were near-isogenic. A total of 40 male 6-week-old Wistar-derived rats were assigned to four equal feeding groups corresponding to the four maize lines for 16 weeks. Overall, health, body weight gain, clinical pathology parameters, gross changes, and appearance of tissues were compared between groups.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the weight gain or relative organ weights of rats, but there were some non diet-related histopathological changes in the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Except for creatinine level, no diet-related effects were observed in haematology or most of the biochemical indices. Transgenic DNA of MON 810 maize was not detected in the tissues or faeces nor in the DNA of E. coli isolated from the rectum digesta of rats given transgenic feeds. In our experiment, various metabolic indices of rats fed non-GM diets or genetically modified (MON 810) maize for 16 weeks were similar. No adverse nutrition-related health effects were detected.

Conclusion: MON 810 maize seems to be as safe as the conventional maize lines.

Open access

Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Izabella Dolka, Edyta Świętoń and Krzysztof Śmietanka

Abstract

Introduction: Genotype VI of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1) has pigeons and doves as its reservoir and is often termed pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1). The pathogenesis of PPMV-1 infections in poultry is largely obscure. It is known that PPMV-1 requires a series of passages in chickens before it becomes adapted to gallinaceous poultry.

Material and Methods: Changes in the genome of PPMV-1 were analysed after serial passages in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, using high-throughput sequencing. Additionally, histopathological lesions induced by PPMV-1 in experimentally inoculated pigeons, chickens, and turkeys were evaluated.

Results: Following six passages of PPMV-1 in chickens, 10 nonsynonymous substitutions were found including one (in the NP protein) which dominated the genetic pool of viral quasispecies. Histopathological changes induced by the post-passage PPMV-1 strain were more prominent than changes wrought by the pre-passaged PPMV-1 strain and the lesions were most intense in pigeons followed by chickens and turkeys.

Conclusion: PPMV-1 is highly adapted to pigeons and passaging through chickens results in the acquisition of novel amino acids in the polymerase complex, which may alter the pathogenic potential of the virus.

Open access

Małgorzata Kwaśnik, Ilona M. Góra, Jan F. Żmudziński, Jerzy Rola, Mirosław P. Polak and Wojciech Rożek

Abstract

Introduction: Traditionally, evolutionary analysis of equine influenza virus (EIV) is based on the HA gene. However, the specificity of the influenza virus enables the classification of viral strains into different phylogenetic groups, depending on the gene being analysed. The aim of the study was to analyse phylogenetic paths of EIV based on M gene with reference to the HA gene.

Material and Methods: M gene of Polish isolates has been sequenced and analysed along with all M sequences of EIV available in GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using BioEdit, ClustalW, and MEGA7 softwares.

Results: The clustering of the strains isolated not only from Asia but also from Europe into one common Asian-like group of EIV was observed. Twelve nucleotide substitutions in the M gene of strains from the Asian-like group were crucial for the evolutionary analysis. We also observed homology in the M gene of the Asian-like and H7N7 strains.

Conclusions: M gene specific for the Asian-like group is present in strains recently isolated in Europe and Asia, which were classified previously in the Florida 2 clade based on HA. Therefore, Asian-like group does not seem to be assigned to a specific geographical region. Traces of H7N7 strains in more conservative genes like M of some contemporary EIV strains may indicate the link between the old phylogenetic group and recent H3N8 strains. Analysis of conservative genes may be more useful in tracking the direction of virus evolution than in the genes where the high variability rate may blur the original relationships.

Open access

Nataša Ristić, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Dragana Petrović-Kosanović, Marko Miler, Gordana Ušćebrka and Verica Milošević

Abstract

Andropause, the culminating phase of male ageing, is characterized by deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis and low circulating free testosterone. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistomorphometric characteristics of the pituitary gonadotropic i.e. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) producing cells after testosterone application in a rat model of the andropause. Middle-aged Wistar rats were divided into orchidectomized (ORX; n=8) and testosterone treated orchidectomized (ORX+T; n=8) groups. Testosterone propionate (5 mg/kg b.m. /day) was administered for three weeks, while the ORX group received the vehicle alone. Immunohistochemically stained FSH and LH cells underwent morphometric and optical density-related analysis, while circulating concentrations of the sex steroids were measured by immunoassays. Serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were significantly (p<0.05) increased by 24 and 2.7 fold respectively, compared to the ORX group. The volume of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 51.3% and 56.6% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Relative volume density of FSH and LH cells was also significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 54.0% and 72.8% respectively, compared to the ORX group. Results related to the optical density of gonadotropic cells (reflecting their hormonal content) were in line with the morphometric findings i.e. this parameter of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 25.7% and 16.2% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Conclusion: In conclusion, applied testosterone increased the serum concentrations of sex steroids, as well as it decreased morphometric parameters and optical density of gonadotropic cells in ORX rats.

Open access

Debora Groppetti, Alessandro Pecile, Stefano Frattini, Giulio Pagnacco and Silvana Arrighi

Abstract

The knowledge about ovarian physiology in small ruminants is still limited, especially when compared to other domestic species. Ovarian function in goats is mainly assessed by ultrasonographic techniques, whereas a quali-quantitative feature of the follicular and luteal structures throughout the reproductive cycle in naturally cycling goats is scarce. This study provides a detailed description of the functional morphology and size of 742 ovarian structures (follicles, corpora hemorrhagica and corpora lutea) in relation to the oestrus phase, the body weight and the age of 25 Alpine goats (Capra hircus). The current study demonstrated that, the number and size of the follicles were related to the stage of the reproductive cycle (P < 0.0001). Also, the mean number of follicles was high during both prepubertal anestrus and diestrus, whereas it was low in the oestrus. Large (3-4 mm in diameter) and very large follicles (> 4 mm) (P < 0.001), and small follicles (< 2 mm; P < 0.05) varied throughout the reproductive cycle, while medium follicles (2-3 mm) were invariably observed. Large and very large follicles were predominant during the diestrus phase and small follicles in the prepubertal anestrus. It is evident from the current study that the number of follicles (P < 0.05) was significantly affected with both body weight and age. On the other hand, the size of follicles was significantly affected with body weight only (P < 0.0001). These results could contribute to a deeper understanding of ovarian transformations with important implications in assisted reproductive technologies, thereby concurring in advancing the efficiency of ultrasound in breeding programs for this species.

Open access

Sukru Kirkan, Ugur Parin and Gamze Balat

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from urine samples of dogs. A total of 22 Enterococcus sp. samples were isolated and identified from 100 urine samples collected by cystocentesis from dogs of both sexes. The identification with species specific primers for multiplex PCR revealed that all 22 isolates (100%) belonged to E. faecium. Vancomycin resistance was found in 10 (45%) samples of E. faecium strains with PCR study by vanA and vanB primers.

Open access

Stanimir Dimitrov, Vesna Karapetkovska-Hristova, Ljupce Kochoski, Biljana Trajkovska, Borche Makarijoski, Vesna Prodanovska-Poposka and Godswill Ntsomboh-Ntsefong

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of season and number of parity on the reproductive performance of sows kept on a commercial farm. To achieve this objective, 800 nrs productive parent sows and a total of 958 parities were analyzed. The results show that sow’s breeding season had a significant effect on the weaning-to-oestrus interval, the farrowing rate, the litter size and weaning piglets with positive results during autumn, winter and spring seasons. The number of parity has a significant effect on the weaning-to-oestrus interval, litter size and weaning piglets with acceptable values in sows with more farrowing. The results of this study on a pig farm with analysis which highlights the risk factors associated with reproductive performance of sows, could be used to improve sow farm practices.

Open access

Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Piotr Dobrowolski, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Agnieszka Tomczyk-Warunek, Marta Ejtel, Izabela Świetlicka and Bożena Gładyszewska

Abstract

Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals occurring commonly in the human environment that show mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Dietary components could prevent heavy metals intoxication by reducing their accumulation in the body. The purpose of the study was to check possible protective effect of regular consumption of white, black, red, or green tea on bone metabolism during long-term exposure to Pb and Cd in adult rats. The 12 week-long exposure to Pb and Cd (50 mg Pb and 7 mg Cd/kg of the diet) in a rat model was studied. Twelve-week-old adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a negative control group (Pb and Cd exposure without tea), a control (without Pb and Cd and teas), and groups co-exposed to Pb and Cd and supplemented with green, red, black, or white tea (n=12 each group). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The co-exposure to Pb and Cd led to the increase of bone resorption depending on the tea treatment, which was confirmed by the mechanical testing and histomorphometrical examination of cancellous bone. Pb and Cd influenced mechanical strength, reduced the densitometric and geometric parameters and the thickness of growth plate and articular cartilages. Concluding, white tea exerted the best protective effect on bone tissue and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.

Open access

Maciej Bąkowski, Bożena Kiczorowska, Wioletta Samolińska, Renata Klebaniuk and Antoni Lipiec

Abstract

The use of metal nanoparticles as supplements of animal diets does not always bring unambiguous results. There are many reports in the literature about the multifaceted effects of this type of supplementation on the animal organism. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to present the current knowledge of the possible application of nanometal forms in animal nutrition and its potential benefits and threats. The positive effect of nanoparticles used as feed additives has most frequently been reflected in an increase in body weight, higher average daily gain, or improvement of the FCR value. In some cases, however, the effect of nanoparticle addition to diets was indiscernible. The potent antibacterial activity of nanoparticles, especially against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, is regarded as a positive effect. In turn, the probability of their toxicity is a potential risk in application thereof. Supplementation of diets with nanometals has been accompanied by pathological changes in animal tissues, primarily in the pancreas, kidney, liver, rumen, abomasum, small intestine, adrenal glands, and brain. Additionally, at the the cellular level, nanoparticles were found to induce toxicity, inflammatory excitation, and cell death. Oral administration of nanoparticles induced a risk of malfunction of the nervous system and even impairment of cognitive processes in animals. The increasing knowledge of the possible toxic effects of nanoparticles on the animal organism suggests caution in their use in animal production and necessitates further precise investigations in this area.