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Open access

Wei-Chieh Wu, Yi-Ru Chang, Yo-Liang Lai, An-Cheng Shiau, Ji-An Liang, Chun-Ru Chien, Yu-Cheng Kuo and Shang-Wen Chen

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was investigate the impact of body-mass factors (BMF) on setup displacement during pelvic radiotherapy in patients with lower abdominal cancers.

Patients and methods

The clinical data of a training cohort composed of 60 patients with gynecological, rectal, or prostate cancer were analyzed. The daily alignment data from image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) were retrieved. Setup errors for were assessed by systematic error (SE) and random error (RE) through the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Several BMFs and patient-related parameters were analyzed with binary logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curves. A scoring system was proposed to identify those with greater setup displacement during daily treatment. The results were validated by another cohort.

Results

A large hip lateral diameter correlated with a greater SI-SE and AP-SE, whereas a large umbilical AP diameter correlated with a greater ML-SE and ML-RE. A higher SI-RE was associated with a large hip circumference. The positive predictors for setup uncertainty were chosen to dichotomize patients into groups at high risk and low risk for setup displacement. Based on the scoring system, the adequate treatment margins for the SI direction in the high-and low-risk groups were 5.4 mm and 3.8 mm, whereas those for the ML direction were 8.2 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively. The validated cohort showed a similar trend.

Conclusions

Large BMFs including hip lateral diameter, hip circumference, and umbilical AP diameter are associated with greater setup uncertainty. Based on the scores, IGRT or required treatment margins can be adapted for patients with high risk features.

Open access

Tomaz Makovec

Abstract

Background

Platinum-based anticancer drugs are widely used in the chemotherapy of human neoplasms. The major obstacle for the clinical use of this class of drugs is the development of resistance and toxicity. It is therefore very important to understand the chemical properties, transport and metabolic pathways and mechanism of actions of these compounds. There is a large body of evidence that therapeutic and toxic effects of platinum drugs on cells are not only a consequence of covalent adducts formation between platinum complexes and DNA but also with RNA and many proteins. These processes determine molecular mechanisms that underlie resistance to platinum drugs as well as their toxicity. Increased expression levels of various transporters and increased repair of platinum-DNA adducts are both considered as the most significant processes in the development of drug resistance. Functional genomics has an increasing role in predicting patients’ responses to platinum drugs. Genetic polymorphisms affecting these processes may play an important role and constitute the basis for individualized approach to cancer therapy. Similar processes may also influence therapeutic potential of nonplatinum metal compounds with anticancer activity.

Conclusions

Cisplatin is the most frequently used platinum based chemotherapeutic agent that is clinically proven to combat different types of cancers and sarcomas.

Open access

Hans-Jonas Meyer, Maximilian Beimler, Gudrun Borte, Wolfram Pönisch and Alexey Surov

Abstract

Background

Myeloid sarcoma (MS), also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma, is a solid tumor of extramedullary localization composed of malignant primitive myeloid cells. The purpose of the study was to identify clinical and imaging features in a large patient sample.

Patients and methods

Overall, 71 cases (34 females (47.9%) and 37 males (52.1%) with a median age of 56 (± 16 years) of histopathologically confirmed myeloid sarcoma were included into this study. The underlying hematological disease, occurrence, localizations and clinical symptoms as well as imaging features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were investigated.

Results

In 4 cases (5.63%) the manifestation of MS preceded the systemic hematological disease by a mean value of 3.8 ± 2.1 months. In 13 cases, first presentation of MS occurred simultaneously with the initial diagnosis of leukemia, and 51 patients presented MS after the initial diagnosis of the underlying malignancy with a mean latency of 39.8 ± 44.9 SD months. The visceral soft tissue was affected in 26 cases, followed by the cutis/subcutis was affected in 21 cases. Further localizations were bones (n = 13), central nervous system (n = 9), lymph nodes (n = 4) and visceral organs (n = 9).

Conclusions

MS is a rare complication of several hematological malignancies, predominantly of acute myeloid leukemia, which can affect any part of the body. In most cases it occurs after the diagnosis of the underlying malignancy, and affects frequently the cutis and subcutis.

Open access

Kristina Levpuscek, Katja Goricar, Viljem Kovac, Vita Dolzan and Alenka Franko

Abstract

Background

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare aggressive tumour of mesothelium caused by asbestos exposure. It has been suggested that the genetic variability of proteins involved in DNA repair mechanisms affects the risk of MM. This study investigated the influence of functional polymorphisms in ERCC1 and XRCC1 genes, the interactions between these polymorphisms as well as the interactions between these polymorphisms and asbestos exposure on MM risk.

Patients and methods

In total, 237 cases with MM and 193 controls with no asbestos-related disease were genotyped for ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms.

Results

ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism was significantly associated with a decreased risk of MM (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41–0.91; p = 0.014). No associations were observed between other genetic polymorphisms and MM risk. Interactions between polymorphisms did not significantly influence MM risk. Interaction between ERCC1 rs11615 and asbestos exposure significantly influenced MM risk (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.12–11.66; p = 0.032). Carriers of polymorphic ERCC1 rs11615 allele who were exposed to low level of asbestos had a decreased risk of MM (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.19–0.84; p = 0.016). Interactions between other polymorphisms and asbestos exposure did not significantly influence MM risk.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that the genetic variability of DNA repair mechanisms could contribute to the risk of developing MM.

Open access

Jan Grosek, Jerica Novak, Katja Kitek, Alta Bajric, Ana Majdic, Jurij Ales Kosir and Ales Tomazic

Abstract

Background

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the surgical treatment on Slovenian colorectal cancer patients’ health-related quality of life and to compare the results to the health-related quality of life of the general Slovenian population.

Patients and methods

A total of 413 patients with colorectal cancer operated on at the Abdominal Surgery Department at the Ljubljana University Medical Center between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2017 were sent two standardized and validated questionnaires: the EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3 and EORTC QLQ-CR29. The questionnaires were returned by 197 patients.

Results

Compared to the general population, poorer physical (p < 0.001), role (p = 0.002), cognitive (p = 0.021), and social functioning (p < 0.001) with higher frequency of constipation (p < 0.001), diarrhea (p < 0.001), and financial difficulties (p < 0.001) were reported by the colorectal patients. Female patients reported lower cognitive (p = 0.034) and emotional (p = 0.008) functioning, as well as higher frequency of bloating (p = 0.049) and hair loss (p = 0.01). Compared to the younger group of patients, lower physical functioning (p < 0.001) and higher urinary frequency (p = 0.007), urinary incontinence (p = 0.007), buttock pain (p = 0.007), and anxiety regarding body weight (p = 0.031) were detected among the older group of colorectal patients.

Conclusions

The global health status of colorectal patients in Slovenia is comparable to that of the general Slovenian population, but there is a significantly lower level in some of the quality-of-life scales.

Open access

Tomasz Michalik, Rafał Matkowski, Przemyslaw Biecek, Jozef Forgacz and Bartlomiej Szynglarewicz

Abstract

Background

Anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) of ultralow rectal cancer may result in the increased risk of the anastomotic leakage (AL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the gentamicin-collagen sponge (GCS) for the protection against symptomatic AL and investigate association between AL and local relapse (LR).

Patients and methods

A series of 158 patients with ultralow rectal cancer was studied. All the patients underwent R0 sphincter-saving TME with anastomosis wrapping using GCS. In none of the cases a temporary protective stoma was constructed.

Results

AL rate was 3.2% (5/158) while median time to AL diagnosis was 5 days following surgery (range 3-15). There was no postoperative and leakage-related mortality. Patient age > 75 years and smoking were independent risk factors related to significantly increased AL rate: 12.5% vs. 0.8% (P = 0.0004) and 5.7% vs. 0% P = 0.043), respectively. LR was observed in 12% of cases. It was highly significantly more common and developed earlier in patients who have had AL when compared with non-AL group: 80% vs. 9% (P = 0.00001) and 8.5 vs. 17 months (P = 0.014), respectively.

Conclusions

Anastomosis wrapping with GCS after anterior resection with TME is a safe procedure resulting in the low incidence of anastomotic leakage which may be also associated with decreased risk of local relapse.

Open access

Niklas Verloh, Isabel Jensch, Lukas Lürken, Michael Haimerl, Marco Dollinger, Philipp Renner, Philipp Wiggermann, Jens Martin Werner, Florian Zeman, Christian Stroszczynski and Lukas Philipp Beyer

Abstract

Background

To compare the frequency of adverse events of thermal microwave (MWA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with non-thermal irreversible electroporation (IRE) in percutaneous ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Patients and methods

We retrospectively analyzed 117 MWA/RFA and 47 IRE procedures (one tumor treated per procedure; 144 men and 20 women; median age, 66 years) regarding adverse events, duration of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays and occurrence of a post-ablation syndrome. Complications were classified according to the Clavien & Dindo classification system.

Results

70.1% of the RFA/MWA and 63.8% of the IRE procedures were performed without complications. Grade I and II complications (any deviation from the normal postinterventional course, e.g., analgesics) occurred in 26.5% (31/117) of MWA/RFA and 34.0% (16/47) of IRE procedures. Grade III and IV (major) complications occurred in 2.6% (3/117) of MWA/RFA and 2.1% (1/47) of IRE procedures. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications (p = 0.864), duration of hospital and ICU stay and the occurrence of a post-ablation syndrome between the two groups.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that thermal (MWA and RFA) and non-thermal IRE ablation of malignant liver tumors have comparable complication rates despite the higher number of punctures and the lack of track cauterization in IRE.

Open access

Manca Garbajs, Primoz Strojan and Katarina Surlan-Popovic

Abstract

Background

In the study, the value of pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion weighted (DW) MRI-derived parameters as well as their changes early during treatment was evaluated for predicting disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) with cisplatin.

Patients and methods

MRI scans were performed in 20 patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC at baseline and after 10 Grays (Gy) of cCRT. Tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and DCE parameters (volume transfer constant [Ktrans], extracellular extravascular volume fraction [ve], and plasma volume fraction [Vp]) were measured. Relative changes in parameters from baseline to 10 Gy were calculated. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were conducted. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to identify parameters with the best diagnostic performance.

Results

None of the parameters was identified to predict for DFS. On univariate analysis of OS, lower pre-treatment ADC (p = 0.012), higher pre-treatment Ktrans (p = 0.026), and higher reduction in Ktrans (p = 0.014) from baseline to 10 Gy were identified as significant predictors. Multivariate analysis identified only higher pre-treatment Ktrans (p = 0.026; 95% CI: 0.000–0.132) as an independent predictor of OS. At ROC curve analysis, pre-treatment Ktrans yielded an excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under curve [AUC] = 0.95, sensitivity 93.3%; specificity 80 %).

Conclusions

In our group of HNSCC patients treated with cisplatin-based cCRT, pre-treatment Ktrans was found to be a good predictor of OS.

Open access

Mohamed A.F. Mourad and Mahmoud M. Higazi

Abstract

Background

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of three MR imaging parameters, which are tumour thickness, para-lingual distance and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for prediction of cervical lymph nodes metastasis in cancer tongue patients.

Patients and methods

Fifty patients with proved cancer tongue by histopathological examination underwent MRI examination. T1 and T2- weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted images and post-contrast T1 fat suppression sequences were used.

Results

The patients were classified according to lymph nodes involvement as seen by MRI into two groups. Significant differences between positive and negative nodes groups were observed regarding tumour thickness and para-lingual distance (p-values = 0.008 and 0.003 respectively). ROC curve analyses revealed cut-off values >13.8 mm and ≤ 3.3 mm for tumour thickness and para-lingual distance respectively for prediction of nodes involvement. No significant differences between patients with and without cervical lymph nodes metastasis were found regarding corresponding ADC value of the tumour (p-value = 0.518).

Conclusions

Para-lingual distance and tumour thickness are factors that could influence pre-operative judgment and prognosis of tongue cancer patients. ADC value of the tumour itself seem not to be a reliable index of cancer progression to regional lymph nodes.

Open access

Martina Rebersek, Tanja Mesti, Marko Boc and Janja Ocvirk

Abstract

Background

Histological parameters of primary tumour and nodal metastases are prognostic factors for survival of operable colorectal (CRC) patients, but not predictive for response rate of systemic therapy. KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 were first recognized as a predictive factor for resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Not all patients with wild-type KRAS (wtKRAS) respond to anti-EGFR antibody treatment. Additional mechanisms of resistance may activate mutations of the other main EGFR effectors pathway, such as other mutations in RAS gene, mutations in P13K and PTEN expression.

Patients and methods

In the prospective study prognostic and predictive impact of histological parameters of primary tumour, KRAS and BRAF mutations on overall survival (OS) and objective response (OR) rate of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients treated with 1st line systemic therapy were analysed. We additionally retrospectively analysed other mutations in RAS genes and their impact on survival and time to progression.

Results

From November 2010 to December 2012, we enrolled 154 patients in the study, 95 men and 59 women. Mutations in KRAS gene and V600E BRAF gene were found in 42% and in 3% of patients, respectively. Median OS of the patients with T1, T2 and T3 tumour was 65.4 months (95% CI, 55.7–75.6) while in patients with T4 tumour, lymphangiosis, vascular and perineural invasion it has not been reached yet. Median OS of the patients with G1, G2 and G3 of tumour differentiation was 65.6 (95% CI, 53.7–77.5) and 25.3 months (95% CI, 16.6–34.1), respectively. Median OS of the patients with stage N0, N1 and N2 was 65.6 (95% CI, 56.4–74.8) and 58.0 months (95% CI, 21.9–94.2), respectively. Median OS of wtKRAS and mutated KRAS patients was 56.5 (95% CI, 48.2–64.9) and 58 months (95% CI, 52.6–63.4), respectively. Median OS of mutated codon 12 and codon 13 patients was 57 (95% CI, 50.9–64.4) and 44 months (95% CI, 40.1–48.4), respectively. Median OS of wtBRAF and of mutated BRAF patients was 59.2 (95% CI, 52.5–65.9) and 27.6 months (95% CI, 12.6–42.5), respectively. wtKRAS significantly affected the response to the first systemic therapy (p = 0.028), while other parameters did not affected it, p= 0.07. In 14 patients (17%), additional mutations in NRAS gene, codon 61 and codon 146 were found. Median OS of wtNRAS, codon 61 and 146 patients was 67.1 months (50.3–67.6) while median OS of mutated NRAS patients has not been reached yet (p = 0.072). Median time to progression of wtNRAS, codon 61 and 146 patients was 11.7 months (10.4–14.5) while median time to progression of mutated NRAS patients was 7.9 months (6.1–11.0), (p = 0.025).

Conclusions

Mutated BRAF, N2 and G3 of primary tumour were poor prognostic factors for OS in mCRC patients. wtKRAS significantly affected the response to the first line systemic therapy. Histological parameters included in the analysis and mutated BRAF did not affect significantly the efficacy of 1st line systemic therapy in mCRC patients.