The aim of the study was to assess the proportion of women that would be classified as at above-average risk of breast cancer based on the 10 year-risk prediction of the Slovenian breast cancer incidence rate (S-IBIS) program in two presumably above-average breast cancer risk populations in age group 40-49 years: (i) women referred for any reason to diagnostic breast centres and (ii) women who were diagnosed with breast cancer aged 40–49 years. Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer in Slovenia, with an incidence rate below European average. The Tyrer-Cuzick breast cancer risk assessment algorithm was recently adapted to S-IBIS. In Slovenia a tailored mammographic screening for women at above average risk in age group 40–49 years is considered in the future. S-IBIS is a possible tool to select population at above-average risk of breast cancer for tailored screening.
Patients and methods
In 357 healthy women aged 40–49 years referred for any reason to diagnostic breast centres and in 367 female breast cancer patients aged 40–49 years at time of diagnosis 10-years breast cancer risk was calculated using the S-IBIS software. The proportion of women classified as above-average risk of breast cancer was calculated for each subgroup of the study population.
48.7% of women in the Breast centre group and 39.2% of patients in the breast cancer group had above-average 10-year breast cancer risk. Positive family history of breast cancer was more prevalent in the Breast centre group (p < 0.05).
Inclusion of additional risk factors into the S-IBIS is warranted in the populations with breast cancer incidence below European average to reliably stratify women into breast cancer risk groups.
Breast hematoma is an often underrated and disregarded post-procedural complication in the literature. Current treatment modalities are comprised of either surgical or expectant therapy, while percutaneous procedures play a smaller role in their treatment. We aimed to examine the efficacy of vacuum-assisted evacuation (VAE) in the treatment of clinically significant large breast hematomas as an alternative to surgery.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively analysed patients that underwent breast interventions (surgical and percutaneous), who later developed clinically significant large hematomas and underwent a trial of VAE of hematoma in our hospital within the period of four years. Patient and procedure characteristics were acquired before and after VAE. Success of intervention was based on ≥ 50% clearance of hematoma volume and patients’ subjective resolution of symptoms. All patients were followed clinically and by ultrasound if needed at different intervals depending on the severity of presenting symptoms.
Eleven patients were included in the study. The mean largest diameter of hematomas was 7.9 cm and mean surface area was 32.4 cm2. The mean duration of the procedure was 40.5 min. In all patients VAE of hematoma was implemented successfully with no complications. Control visits showed no major residual hematoma or seroma formation.
Our results show that VAE of hematoma can be implemented as a safe alternative to surgery in large, clinically significant hematomas, regardless of aetiology or duration. The procedure carries less risk, stress and cost with the added benefit of outpatient treatment when compared to surgical treatment.
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is effective for thoracic cancer and metastases; however, adverse effects are greater for central tumors. We evaluated factors affecting outcomes and toxicities after SABR for patients with primary lung and oligometastatic tumors.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively identified consecutive patients with centrally located lung tumors that were treated at our hospital from 2009-2016. The effects of patient, disease, and treatment-related parameters on local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and toxicity-free survival (TFS) were evaluated with multivariate analyses.
Among 65 consecutive patients identified with 70 centrally located tumors, 20 tumors (28%) were reirradiated. Median (range) total dose for all tumors was 55 (30–60) Gy in 5 (3–10) fractions. Radiographic complete response was obtained in 43 lesions (61%). None of the analyzed factors were correlated with complete response. After a median follow-up of 57 (95% CI, 48–65) months, 10 tumors (14%) relapsed and 37 patients (57%) died; the actuarial 2- and 5-year OS rates were 52% and 28%, respectively. Median OS was significantly lower in patients with grade 3 or higher toxicity vs. lower toxicity (5 vs. 39 months; P < 0.001). Among 17 severe toxicities, 5 were grade 5, and 3 of them were reirradiated to the same field. Grade 3 to 5 TFS was lower with vs. without reirradiation (2-year TFS, 63% vs. 96%; P = 0.02).
Our study showed that modern SABR is effective for central lung tumors, and toxicities are acceptable. SABR for reirradiated central lung lesions and possibly for lesions abutting the tracheobronchial tree may result in higher risk of serious toxicities.
Electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment of colorectal liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during open surgery. The minimally invasive percutaneous approach of electrochemotherapy has already been performed but not on HCC. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of electrochemotherapy with percutaneous approach on HCC.
Patient and methods
The patient had undergone the transarterial chemoembolization and microwave ablation of multifocal HCC in segments III, V and VI. In follow-up a new lesion was identified in segment III, and recognized by multidisciplinary team to be suitable for minimally invasive percutaneous electrochemotherapy. The treatment was performed with long needle electrodes inserted by the aid of image guidance.
The insertion of electrodes was feasible, and the treatment proved safe and effective, as demonstrated by control magnetic resonance imaging.
Minimally invasive, image guided percutaneous electrochemotherapy is feasible, safe and effective in treatment of HCC.
Effect of isocitr ate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation in neovascularization might be linked with tissue perfusion in gliomas. At present, the need of injection of contrast agent and the increasing scanning time limit the application of perfusion techniques. We used a simplified intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived perfusion fraction (SPF) calculated from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using only three b-values to quantitatively assess IDH1-linked tissue perfusion changes in WHO grade II-III gliomas (LGGs). Additionally, by comparing accuracy with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and full IVIM MRI, we tried to find the optimal imaging markers to predict IDH1 mutation status.
Patients and methods
Thirty patients were prospectively examined using DCE and multi-b-value DWI. All parameters were compared between the IDH1 mutant and wild-type LGGs using the Mann–Whitney U test, including the DCE MRI-derived Ktrans, ve and vp, the conventional apparen t diffusion coefficient (ADC0,1000), IVIM-de rived perfusion fraction (f), diffusion coefficient (D) and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), SPF. We evaluated the diagnostic performance by receive r operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.
Significant differences were detected between WHO grade II-III gliomas for all perfusion and diffusion parameters (P < 0.05). When compared to IDH1 mutant LGGs, IDH1 wild-type LGGs exhibited significantly higher perfusion metrics (P < 0.05) and lower diffusion metrics (P < 0.05). Among all parameters, SPF showed a higher diagnostic performance (area under the curve 0.861), with 94.4% sensitivity and 75% specificity.
DWI, DCE and IVIM MRI may noninvasively help discriminate IDH1 mutation statuses in LGGs. Specifically, simplified DWI-derived SPF showed a superior diagnostic performance.
The aim of the study was to (a) compare the accuracy of two different immobilization strategies for patients with head and neck tumors, and (b) compare the set-up errors on treatment units with different portal imaging systems.
Patients and methods
Variations in the position of the isocenter (IC) relative to the reference point determined on the computed tomography simulator were measured in a vertical (anterior-posterior), longitudinal (superior-inferior), and lateral (medial-lateral) direction in 120 head and neck cancer patients irradiated with curative intent. Depending on the treatment unit (unit A - 2D/2D image previews; unit B- 2D image previews) and the time of irradiation, patients were divided into 6 groups of 20 patients. In patients irradiated in 2014, standard head supports were used (groups 1 and 2), whereas in those treated in 2015 and 2017 (groups 3–6) individual head supports were employed. The clinical-to-planning target volume safety margin was calculated according to the formula proposed by Van Herk.
In total, 2,454 portal images and 3,681 set-up errors were analysed. Implementation of individual head supports in 2015 resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the average inter-fraction displacement in the vertical direction and in decreased number of IC displacements in the vertical and longitudinal direction (applies to both treatment units). The largest reduction of the safety margin was calculated in the longitudinal direction and the safety margins were larger for unit B than for unit A.
The use of individual head supports and a more advanced imaging system were found to increase set-up precision.
Introduction: The diagnosis of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) can be challenging due to the highly variable manifestations and symptoms. CAAs occur in less than 1% of the population. Multidetector cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution for the imaging of CAAs. This case report describes an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery.
Case presentation: A 64-year-old woman with atypical chest pain underwent coronary CTA. The CT demonstrated that the left coronary artery was originating from the right coronary sinus and had an interarterial course with an approximately 50% stenosis at the segment between the great arteries. Invasive coronary angiography confirmed hemodynamically significant stenosis of the interarterial segment. The patient underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Conclusion: Left coronary artery originating from the right coronary sinus with an interarterial course increases the risk of sudden cardiac death. In these patients, surgical revascularization is recommended. However, timely diagnosis, especially in those with mild symptoms, remains challenging. Coronary CTA is a robust tool to diagnose CAA and provides valuable information to support the clinical decision making in this patient population.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common type of cardiomyopathy in children. Heart transplantation is considered standard therapy in dilated cardiomyopathy with end-stage heart failure. We present a case of a 15-year-old patient diagnosed with DCM in the neonatal period, who underwent heart transplantation for end-stage heart failure. Despite the use of induction therapy, the endomyocardial biopsy performed at two weeks post-transplant revealed mixed moderate cellular (2R) and humoral (pAMR2) allograft rejection. Aggressive rejection treatment was initiated with good outcome. Besides endomyocardial biopsy, advanced echocardiography can also be a valuable noninvasive tool for rejection assessment.
Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be challenging in diagnosis and management. The complications related to CO poisoning are variable and unpredictable.
Case presentation: We present the case of a 73-year-old woman who was involved in an indoor fire. Although she was asymptomatic and had a low CO level, she developed an acute coronary syndrome. The condition of the patient recovered remarkably after treatment with oxygen supplementation and anti-ischemic drugs.
Conclusion: This case indicates that an acute coronary syndrome could represent a complication of CO poisoning even in asymptomatic patients with low levels of COHb.