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Abstract

Objectives

To investigate the correlation between the four dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) constructs in a dental patient population.

Methods

A cross-sectional study carried out at HealthPartners, Minnesota, USA. This study is a secondary data analysis of available adult dental patients’ data. The instruments used to assess the OHRQoL and HRQoL constructs were the Oral Health Impact Profile–version with 49 items (OHIP-49) and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Information System (PROMIS) measures v.1.1 Global Health instruments Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs), respectively. We used Structural Equation Modeling to determine the correlation between OHRQoL and HRQoL.

Results

Two thousand and seventy-six dental patients participated in the study. OHRQoL and HRQoL scores correlated with 0.56 (95%CI:0.52–0.60). The OHRQoL and Physical Health dimension of HRQoL correlated with 0.55 (95%CI:0.51–0.59). The OHRQoL and Mental Health dimension of HRQoL correlated with 0.51 (95%CI:0.47–0.55). When adjusted for age, gender, and depression, the correlation coefficients changed only slightly and resulted in 0.52 between OHRQoL and HRQoL Physical Health, and 0.47 between OHRQoL and HRQoL Mental Health. Model fit statistics for all analyses were adequate and indicated a good fit.

Conclusions

OHRQoL and HRQoL overlap greatly. For dental practitioners, the OHRQoL score is informative for their patients’ general health status and vice versa. Study results indicate that effective therapeutic interventions by dentists improve patients’ OHRQoL as well as HRQoL.

Abstract

Introduction

Evidence on long-term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of treatment sequences for multiple myeloma (MM) is sparse. We used published data and country-specific data to assess the cost effectiveness of four-line treatment sequences for elderly transplant-ineligible patients with MM in Serbia.

Method

We developed a Markov cohort model to compare long-term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of five sequential MM treatment alternatives from the perspective of the national healthcare provider. Effectiveness parameters on progression, mortality and adverse events were extracted from published clinical trials. Costs were based on price lists of the National Health Insurance Fund. We compared life expectancy, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios among alternative courses of action. The model was analyzed over a lifelong time horizon applying a 3% annual discount rate for effectiveness outcomes and costs. Robustness of the model was tested in multiple deterministic sensitivity analyses.

Results

The sequences were defined by the frontline treatment: MPT (melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide), MPV (melphalanprednisone-bortezomib), CTD (cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone), VCD (bortezomib-cyclophosphamidedexamethasone) and BP (bendamustine-prednisone). MPV sequence resulted in the highest remaining life expectancy (4.76 life years). Cost-effectiveness analysis resulted in three non-dominated strategies: MPT, VCD, and MPV sequences, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR 35,300 per life-year gained (LYG) for VCD and EUR 47,200/LYG for MPV relative to MPT.

Conclusion

MPV sequence was the most effective in terms of life expectancy for elderly transplant-ineligible MM patients in Serbia. Bortezomib-based strategies would be recommended for the frontline treatment of patients with MM in Serbia if the willingness-to-pay threshold is around EUR 35,000-60,000/LYG.

Abstract

Introduction

Confidentiality is one of the oldest ethical principles in healthcare. However, confidentiality in adolescent healthcare is not a universally-accepted doctrine among scholars. The ethical acceptability of confidential services in adolescents’ healthcare is based on perceptions of adolescent maturity and an appreciation of its importance to adolescents’ access and utilization of healthcare services. Despite legal policies that promote adolescents’ rights, physicians’ attitudes toward adolescent confidentiality can be a determining factor in their ultimate decision to protect adolescents’ confidentiality.

Method

A new Attitude towards Adolescent Confidentiality Scale was developed based on the results of a qualitative interview study. This new instrument was administered to a sample of 152 physicians working at school pediatric and gynecology departments in 13 primary healthcare institutions in Belgrade. Principal component analysis was applied to determine the main components of the scale. Reliability was assessed by calculating Cronbach alpha and mean inter-item correlations.

Results

Psychometric analysis of the final 19-item version of the scale showed a high level of reliability (Cronbach alpha of 0.83). Principal component analysis showed four components, which present subscales of the instrument: Confidentiality in clinical situation, Iimportance of confidentiality, Adolescent maturity, and Communication with parents.

Conclusions

The instrument showed satisfactory levels of reliability and validity. The results of the scale dissemination may be a valuable tool for needs assessment for future educational interventions and training programs that will raise physicians’ awareness of the importance of adolescent confidentiality.

Abstract

Introduction

Migraine is associated with significant morbidity and a significantly negative impact on the quality of life. A better understanding of the economic impact of migraine is becoming increasingly important. This paper aims to shed light on absenteeism and presenteeism costs of migraine in Slovenia.

Methods

We use the administrative national-level database on sick leave due to migraine for 2016. The absenteeism cost estimate is based on the number of patients with migraine on physician-determined sick leave and average daily labour costs. We calculate productivity costs from a social perspective regardless of who incurs them. Data from the national registry on sick leave are coupled with data from a web-based self-reported survey to also include the cost of presenteeism. MIDAS and WPAI presenteeism items were used and several different scenarios were designed to assess presenteeism costs.

Results

We estimated annual absenteeism costs per absentee due to migraine at the amount of EUR 531 in 2016 using the NIPH’s administrative data on sick leave. Annual absenteeism costs per absentee due to migraine based on self-reported data amounted to EUR 626. The estimated annual presenteeism costs per patient range from EUR 344 – 900.

Conclusion

Estimating the economic burden of a disease is becoming increasingly important. This paper is an insight into the absenteeism and presenteeism costs of migraine in Slovenia.

Abstract

Introduction

The purpose was to determine the incidence of voice disorders in a group of professional actors and singers, to compare the two groups, and to investigate the potential causes of their voice problems.

Methods

65 actors and 63 singers from professional theatres and choirs were included. The data concerning voice problems, their possible causes, and factors adversely affecting voice quality were obtained through a questionnaire. The results were compared between the groups of professional singers and actors, and between the subgroups of singers and actors both with and without frequent voice problems.

Results

The incidence of frequent voice problems over the entire career in singers and actors was lower than reported in the literature. Professional actors displayed more inappropriate life and vocal habits than the singers. Significant risk factors for voice disorders in singers turned out to be loud speech (p=0.029) and the presence of allergies or asthma (p=0.048). No such significant risk factors were found in actors.

Conslusion

The study confirmed the importance of preventive examination of the vocal tract function before enrolling in studies for an elite voice user. Professional singers and especially actors demonstrated insufficient knowledge of proper voice care. The results suggest that elite voice users require additional information on voice hygiene and occasional professional help from college to the end of career. Speech and language therapists can play a crucial role in such voice care in order to effectively prevent voice problems in elite voice users.

Abstract

Purpose

Heart rhythm disorders (HRD) are often present in patients visiting their family physician (FP). Dealing with their problems is not always simple, efficient and cost effective. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature about the use and experience of telecardiology in patients experiencing HRD.

Methods

We conducted a review of literature in PubMed biographical databases (MeSH thesaurus), Web of Science and Cochrane, between 1995 and 2019. We included original articles in English that describe the use of telecardiology at primary and secondary healthcare levels. Exclusion criteria are those publications that discuss heart failure or observation of the activity of pacemakers or defibrillators and the age of patients under 18 years. A total of 19 papers met the inclusion criteria, thirteen of them were original scientific articles and we included them in the analysis.

Results

Use of telemedicine can shorten the time from diagnosis to the necessary treatment (2/13), telemedicine can reduce mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (4/13), it can shorten the time to diagnose atrial fibrillations (4/13), it can help determine the diagnosis for patients complaining about heart rhythm disorders which were not detected on the standard ECG recording (2/13) and can also help identify cardiac causes for syncope or collapse (2/13). All studies have confirmed that the use of telecardiology significantly reduces the number of unnecessary referrals to a cardiologist or hospitalization, and shortens the time needed to treat patients with life-threatening conditions.

Conclusion

The use of telecardiological techniques increases the quality and safety of work in managing patients with cardiovascular disease in FP practice. Usage of telecardiologic devices can also save money and bridge the gap between the primary and secondary healthcare levels.

Abstract

Aim

To assess the psychometric properties of the Croatian version of a Work Ability Index Questionnaire (WAIQ-CRO) in the population of nurses by using a specific methodological approach.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 711 Croatian nurses in 2018 in Zagreb, Croatia. The instrument’s internal consistency was assessed by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α). The factor structure was verified by confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with the assumption of a single-factor structure. To ensure the equality of importance of items in the assessment, the item-specific scores were transformed.

Results

The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory (α=0.71). CFA showed poor first model (Model-1) compatibility data (p<0.001, CFI=0.85, GFI=0.93, RMSEA=0.13). The modificated indexes suggested the introduction of correlation parameters residual variances of results from WAIQ-CRO Item-1 and Item-2. After introducing these covariances, the index model assentation (Model-2) showed desirable assentation measures (p<0.001, CFI=0.95, GFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.08). Comparison showed better compatibility of Model-2 (p<0.001). The implementation of EFA has identified three factors. Replication of this model in CFA resulted in relatively good model assentation approaches with data (p<0.001, CFI=0.96, GFI=0.98, RMSEA=0.07). Comparison of this model (Model-3) with Model-2 showed a significantly better compatibility of Model-3 (p<0.001).

Conclusion

The WAIQ-CRO proved to be a reliable and valid instrument which can be used in research among Croatian nurses. The results suggest that it would be better to consider a three-factor structure than a single-factor structure, as a three-factor structure can direct decision-makers to which segment to locate interventions.

Abstract

Introduction

AR-DRG system for classification hospital episodes was implemented in Serbia to improve efficiency and transparency in the health system.

Methods

L3H3, IQR, and 10th–95th percentile methods were used to identify outlier episodes in the classification. Classification efficiency and within-group homogeneity were measured by an adjusted reduction in variance (R2) and a coefficient of variation (CV).

Results

There were 246,131 hospital episodes with a total 1,651,913 bed days from 14 hospitals. All episodes were classified into 652 groups of which 441 had CV lower than 100%. “Medical groups” accounted for 51% of groups and for 72% of episodes. Chemotherapy and vaginal delivery were the highest volume groups, with 5% and 4% of total episodes. Major diagnostic category 6 (MDC 6, Diseases of the digestive system) was the highest volume MDC, accounting for 11% of episodes. “Day-cases” and “prolonged hospitalisation” accounted for 21% and 3% of episodes, respectively. The average length of stay varied from 5.6 to 8.2 days. Adjusted R2 was 0.3 for untrimmed data. Trimming by L3H3, IQR, and 10th–95th percentile method improved the value of adjusted R2 to 0.61, 0.49, and 0.51, identifying 24%, 7%, and 7% of total cases as outliers, respectively. Mental diseases (MDC 19) remained the lowest adjusted R2 in untrimmed and trimmed datasets.

Conclusion

A long length of stay and a small percentage of “day-cases” characterized hospital activity in Vojvodina. Trimming methods significantly improved DRG efficiency. Future studies should consider cost data.

Abstract

Introduction

Family history (FH) is an important part of the patients’ medical history during preventive management at model family medicine practices (MFMP). It currently includes a one (or two) generational inquiry, predominately in terms of cardiovascular diseases, arterial hypertension, and diabetes, but not of other diseases with a probable genetic aetiology. Beside family history, no application-based algorithm is available to determine the risk level for specific chronic diseases in Slovenia.

Methods

A web application-based algorithm aimed at determining the risk level for selected monogenic and polygenic diseases will be developed. The data will be collected in MFMP; approximately 40 overall with a sample including healthy preventive examination attendees (approximately 1,000). Demographic data, a three-generational FH, a medical history of acquired and congenital risk factors for the selected diseases, and other important clinical factors will be documented.

Results

The results will be validated by a clinical genetic approach based on family pedigrees and the next-generation genetic sequencing method. After the risk of genetic diseases in the Slovenian population has been determined, clinical pathways for acting according to the assessed risk level will be prepared.

Conclusion

By means of a public health tool providing an assessment of family predisposition, a contribution to the effective identification of people at increased risk of the selected monogenic and polygenic diseases is expected, lessening a significant public health burden.