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Tetsuya Goto, Chika Ndubuisi, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Takafumi Kiuchi, Kunihiko Kodama, Keiichi Sakai and Kazuhiro Hongo

Abstract

The extent of resection has been shown to influence the outcome of brain tumours. The concept of brain plasticity is to prevent damage to the eloquent areas while maximizing the extent of tumor resection. The present case report describes the usefulness of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in evaluation of the possibility of functional preservation for surgeries in eloquent areas. We present a 46-year-old woman, who had previously undergone four sessions of internal decompression surgery for left frontal anaplastic ependymoma. She later underwent radical tumor resection surgery involving the superior and middle frontal gyri, anterior parietal gyrus, corpus callosum, coronal radiation and basal ganglia. Postoperatively, her right hemiparesis did not deteriorate and she could ambulate without much aid. Multichannel NIRS system revealed that hot spot location was in the right superior frontal gyrus and parietal lobe by the same task of right knee joint movement. We judged that her right brain motor function shifted to the contralateral hemisphere by the long course of her illness. It might be possible that if the NIRS was used earlier around the third or fourth perioperative period, with a reliable confirmation of migration of the right motor function to opposite side, the option of a more aggressive tumor resection may have been attempted. NIRS can be a useful and sensitive tool for predicting the location of eloquent areas and monitoring the extent of brain plasticity between surgeries.

Open access

F. Salle, A. Jaume, G. Castelluccio and E. Spagnuolo

Abstract

The ideal treatment for intracranial aneurysms has been highly controversial in the last few decades. It is particularly difficult to decide between clipping vs. coiling when it comes to an aneurysm that has already been treated. The authors performed a review of the literature published in the last ten years amongst the main neurosurgical publications and make recommendations based on this evidence and the surgical experience of the eldest author of this paper (ES). A series of cases of recurrent, incompletely coiled aneurysms treated with surgery is presented. Conclusions: aneurysms with a convenient configuration and location for either clipping or coiling might be better managed by surgical clipping in young patients considering that this treatment achieves higher rates of occlusion with a lower incidence of rebleeding. In elderly patients, each case must be discussed.

Open access

Marcus André Acioly, Marcílio Diogo de Oliveira Barbosa, Rosemary Tavares Pontes, Marcos Müller and Guilherme Brasileiro de Aguiar

Abstract

Background and object

Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a rare type of pseudobulbar palsy, which is characterized by anarthria or severe dysarthria and bilateral central facio-linguo-velo-pharyngo-mastigatory paralysis with “automatic voluntary dissociation”. We report on a patient who suffered a reversible FCMS following a spear gun trauma through the cranial base leading to right operculo-insular contusion.

Case Report

This 28-year-old lady attempted suicide by shooting a spear gun into the head through her right submandibular region. Major vessel injury was ruled out and the patient was taken to the operating room for shaft removal. Postoperatively, we observed the mouth half open, drooling saliva, inability to move her tongue, anarthria, bilateral facial weakness, and loss of the gag reflex. Yawning was otherwise preserved resulting in a clinical diagnosis of FCMS. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a right operculoinsular contusion. Symptoms were fully recovered after two years of follow-up.

Conclusion

FCMS is a rare and severe form of pseudobulbar palsy. Unilateral lesions are exceptional but should be recognized, as we presented. Generally, the outcome is moderate to poor but the occurrence in brain trauma can be associated with complete functional recovery.

Open access

Pablo Ajler, Alvaro Campero, Federico Landriel, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Santiago Hem and Antonio Carrizo

Abstract

Purpose

Acromegaly is an unusual disorder caused by abnormal oversecretion of growth hormone by pituitary adenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is frequently the first management option. The objective of this article is to establish the effectiveness of a transnasal transsphenoidal approach in the treatment of GH-producing adenomas, and to identify risk factors for disease persistence.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of 81 patients treated for acromegaly with transsphenoidal microsurgery between 2006 and 2010.

Results

Macroadenomas accounted for 66.7% of the cases, contrast-enhanced MRI revealing cavernous sinus invasion in 28.4% of the patients (23 subjects). Cure was achieved in 72.8% (59 of 82). All microadenomas (27 cases) were managed effectively with surgery whereas cure rates stood at 66.7% for macroadenomas. Monovariate analysis showed that disease persistence was statistically associated with three variables. Odds ratio for remission stood at 1.68 for microadenomas and 0.033 for cavernous sinus invasion (p<0.001). Preoperative GH values were statistically associated with cure during follow up (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only cavernous sinus invasion continued to be significantly associated with disease persistence (OR 3.52, p<0.05).

Conclusion

The transnasal approach proves effective in the treatment and cure of acromegaly. Cavernous sinus invasion is a major predictor of disease persistence.

Open access

Oskar Sylwestrzak and Maria Respondek-Liberska

Abstract

Introduction: Ultrasound assessment of fetal heart size (FHS) is widely used and recommended in many guidelines of fetal echocardiography due to its clinical value. The aim of this study was an analysis of some fetal heart measurements: ratio of heart area to chest area (HA/ CA) and transversal diameter of heart (AP) and their correlation to gestational age.

Material and methods: This retrospective study was based on database of records of ultrasound and echocardiographic examinations performed in our unit and included fetuses between 15th and 39th week of gestation with no evidence of heart defect or any abnormality.

Results: 609 ultrasound examinations were analyzed. The mean HA/CA was 0,30 ± 0,015, with no statistical difference between female and male (p>0,05), and seemed to be relatively constant with slight increase with advancing gestational age. The AP diameter in whole group correlated with gestational age (r=0,94) and there was no difference related to the fetuses gender.

Conclusion: The correlation of AP diameter and relative constancy of HA/CA ratio with gestational age presented in our normograms could be used for monitoring fetal development, but also for fetal cardiomegaly assessment.

Open access

Krzysztof Czajkowski, Ewa Helwich, Krzysztof Preis, Mariusz Grzesiak, Michał Krekora, Ewa Gulczyńska, Katarzyna Kornacka, Krzysztof Zeman, Iwona Maroszyńska and Maria Respondek-Liberska

Abstract

On 27.10.2017, in the course of the CARDIO-PRENATAL Conference at the Polish Mother’s Memorial Institute and Health Centre in Lodz, we presented, among others, the following problems:

classification of prenatal heart defects, fetal hemodynamic status evaluation in the third trimester, expected neonate’s clinical condition, planned procedures to be conducted just after birth and also planned medical staff to be present in the delivery room. Here are our main recommendations following the meeting and discussion.

Open access

Michał Krekora, Mariusz Grzesiak, Maciej Słodki, Ewa Gulczyńska, Iwona Maroszyńska, Maria Respondek-Liberska, Frank A. Chervenak and Laurence B. McCullough

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to present our current practice of counseling patients and families with the most severe congenital malformations in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and to develop practical guidelines for our team and involved healthcare/ socialcare professionals. MATERIAL & METHODS: It was a retrospective evaluation of a series of fetal cases in 2017 from single tertiary center. Maternal obstetrical medical history, time of prenatal detection of the anomaly (1st, 2nd or 3rd trimester), time between last fetal echocardiography and delivery, type of delivery, neonatal birth weight and time of neonatal demise. The total study group was subdived into early demise (during the 1st day after delivery) or late demise > 1st day after delivery. RESULTS: Mean maternal age was 30,4 +/- 5,6 years, and varied between 26 and 38 years. No chronic maternal diseases were found in medical history and no congenital malformations were present in previous children. All women had 1st trimester ultrasound, in 9 cases, it was reported as normal (with NT measurement < 2 mm), in 2 cases extracardiac abnormalities were detected: diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele ( in both fetal karyotype 46,XY). In nine cases, the abnormalities were detected in midgestation and with maternal wish to continue the pregnancies. There were 8 neonatal deaths within 60 minutes after delivery, including one intrapartum death and 3 “late” neonatal deaths in the intensive care unit (on 12th, 21st and 22nd day). We stress upon the prenatal team approach and counseling of future parents, in order to prepare them for poor neonatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: 1. In the most severe cases when fetal or neonatal demise was suspected, the two different opinions of specialists might not be enough and a third opinion should be recommended before final decision. 2. A Fetal Team of specialists is necessary in cases of expected fetal/neonatal demise in order to prepare a written report of recommended perinatal management for all sides involved in this difficult problem.

Open access

Ersin Kasim Ulusoy

Abstract

Purpose

Mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indicator of platelet (Plt) function and activation. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether MPV and MPV/Plt ratio, indicators of Plt activation, are increased in migraine patients, compared to tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy control groups, in our large-scale study, and whether these two primary headache types with unknown pathophysiology may be differentiated by using MPV and MPV/Plt ratio.

Materials and methods

Eighty patients diagnosed with migraine as per the 2004 diagnosis criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS), 80 patients with TTH who have applied to the Neurology Clinic of our hospital, and 80 healthy subjects who have applied to the Family Practice Clinic and Blood Bank were enrolled in this study. MPV and MPV/Plt ratio in both patients of similar age and gender who were diagnosed with migraine as well as in the TTH group and healthy control group were compared.

Findings

The MPV/Plt ratio was 0.046±0.008 in migraine patients, 0.037±0.009 in patients with TTH, and 0.036±0.009 in the healthy control group. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The cutoff value of MPV/Plt ratio for differentiating migraine and TTH was 0.037. The sensitivity of this value was 92.5%, while specificity was 55%.

Conclusion

We have demonstrated that the most commonly confused primary headache types may be differentiated by using MPV and MPV/Plt ratio, and therefore, the disability caused by migraine and unsuitable, unnecessary, and long-term drug therapies may be avoided in patients.

Open access

Yelda Dere, Volkan Karakuş, Özcan Dere and Nazan Özsan

Abstract

Synchronous malignancies are rare conditions in oncology practices, generally seen as solid tumors with hematological neoplasms. However, occurrence of two different hematological malignancies in the same patient is extremely rare. Two primary malignancies should be considered especially in patients with extraordinary presentations and treatment resistance.