Bladder cancer is the 7th most common cancer in men. About 75% of all bladder cancer are non-muscle invasive (NMIBC). The golden standard for definite diagnosis and first-line treatment of NMIBC is transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURB). Historically, the monopolar current was used first, today bipolar current is preferred by most urologists. Following TURB, depending on the tumour grade, additional intravesical chemo- or/and immunotherapy is indicated, in order to prevent recurrence and need for surgical resection. Development of new technologies, molecular and cell biology, enabled scientists to develop organoids – systems of human cells that are cultivated in the laboratory and have characteristics of the tissue from which they were harvested. In the field of urologic cancers, the organoids are used mainly for studying the course of different diseases, however, in the field of bladder cancer the data are scarce.
Different currents - monopolar and bipolar, have different effect on urothelium, that is important for oncological results and pathohistological interpretation. Specimens of bladder cancer can be used for preparation of organoids that are further used for studying carcinogenesis. Bladder organoids are step towards personalised medicine, especially for testing effectiveness of chemo-/immunotherapeutics.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive tumors. The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between a higher dietary intake of iodine, frequency of ATC and the characteristics of ATC, and to find out how often patients with ATC had a history of radioiodine (RAI) therapy.
Patients and methods
This retrospective study included 220 patients (152 females, 68 males; mean age 68 years) with ATC who were treated in our country from 1972 to 2017. The salt was iodinated with 10 mg of potassium iodide/ kg before 1999, and with 25 mg of potassium iodide/kg thereafter. The patients were assorted into 15-year periods: 1972–1986, 1987–2001, and 2002–2017.
The incidence of ATC decreased after a higher iodination of salt (p = 0.04). Patients are nowadays older (p = 0.013) and have less frequent lymph node metastases (p = 0.012). The frequency of distant metastases did not change over time. The median survival of patients in the first, second, and third periods was 3, 4, and 3 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The history of RAI therapy was present in 7.7% of patients.
The number of patients with a history of RAI therapy did not change statistically over time. The incidence of ATC in Slovenia decreased probably because of higher salt iodination.
High energy electron linear accelerators (LINACs) producing photon beams with energies higher than 10 MeV are widely used in radiation therapy. In these beams, fast neutrons are generated, which results in undesired contamination of the therapeutic beam. In this study, measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to obtain neutron spectra and dose equivalents in vicinity of linear accelerator.
Materials and methods
LINAC Siemens Oncor Expression in Osijek University Hospital is placed in vault that was previously used for 60Co machine. Then, the shielding of the vault was enhanced using lead and steel plates. Measurements of neutron dose equivalent around LINAC and the vault were done using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. To compensate energy dependence of detectors, neutron energy spectra was calculated in measuring positions using MC simulations.
The vault is a source of photoneutrons, but a vast majority of neutrons originates from accelerator head. Neutron spectra obtained from MC simulations show significant changes between the measuring positions. Annual neutron dose equivalent per year was estimated to be less than 324 μSv in the measuring points outside of the vault.
Since detectors used in this paper are very dependent on neutron energy, it is extremely important to know the neutron spectra in measuring points. Though, patient dosimetry should include neutrons, estimated annual neutron doses outside the vault were far below exposure limit of ionizing radiation for workers.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive highly sensitive tool for diagnosing chondromalacia patellae in the early stages. Many studies have evaluated patellar and trochlear morphology with different radiologic indices. We aimed to assess the discriminative power of tibial, patellar, and femoral indices in MRI for chondromalacia patellae.
Patients and methods
100 cases of chondromalacia, as well as 100 age-matched controls among the patients who underwent knee MRI between February 2017 and March 2019, were included. The standard protocol of knee MRI was applied and the diagnosis of chondromalacia was made on MRI findings. Chondromalacia subjects were also classified as grade 1 to 4 according to the Modified Outerbridge’s MRI grading system. We measured 25 MRI parameters in the knee and adjacent structures to determine the relation between chondromalacia patellae and anatomical MRI parameters.
Tibial slope, trochlear depth, lateral trochlear inclination, and lateral patellar tilt angle had significant correlation with chondromalacia. Any increase in lateral trochlear inclination and lateral patellar tilt angle could increase the probability of the disease (Odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03–1.30; 1.02–1.26, respectively), while any increase in medial tibial slope and trochlear depth could decrease the probability of chondromalacia (OR 0.85, 0.06; 95% CI: 0.73–0.98, 0.02–0.17, respectively). We also designed a model for the severity of disease by using the patellar height index (relative odds ratio: 75.9).
The result of this study showed the novelty role of tibial anatomy in developing chondromalacia and its mechanism. We also concluded that patellar height might be an important factor in defining disease severity.
The goal of our study was to find out whether the immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) p65 in biopsy samples with Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (GS 6) can be a negative predictive factor for Prostate cancer (PCa) indolence.
Patients and methods
Study was conducted on a retrospective cohort of 123 PCa patients with initial total PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, number of needle biopsy specimens ≥ 8, GS 6 on biopsy and T1/T2 estimated clinical stage who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and whose archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate needle biopsy specimens were used for additional immunohistochemistry staining for detection of NF-κB p65. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-κB p65 expression in biopsy cores with PCa were correlated with postoperative pathological stage, positive surgical margins, GS and biochemical progression of disease.
After follow-up of 66 months, biochemical progression (PSA ≥ 0.2 ng/ml) occurred in 6 (5.1%) patients, 3 (50%) with GS 6 and 3 (50%) with GS 7 after radical prostatectomy. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-κB p65 expressions were not significantly associated with pathological stage, positive surgical margin and postoperative GS. Patients with positive cytoplasmic NF-kB reaction had significantly more frequent biochemical progression than those with negative cytoplasmic NF-kB reaction with PSA 0.2 ng/ml as cutoff point (p = 0.015) and a trend towards more biochemical progression with PSA ≥ 0.05 ng/ml as cutoff point (p = 0.068).
Cytoplasmic expression of NF-κB is associated with more biochemical progression and might be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS), but further studies including larger patient cohorts are needed to confirm these initial results.
Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end stage lung disease. There may be a higher incidence of lung cancer in lung transplant recipients, and these cancers tend to be diagnosed at a more advanced stage. There is very little data on the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lesions in the native lung in lung-transplant recipients.
Patients and methods
A retrospective chart review of all patients who have undergone lung transplantation and were treated with SBRT for lung cancer in the native lung in the Davidoff Cancer Center was performed.
Four patients who were treated with SBRT to a total of 5 lesions were included. Two patients were treated without histological confirmation of malignancy. All cases were discussed in a multidisciplinary tumor board before being referred for radiotherapy. Standard SBRT dosing was used. Responses were assessed by imaging. Three lesions exhibited a complete response and two lesions had a partial response. The patients who had partial responses developed distant metastases and died shortly. No patient developed measurable toxicity.
SBRT is effective and safe for the management of lung cancer in lung-transplant patients. Standard dose and fractionation can be used.
Past decade has seen the advent of several prognosticators for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although TNM staging is still considered as the prognostic gold standard, it is not possible to obtain all the necessary information for a pathological TNM staging until excisional biopsy. Thus, it is necessary to identify features from the initial biopsy, which could aid in early prognostication.
To compare neutrophil elastase immuno-expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients with and without lymph node metastasis.
Materials and Methods
Archival specimens of 50 oral squamous cell carcinoma consisting of 25 cases with and 25 cases without lymph node metastasis were immuno-stained for neutrophil elastase.
Statistically, a significant difference was noted in the neutrophil elastase staining between the 2 groups. 18 of the 25-oral squamous cell carcinoma cases with lymph node metastasis were positive and only 5 of the 25-oral squamous cell carcinoma cases without nodal involvement were positive.
Presence of neutrophil elastase in the lesional tissue is strongly associated with a lymph node involvement, and thus could serve as a prognostic factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
This study aimed to report a cancer registry in Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Department, Mansoura University Hospital in 2015.
Patients and Methods
All cancer patients who were registered in the department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Mansoura University Hospital in the time period from January 1st, 2015 to December 31st, 2015, were enrolled in this study. The data in the outpatient clinic index including patient’s name, age, sex and diagnosis were collected.
The included patients were 1146 males (43.7%) and 1474 females (56.3%), the male to female ratio was 1:1.3. The median age for patients was 54 years, and it ranged from 1.5 to 93 years. The median age at diagnosis for female and male patients was 52 years and 57 years, respectively. The most common sites for cancer in females were breast (47.2%), thyroid (7.6%), colon and rectum (5.7%), non-Hodgkin (3.6%), uterus, brain and then ovary. However, the most common cancer sites among males were bladder (9.7%), colon and rectum (9.2%), lung (8.5%), hepatobiliary region (7.9%), brain (6.6%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.6%) and then prostatic cancer.
The current report provides a first cancer registry for this hospital based on data, to be further included in cancer statistics.
Disturbance in cell cycle regulatory genes is a common finding among many types of cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cyclin D1 and DJ-1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC).
The current study enclosed 40 patients diagnosed with PC and 40 cases of BPH. The expression level of cyclin D1 and DJ-1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cyclin D1 scored depending on the percentage of stained nuclear tumor cells. While scoring of DJ-1 was based on intensity. The results were correlated with clinicopathological features and outcome.
In the PC group, cyclin D1 was detected in 95% and overexpressed in 42.5%, DJ-1 was positively stained in 85% and overexpressed in 47.5%. Meanwhile, in the BPH group, cyclin D1 was not detected and DJ-1 stained in only 2.5%. There was a statistically significant difference in Gleason score (GS), tumor stage, size, and treatment failure (p =< 0.001). In the terms of PC diagnosis prediction, although cyclin D1 was more specific (100%), DJ-1 is more sensitive than cyclin D1 (80%, 70%, respectively) (p = 0.000).
Cyclin D1 and DJ-1 may emerge as a promising way for diagnosis of PC in certain circumstances, as the presence of insufficient tissue sampling, small foci of carcinoma or benign lesions mimic PC. This is in addition to the known role of cyclin D1 and DJ-1 in PC prognosis.