Mai-Lan Liu, Shen Xie, Si-An Pan, Mi Liu and Xiao-Rong Chang
Objective: To sort out and analyze on acupuncture-moxibustion (AM) based clinical trials literature for hyperlipidemia (HLP) so that to find out the characteristics of AM, by which the more rational strategy of AM for HLP could be made.
Methods: We searched clinical trial paper on hyperlipidemia by AM in the main English and Chinese databases, included those met the eligibility, and employed the metrologic method to analyze and summarize the AM manipulation features.
Results: (1) A total of 124 articles were included with 128 times of AM methods in this study. (2) AM methods were broadly distributed: 29 articles on mild moxibustion, 24 on manual acupuncture, 21 on electro-acupuncture, 6 on magnetic needle, 6 on herbal pastry-insulated moxibustion (HPIM), 4 on warming needle moxibustion (WNM), 3 on acupoint injection, 2 on laser exposure, 1 on intradermal imbedding needle, and 1 on needle-knife. (3) characteristics of AM: manual acupuncture focuses on the manipulation of reinforcement or reduction by inserting/lifting or twisting in different directions, based on pathopattern differentiation (deficiency or repletion). Electro-acupuncture, which is supposed to have no difference on reinforcement/reduction, mostly choose dilatational wave at a frequency between 2~100Hz, with around 30minutes needle-retainment and 30 sessions for the whole treatment; mild moxibustion takes around 10 minutes for each session on each acupoint; HPIM usually takes 3 to 5 cones for each session on each acupoint; WNM usually takes 30 minutes for each session, by being administered every day or every other day, for total 30 session.
Conclusion: Currently the major used AM methods for HLP are manual acupuncture, electro-acupuncture and mild moxibustion. By turns they pay more attention on reinforcement/reduction, wave form and frequency, and dosage of moxibustion, respectively.
Si-An Pan, Dao Zhao, Xiang-Jun Lu, Cheng-Wen Li, Mai-Lan Liu and Xiao-Rong Chang
Objective: To analysis and extract the features of acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea.
Methods: By searching the major Chinese and English databases, we included the clinical literature with defined point-based recipes and analyzed the feature of those.
Results: (1) the most frequently selected points for dysmenorrhea in order were: San Yin Jiao(SP6), Guan Yuan (RN4), Zhong Ji (CV3), Qi Hai (CV6), Ci Liao (BL32), Di Ji (SP8), Shen Shu (BL23). (2) the major characteristics of point selection was combination of local points and distant points which located on Ren meridian and spleen meridian. (3) the major treatment methods were normal acupuncture, then acupuncture combined with moxibustion or auricular therapy, for the latter, were especially stressed and confirmed by many studies.
Conclusion: The acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea were usually made by consideration of combining local and distant points, utilizing multiple methods especially auricular therapy.
By analyzing the pathogenesis features of postoperative syndrome of cancer (PSC)in the light of traditional Chinese medicine, and by summarizing the Zhong-Jin ZHANG’s principles and ideas of treatment as well as herbal and formula utilization on Xu Lao Disease (consumptive disease) in his work Golden Cabinet Stored Recipes, combining with our own experience, to elucidate the basic processing principles of traditional Chinese medicine for postoperative syndrome of cancer.
Feng-E He, Quan-Quan Wan, Yan Peng, Ya-Ping Lin and Jing Shen
Objective: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on ultrastructure of gastric antrum smooth muscle cells (GASMCs) in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) model rats, and to explore the possible mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of EA.
Methods: Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control (group A), DGP model (group B), EA point (group C), EA non-point (group D), Metoclopramide control (group E). DGP rat model was established by 2% STZ intraperitoneal injection at once, and then being fed with high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF) for 8wks. Phenol red lavage method was employed to measure gastric emptying rate (GER) and intestinal migration rate (IMR). The ultrastructure of GASMCs was observed under the electronic microscope.
Results: Compared with the blank control group, the GER and IMR in model group were decreased significantly (P＜0.05 or P＜0.01). Compared with the model group, the GER and IMR in EA point group were increased significantly(P＜0.05 or P＜0.01). Electro-acupuncture on “Zu San Li”(ST36) point, etc. has been observed improving the ultrastructure of GASMCs, as well as increasing the number of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs).
Conclusion: Electro-acupuncture can improve the GI motility promisingly, based on a potential underlying mechanism that the electro-acupuncture can improve the ultrastructure of gastric smooth muscle, and increase the number of ICCs.
Hou-Lian Wang, An-Lin Guo, Jun-Yun Ge, Mai-Lan Liu and Xiao-Rong Chang
Objective: To systematically review the effectiveness of Balance Acupuncture for the Pain in Neck, Shoulder, Low-back and Legs (PNSLL).
Methods: Web-based search on databases such as PubMed（2008.1.～2014.11）、Web of Science（2008.1.～ 2014.11）、Wan Fang Data（2008.1.～2014.11）、CNKI（2008.1.～2014.11）to collect literature of randomized controlled trials (RCT) on Balance Acupuncture for PNSLL. Literature selection, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the included studies were conducted by two reviewers independently. The meta-analysis was performed by using Rev Man 5.2 software.
Results: A total of 6 studies involving 816 participants were included. Meta-analysis showed that Balance Acupuncture treatment of the PNSLL is superior to traditional Acupuncture, with significant differences (OR=0.12, 95%CI=[0.08,0.15], Z=5.83, P<0.00001).
Conclusion: Balance Acupuncture is an effective and safe way for treating PNSLL, though it may need further demonstration by more large-scale and well-designed RCT due to the limited quantity and quality of the included studies.
Jing Shen, Chao Wang, Jia-Li Zhang, Zhao Liu, Mi Liu, Jie Yan, Xiao-Rong Chang and li-Na Guo
Objective: To investigate the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning at Nei Guan point (PC6) on the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) of rabbits with myocardial ischemia-reperrfusion injury, and its underlying mechanism that protects myocardium from injury.
Methods: 18 New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to pseudo-operation, model and EA groups， 6 in each group. Setting up models by ligation of coronary artery and electrically stimulating the rabbits in EA group 20 min per day in 5 days before modeling. Testing the activity of serum SOD with the method of actinochemistry, testing changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential of myocardial cells with the method of synchronous spectrometry, using spectrophotometry to test the changes of the absorption of mitochondria at the spectrum of 520nm to check the opening of MPTP, and testing the apotosis of cells by means of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL).
Results: Compared with model groups, the SOD activity of myocardial cells was significantly enhanced, and the apotosis index (AI) was reduced（P＜0.01），mitochondrial transmembrane potential was significantly increased （P＜0.05），absorption of mitochondria was significantly decreased（P＜0.01).
Conclusion: EA can remarkably improve myocardial ischemia - reperfusion injury, and protect myocardium.
Jing Shen, Yan Peng, Dong-Mei Shi, Yin-Shuai Feng, Yan-Ling Hou and Ya-Ping Lin
Objective: to observe the effects of moxibustion on histomorphological changes of gastric mucosa, as well as on serum IL-6、IL-8、TNF-α，Hp IgG、CD3+、CD4+、CD8+ in helicobacter pylori (Hp) infected rats, so that to better understand how the moxibustion repairs the Hp- induced gastric mucosal injury.
Methods: 40 SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups: group A (blank control), group B (Hp infection model), group C (moxibustion plus model), group D (electro-acupuncture plus model), 10 for each group. The “NaHCO3 plus Indometacin and Hp intragastric administration” method was employed to make gastritis model. Acupoints selected for “repair” purpose were Zu San Li (ST36), Zhong Wan (CV12), Guan Yuan (RN4), Pi Shu (BL20), Wei Shu(BL21). The histomorphological changes of gastric mucosa in rats were observed under light microscope after HE stain; IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, Hp IgG values were evaluated by ELISA method; values of CD3+、CD4+、CD8+、CD4+/CD8+ were measured by flow cytometry method.
Results: compared with group A, the values of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, Hp IgG and CD8+ in group B were increased（P＜0.01）, whereas the values of CD3+、CD4+、CD4+/CD8+ were decreased（P＜0.01）. Compared with group B, the values of IL-8（P＜0.05）,TNF-α（P＜0.05）, IL-6（P＜0.01）, Hp IgG（P＜0.01） and CD8+ （P＜0.05） in group C were decreased, whereas the values of CD3+（P＜0.05）,CD4+（P＜0.05）,CD4+/CD8+ （P＜0.05） were increased, meanwhile such values in group D had no significant changes. Compared with group D, the values of IL-6（P＜0.05）,IL-8 （P＜0.05）and Hp IgG （P＜0.01）in group C were decreased, whereas CD4+/CD8+（P＜0.05）were increased, all those changes had statistical significance.
Conclusion: the preventive and therapeutic effects of moxibustion on Hp related gastritis might be realized by two ways- to inhibit the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α, or to regulate the production of immune factors (such as up-regulation of CD3+, CD4+ and down-regulation of CD8+).
Objective: To observe the expression levels of serum high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) , nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (α7 nAChR) and nuclear factor kappa-B mRNA(NF-κB mRNA) in colon tissue after electroacupuncture (EA) on Shangjuxu, Zusanli, Xiajuxu,Yanglingquan and Chengjin points, by comparison of the different effects we could thus explore the relative specificity of Shangjuxu on treating its corresponding viscera’ s disease.
Methods: Seventy SD rats were randomly assigned to seven groups labeled by blank control (A), Model (B), Shang Ju Xu (C), Zu San Li (D), Xia Ju Xu (E), Yang Ling Quan (F), Cheng Jin (G), ten (half males and half females) in each group. Except for the blank control group, animals in other groups were modeled to ulcerative colitis (UC) by lavation of 2-4-6 trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol solution. After successful modeling animals in the five treatment groups were respectively treated with electroaccupuncture at corresponding acupoint for 10 consecutive days. Then histological changes in the colon were observed by light microscopy. ELISA method was used to check models’serum HMGB1 content, and α7 nAChR in the colon were detected by western blot , RT-PCR was used to detecte NF-κB mRNA.
Results: ① Compared with the model group, the tissue injury changes in 5 treatment groups improved to a certain extent, and the colon tissue NF-κB mRNA expression of them decreasd signifcantly（P<0.01),as well, the α7 nAChR expression of Shang Ju Xu group, Zu San Li group and Xia Ju Xu group increased signifcantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and their serum HMGB1 content made obvious decrease(P<0.01 or P<0.05), the α7 nAChR expression in Yang Ling Quan group was also increased significantly（P<0.01). ② Compared with Shang Ju Xu group, the tissue injury changes of groups including Xia Ju Xu,Yang Ling Quan and Cheng Jin are much severe under light microscope, and the α7 nAChR expression of them decreased with significance（P<0.01),both serum HMGB1 content and colon tissue NF-κB mRNA expression increased significantly as well（P<0.01),the serum HMGB1 content of Zu San Li group also increased significantly（P<0.01).
Conclusion: ① Electroacupuncture on all five different acupoints can improve the UC through regulating HMGB1, α7 nAChR and NF-κB mRNA, and effectively inhibiting the immune response, reducing inflammatory response of colon and improving pathological changes of colonic mucosa. ②The effect of treating UC inflammation in rats when electroacupuncture at Shang Ju Xu was better than Zu San Li, Xiajuxu, Yang Ling Quan and Cheng Jin, which demonstrated that Shangjuxu treating UC has some relative specificity.
Jing Shen, Xiao-Ming Lei, Yang Song, Xing Tan, Qin Liu, Li-Wen Dai and Jie Yu
Objective: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on GRP78 and Caspase-12 gene expression in rats with ischemia- reperfusion injury (IRI) by stimulation on Nei Guan (PC6) and Bai Hui (GV20) points, so that to understand whether or not the protective effects of acupuncture is related to endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressapoptosis passage.
Methods: 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups (10 in each group): normal control(A), pseudo-operation(B), operation(C), Edaravone(D) and EA(E). The ischemia/reperfusion model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established by suture embolic method. TUNEL staining method was employed to measure the apoptosis index of nerve cells in rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to measure the mRNA expression of GRP78 and Caspase-12.
Results: Compared with normal group and pseudo-operation group, the apoptosis indexes and mRNA expression of GRP78 and Caspase-12 in operation group, Edaravone group and EA group were increased, with statistical significance（P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）; compared with operation group, the apoptosis indexes and Caspase-12 mRNA expression in Edaravone group and EA group were decreased（P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）, but GRP78 mRNA expression were increased（P＜0.01）; there were no significant difference between Edaravone group and EA group on the above indexes（P＞0.05).
Conclusion: Acupuncture on Nei Guan and Bai Hui points could effectively suppress the nerve cell apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. The underlying mechanism might be related to upregulation of the ERS-protective GRP78 expression and downregulation of apoptosis-promotion Caspase-12 expression.
Objective: To explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction on rats with alcoholic liver injuries.
Methods: 60 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups: normal group, model group, Yi Gan Ling group, and Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction groups in low, middle and high concentrations, 10 rats in each group. Except for the normal group, rats in other groups were administered white wine for eight weeks to establish the liver injury model. During the modeling, the Yi Gan Ling/Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction were administered intragastrically to the rats. So the histopathological changes were observed after eight weeks, meanwhile the serum γ- glutamyl endopeptidase (GGT), Glutathione (GSH) and aspartate aminotransferase mitochondrial isoenzyme (m-AST) were assayed by automatic biochemical analyzer.
Results: under the light microscope, the groups of high and middle dosages of Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction , especially the high one, had apparent improvement of inflammatory infiltration in liver tissues. Compared with the normal group, the serum GGT and m-AST levels had elevated (P＜0.01), whereas the serum GSH level decreased (P＜0.01); compared with model group, the high and middle dosages of Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction groups had decreased serum GGT and m-AST (P＜0.01 or P＜0.05), as well as increased serum GSH level (P＜0.01).
Conclusion: Ge Hua Jie Cheng Decoction has a protective effect for liver injuries induced by alcohol, and this effect is dose-dependent. The high dosage showed stronger protection effect, which might be related to the increased serum GSH and decreased serum GGT and m-AST.