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Acromegaly is an unusual disorder caused by abnormal oversecretion of growth hormone by pituitary adenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is frequently the first management option. The objective of this article is to establish the effectiveness of a transnasal transsphenoidal approach in the treatment of GH-producing adenomas, and to identify risk factors for disease persistence.


We conducted a retrospective review of 81 patients treated for acromegaly with transsphenoidal microsurgery between 2006 and 2010.


Macroadenomas accounted for 66.7% of the cases, contrast-enhanced MRI revealing cavernous sinus invasion in 28.4% of the patients (23 subjects). Cure was achieved in 72.8% (59 of 82). All microadenomas (27 cases) were managed effectively with surgery whereas cure rates stood at 66.7% for macroadenomas. Monovariate analysis showed that disease persistence was statistically associated with three variables. Odds ratio for remission stood at 1.68 for microadenomas and 0.033 for cavernous sinus invasion (p<0.001). Preoperative GH values were statistically associated with cure during follow up (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only cavernous sinus invasion continued to be significantly associated with disease persistence (OR 3.52, p<0.05).


The transnasal approach proves effective in the treatment and cure of acromegaly. Cavernous sinus invasion is a major predictor of disease persistence.


Background and object

Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a rare type of pseudobulbar palsy, which is characterized by anarthria or severe dysarthria and bilateral central facio-linguo-velo-pharyngo-mastigatory paralysis with “automatic voluntary dissociation”. We report on a patient who suffered a reversible FCMS following a spear gun trauma through the cranial base leading to right operculo-insular contusion.

Case Report

This 28-year-old lady attempted suicide by shooting a spear gun into the head through her right submandibular region. Major vessel injury was ruled out and the patient was taken to the operating room for shaft removal. Postoperatively, we observed the mouth half open, drooling saliva, inability to move her tongue, anarthria, bilateral facial weakness, and loss of the gag reflex. Yawning was otherwise preserved resulting in a clinical diagnosis of FCMS. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a right operculoinsular contusion. Symptoms were fully recovered after two years of follow-up.


FCMS is a rare and severe form of pseudobulbar palsy. Unilateral lesions are exceptional but should be recognized, as we presented. Generally, the outcome is moderate to poor but the occurrence in brain trauma can be associated with complete functional recovery.


The ideal treatment for intracranial aneurysms has been highly controversial in the last few decades. It is particularly difficult to decide between clipping vs. coiling when it comes to an aneurysm that has already been treated. The authors performed a review of the literature published in the last ten years amongst the main neurosurgical publications and make recommendations based on this evidence and the surgical experience of the eldest author of this paper (ES). A series of cases of recurrent, incompletely coiled aneurysms treated with surgery is presented. Conclusions: aneurysms with a convenient configuration and location for either clipping or coiling might be better managed by surgical clipping in young patients considering that this treatment achieves higher rates of occlusion with a lower incidence of rebleeding. In elderly patients, each case must be discussed.


The extent of resection has been shown to influence the outcome of brain tumours. The concept of brain plasticity is to prevent damage to the eloquent areas while maximizing the extent of tumor resection. The present case report describes the usefulness of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in evaluation of the possibility of functional preservation for surgeries in eloquent areas. We present a 46-year-old woman, who had previously undergone four sessions of internal decompression surgery for left frontal anaplastic ependymoma. She later underwent radical tumor resection surgery involving the superior and middle frontal gyri, anterior parietal gyrus, corpus callosum, coronal radiation and basal ganglia. Postoperatively, her right hemiparesis did not deteriorate and she could ambulate without much aid. Multichannel NIRS system revealed that hot spot location was in the right superior frontal gyrus and parietal lobe by the same task of right knee joint movement. We judged that her right brain motor function shifted to the contralateral hemisphere by the long course of her illness. It might be possible that if the NIRS was used earlier around the third or fourth perioperative period, with a reliable confirmation of migration of the right motor function to opposite side, the option of a more aggressive tumor resection may have been attempted. NIRS can be a useful and sensitive tool for predicting the location of eloquent areas and monitoring the extent of brain plasticity between surgeries.