Andrada-Loredana Popescu, Florentina Ioniţa-Radu, Mariana Jinga, Andrei-Ionuţ Gavrilă, Florin-Alexandru Săvulescu and Carmen Fierbinţeanu-Braticevici
The prevalence of obesity is rising, becoming a medical problem worldwide. Also GERD incidence is higher in obese patients compared with normal weight, with an increased risk of 2.5 of developing symptoms and erosive esophagitis. Different treatment modalities have been proposed to treat obese patients, but bariatric surgery due to its complex interactions via anatomic, physiologic and neurohormonal changes achieved the best long-term results, with sustained weight loss and decrease of complications and mortality caused by obesity.
The bariatric surgical procedures can be restrictive: laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or malabsorptive-restrictive such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These surgical procedures may influence esophageal motility and lead to esophageal complications like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and erosive esophagitis. From the literature we know that the RYGB can ameliorate GERD symptoms, and some bariatric procedures were finally converted to RYGB because of refractory reflux symptoms. For LAGB the results are good at the beginning, but some patients experienced new reflux symptoms in the follow-up period.
Recently LSG has become more popular than other complex bariatric procedures, but some follow-up studies report a high risk of GERD after it. This article reviews the results published after LSG regarding gastroesophageal reflux and the mechanisms responsible for GERD in morbidly obese subjects.
Tatiana Ashcheulova, Nina Gerasimchuk, Olga Kovalyova and Oleksii Honchar
Introduction Obesity is becoming one of the leading risk factors of coronary heart disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease. Despite the presence of a large number of antihypertensive agents and scientific substantiation of antihypertensive treatment principles it would be wrong to assume that the problem is completely solved. Development of endothelial dysfunction is one of the key pathogenic mechanisms in hypertension. This process is proven to be contributed by immune inflammation activation which is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.
Aims: To investigate the additional benefits of the combined antihypertensive therapy with lacidipine and candesartan on the basis of studying their antioxidant properties, impact on endothelial function and pro-inflammatory cytokines activity in hypertensive patients with overweight and obesity.
Methods A combination of a calcium channel blocker and angiotensin receptor blocker (lacidipine 2 mg, 4 mg, and candesartan 4mg, 8mg, 16mg) was prescribed to 30 patients with essential hypertension of grades 1-3, 30 to 65 years old (mean age – 54.7 ± 5.8 years), who previously have not been receiving regular antihypertensive therapy.
Results During the course of combined antihypertensive therapy with lacidipine and candesartan, a significant reduction in i-NOS activity, TNF-α to its type I soluble receptor ratio (TNF-α/sTNF-αRI), and oxidative stress marker – 8-iso-PgF2α has been observed. Activity of e-NOS, levels of SOD and catalase, in contrast, have increased by the end of observation period.
Conclusion The improvement of endothelial function due to lower level of oxidative stress and a significant decrease of immune activation has been observed in hypertensive patients with overweight and obesity under the influence of combined antihypertensive therapy with lacidipine and candesartan.
Andrei Popescu, Andrei Haidar and Rodica Maricela Anghel
Recent years have brought major advances in the treatment of malignant melanoma. One such an advance is the treatment with BRAF tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in metastatic malignant melanomas that harbor mutations in the BRAF gene. The trials that have been performed in this setting have demonstrated superior response rates and increased overall survival, however, they mostly included patients with melanomas carrying the more common V600E and V600K mutations, not being able to assess the benefit of these treatments in situations where more rare mutations of the BRAF gene are present. We present the evolution of a patient with malignant melanoma with a rare V600M mutation in the BRAF gene, that was eventually treated with vemurafenib. Also we present a brief review of the major phase III trials that showed benefit with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in BRAF mutated melanoma, with respect to the BRAF mutations included.
Lucia Mazur-Nicorici, Victoria Sadovici-Bobeica, Maria Garabajiu and Minodora Mazur
Introduction. The aim of the research was the study of the adherence to treatment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Methods. Cross-sectional study including 132 consecutive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLICC, 2012 classification criteria). We collected clinical and socio-demographic data, socio-economic status; we assessed SLEDAI-2k disease activity, and estimated the adherence to treatment by Morisky questionnaire.
Results. Our results demonstrated that low adherence to treatment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was in only 11.36% of patients, while 43.18% and 45.46% of the patients were scored as moderate and high adherence, respectively. A moderate/high adherence to treatment was associated to a high level of education (r = −0.51, p < 0.05, 95% CI = −0.25 to −0.66), low disease activity (r = 0.38, p < 0.05, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.53) and low indices of physician global assessment (r = −0.31, p<0.05, 95% CI = −0.23 to −0.71). The sub-analysis of the adherence to each drug demonstrated that the highest adherence was to treatment with glucocorticosteroids – 92.85%, followed by hydroxychloroquine and aspirin – 92.15% and 89.79%, respectively.
Conclusion. In our cohort, the adherence to treatment was high in 45.46%, moderate in 43.18% and low in only 11.36% cases. High adherence to treatment was associated to low disease activity. The adherence was positively influenced by the age at the onset of the disease and a high educational level.
Meral Çeliker, Mustafa Yavuz Selçuk and Serdar Olt
Objective. To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetic nephropathy.
Methods. 56 diabetic patients without complications, 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 53 healthy controls included in this present study. Demographic characteristics such as sex, age, anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index [BMI], hip circumference, waist circumference and upper arm circumference were measured. Sarcopenia diagnosis was based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [EWGSOP] criteria which consist of hand grip strength, 6-meter walking test and muscle mass.
Results. The frequency of sarcopenia increased gradually from 15.1% in healthy control group to 21.4% in the diabetes group, and 34% in diabetic nephropathy group (X2 for trend, p = 0.029). The frequency of sarcopenia was similar in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy group. However, the frequency of sarcopenia was higher in diabetic nephropathy than healthy controls (OR = 2.89, CI [1.11-7.51] in logistic regression).
Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healthy controls.
Gianfranco E. Umeres-Francia, María V. Rojas-Fernández and Vicente A. Benites-Zapata
Natsuki Aoyama-Maeda, Taro Horino, Osamu Ichii and Yoshio Terada
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), a variant of secondary hemophagocyticlymphohistiocytosis, is a potentially life-threatening complication of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We present a case of MAS as a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Although initial treatment with corticosteroid, with or without cyclosporine A, is justified in patients with MAS, evidence regarding the effectiveness of this treatment protocol remains to be clarified. Our patient was successfully treated with a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and intravenous methyl predonisolone pulse therapy, which was followed by a course of oral prednisolone and oral tacrolimus. Based on our experience, we propose tacrolimus to provide a more useful adjuvant treatment to corticosteroid therapy than cyclosporine A.
Rahmatollah Rafiei, Mahboobeh Bemanian, Fereshteh Rafiei, Mahmood Bahrami, Lotfollah Fooladi, Giti Ebrahimi, Ahmadreza Hemmat and Zahra Torabi
Introduction. It seems that there is a relationship between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SIBO among NAFLD patients.
Methods. In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 98 eligible NAFLD patients were evaluated for SIBO using hydrogen breath test (HBT). They were divided into SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained.
Results. Based on the HBT, 38 patients (39%) had bacteria overgrowth. There were no significant differences between SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative regarding demographic data and BMI classification (P > 0.05). Biochemical variables, the results of abdominal ultrasound, and liver elastography did not show any significant difference between SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative patients (P > 0.05). Patients with SIBO were found to have higher rates of bloating, while abdominal pain was more prevalent in SIBO-negative patients (P < 0.001).
Conclusions. SIBO is prevalent in NAFLD and associated with bloating in these patients. Further studies are necessary to elucidate if therapeutic manipulation of gut microbiota reduces the risk of NAFLD, fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis.
Zeynep Yildiz, Abdulkadir Koçer, Şahin Avşar and Göksel Cinier
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a reliable marker to diagnose acute myocardial infarction, but the pathophysiological explanation for the increase in cTnI levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke (IS) remains unknown. To overcome this question, we aimed to compare serum cTnI levels in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) concomitant with and without stroke. By doing like this, we thought that we could demonstrate the effect of stroke on TrpI level. METHODS: Serum cTnI levels of 41 patients having ACS with acute IS during hospitalization were compared with 97 control patients having only ACS. Cranial CT was performed to evaluate the lesions. The severity of IS was evaluated objectively by national institutes of health stroke scale. RESULTS: cTnI levels were found to be similar in both groups. Presence of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and previous myocardial infarction were more frequent in patients with acute IS. The cTnI levels in the patients with the cranial lesion in the anterior circulation was higher (p=0.039). Presence of acute IS, cTnI level higher than 20 ng/mL and left ventricular ejection fraction <40% were found to be independent risk factors for mortality (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that abnormal troponin levels were more likely to be due to cardiac causes than cerebral ones in this first study evaluating the cTnI levels in patients with ACS concomitant with acute IS. The severity of IS, lesion location in the anterior circulation and higher troponin levels were associated with mortality. Key words: Stroke, Troponin I, Acute Coronary Syndrome, Brain Ischemia, Mortality