Background: We sought to evaluate the clinical impacts of the early administration of trophic doses of a glutamine/arginine enriched enteral nutrition formula (ENF) with a high protein density to cachectic hypoalbuminemic hospitalized patients intolerant to enteral nutrition.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the nutritional and non-nutritional data of patients admitted to our institution from April 2017 through August 2019. Patients who died or were discharged before completing ≥1 weeks of hospital admission, or those whose data could not be obtained were excluded. Among other variables, percent changes in serum albumin levels (%∆ALB), C - reactive protein (CRP) and their ratios were expressed as Mean±SD using the Independent Samples T-test, while categorical variables were expressed as numbers with percentages by using χ2 test. Two tested groups were determined based on the use of ENF: Group I received trophic doses of ENF, while Group II received no enteral nutrition.
Results: The overall hospital length of stay (LOS) and overall 28-day hospital mortality were significantly lower in Group I when compared with Group II with Means±SDs of (11.32±2.19 days vs 23.49±4.33 days) and (13.13% vs. 28.16%), respectively. Also, significantly higher (%∆ALB) for Group I compared with group II (43.48%±7.89% vs. 33.45%±6.18%), respectively was observed.
Conclusion: In malnourished hypoalbuminemic patients suffering from feeding intolerance, early trophic administration of glutamine/arginine enriched high protein density ENF was well tolerated and may be associated with increased plasma albumin levels, reduced LOS, and overall 28-day mortality, and hence may be considered in such patients.
Background. In December, 2019, China, has experienced an outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Coronavirus has now spread to all of the continents. We aimed to consider clinical characteristics, laboratory data of COVID-19 that provided more information for the research of this novel virus.
Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study on the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of a series of the 100 confirmed patients with COVID-19. These patients were admitted to the hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences (Ayatollah Rohani, Shahid Beheshti and Yahyanejad hospitals) form 25 February 2020 to 12 March 2020.
Results. Nineteen patients died during hospitalization and 81 were discharged. Non-survivor patients had a significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) (MD: 46.37, 95% CI: 20.84, 71.90; P= 0.001), white blood cells (WBCs) (MD: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.53, 4.67; P< 0.001) and lower lymphocyte (MD: -8.75, 95% CI: -12.62, -4.87; P< 0.001) compared to survivor patients Data analysis showed that comorbid conditions (aRR: 2.99, 95%CI: 1.09, 8.21, P= 0.034), higher CRP levels (aRR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03, P= 0.044), and lower lymphocyte (aRR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.73, 0.93, P= 0.003) were associated with increased risk of death.
Conclusions. Based on our findings, most non-survivors are elderly with comorbidities. Lymphopenia and increased levels of WBCs along with elevated CRP were associated with increased risk of death. Therefore, it is best to be regularly assessed these markers during treatment of COVID-19 patients.
Sepsis is an overwhelming reaction to infection that comes with high morbidity and mortality, that requires urgent interventions in order to improve outcomes.
Surviving Sepsis is an international campaign that aims to improve sepsis outcomes. The 2016 guideline modifies the previous definition of sepsis and proposes some specific diagnostic and therapeutic measures, such as the protocolized use of fluid resuscitation and antibiotics.
We aim to summarize the main recommendations of the 2016 guideline that are relevant to the internist and evidence-base update them to the year 2020. In the current context, this review doesn’t address patients affected by SARS-COV2 induced disease.
Gas gangrene (GG) remains a life-threatening and deadly disease. Early recognition together with daily surgical debridement remains the mainstay of therapy. We sought to describe a fatal case of necrotizing soft tissue infection, which was a gas gagrene in this case. This case was remarkable as two main sites were infected simultaneously in geographical zones very far from each other making dissemination between both sites almost impossible. The other particularity was the fact that the infection was caused at the same time by four different bacteria that is atypical in GG similar to that in streptoccocal necrotizing fasciitis where one bacteria is the causative agent (Clostridium perfringens for GG and group A streptococcus for necrotizing fasciitis).
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases and is the leading cause of death worldwide. Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy to promote cardiac regeneration and myocardial function recovery. Recently, the generation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) and their differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells offer an unprecedented opportunity for the IHD treatment. This review briefly summarizes hiPSCs and their differentiation, and presents the recent advances in hiPSC injection, engineered cardiac patch fabrication, and the application of hiPSC derived extracellular vesicle. Current challenges and further perspectives are also discussed to understand current risks and concerns, identify potential solutions, and direct future clinical trials and applications.
According to recent guidelines, a diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) can be made without a biopsy, especially in children. There are no enough studies despite high prevalence and differences in genetic, race, and cultures. Therefore, we examined the correlation between tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and duodenal biopsy changes in our region because we are identical and different from others in culture, environment, and habits, and the correlation is same as that in different regions.
A retrospective cohort study at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affaires (NGHA) health care facilities that are distributed throughout kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April 19, 2015, till March 29, 2018. This study used the BESTCARE system that includes data from all NGHA facilities; data from 513 patients with CD were collected. All patients diagnosed with celiac disease aged 15 years or more, confirmed by improvement on gluten-free diet (GFD), and were not on GFD before endoscopy or serology test or both of them were included in the study, and the TTG IgA level was measured at the same time or within 2–3 months of biopsy date. The exclusion criteria were negative duodenal biopsy, which is less than 2; patients with negative biopsy and negative serology; patients who were on GFD before testing, and any patients known to have immunity diseases or illness causing mucosal changes. The TTG IgA level was measured in IU/ mL and was labeled as negative (<20 IU/mL) and positive (≥ 20 IU/mL) based on the cutoff value. However, Intestinal biopsy findings were identified as Marsh classification groups.
One hundred thirty-four patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Median age of our sample was 24 years (16–37 years). Among these, 99 (73.88%) were female patients, whereas male patients were only 35 (26.12%). Histopathologic investigation of intestinal biopsy were Marsh 0 group was 16 cases (11.9%), Marsh 1 group was 8 cases (6%), Marsh 2 group was 4 cases (3%), Marsh 3a group was 32 cases (23.9%), Marsh 3b group was 64 cases (47.8%), and Marsh 3c group was 10 cases (7.5%). The TTG IgA antibody serology groups were <20 IU/mL in 13 cases (9.7%) and ≥20 IU/mL in 121 cases (90.3%). Among all patients with CD who had negative biopsy (Marsh 0 group), 16 (100%) of them had positive TTG IgA antibody. However, among patients with Marsh 1 group biopsy, 5 (62.5%) cases had negative TTG IgA antibody compared with 3 (37.5%) positive cases. Of the four cases (100%) with Marsh 2 group, all of them had positive TTG IgA antibody. However, in Marsh 3a group biopsy, 3 (9.4%) cases had negative TTG IgA antibody compared with 29 (90.6%) cases with positive TTG IgA antibody. Furthermore, among the patients with Marsh 3b group biopsy, 5 (7.8%) had negative antibody and 59 (92.2%) had positive serology. Of all biopsies of Marsh 3c group, 10 (100 %) had positive TTG IgA antibody.
In perspective of high prevalence of CD in KSA, even more than western countries, we can pretend that positive TTG antibody tests can be applied for the diagnosis of CD without biopsy, particularly in symptomatic patients along with high titer, that is, 5–10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). However, to validate it further, we need larger prospective studies in which duodenal biopsies should be taken according to recommended protocol and should be interpreted by experienced pathologist. Furthermore, biopsy is still needed in patients who do not show clinical improvement on a gluten-free diet and in cases with mildly or moderately elevated TTG IgA.
The importance of myocardial dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD) is currently debated. It is difficult to find a reliable index of function in patients with chronic overload as in SCD. Speckle tracking echocardiography, a new mean of evaluating cardiac function, might be a useful tool in SCD. It has been applied in many fields to detect early cardiac function deterioration, and it is less load dependent compared with other function parameters. Studies in patients with SCD are rare, and the results are conflicting. The present study aimed to determine whether left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) was abnormal in a population of adults with SCD and whether it was correlated with clinical or biological parameters.
We prospectively enrolled 37 patients and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Echocardiography was performed in patients and controls.
We found that the left ventricular diameter and mass were higher and the ejection fraction and longitudinal strain were lower in patients compared with controls. Diastolic dysfunction was uncommon. LV-GLS was abnormal in 21% of the patients. No correlation was observed between strain and clinical or biological parameters.
We concluded that LV-GLS could be a useful tool for evaluating these patients. However, the clinical impact of reduced LV-GLS remains to be determined.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is strongly associated with obesity. A weight loss of ≥10% is necessary to improve NASH severity, but this goal has rarely been achieved in published studies using different diet protocols. The effect of a ketogenic, hypocaloric, commercial diet (“Ideal Protein,” IP) on body weight, metabolic markers, and liver tests in a group of NASH patients is evaluated in this study. Daily calorie intake was tailored to achieve a weight loss of ≥10%.
We analyzed 38 patients with NASH who were placed on the IP diet between 2014 and 2018 and compared their outcomes with 6 control patients who declined the diet. All patients were evaluated by a trained health coach in weekly intervals throughout the study period. Clinical and laboratory data obtained before and at 6.5 months after intervention were compared using paired t-testing.
The patients on the IP diet experienced a significant weight reduction (217 ± 8 lb vs. 194 ± 7 lb; mean ± S.E.M.), corresponding to an average weight loss of 9.7% ± 1.6%. Significant changes in systolic blood pressure (133 ± 3 mmHg vs. 123 ± 3 mmHg), triglycerides (200 ± 21 mmol/L vs. 132 ± 11 mmol/L), hemoglobin A1c (6.71% ± 0.29% vs. 5.74% ± 0.19%), SGPT (97.3 ± 11.1 IU/L vs. 44.2 ± 5.9 IU/L), SGOT (82.4 ± 10.5 IU/L vs. 32.8 ± 5.2 IU/L), and Fib-4 scores (2.25 ± 0.23 vs. 1.40 ± 0.13) were also observed (P<0.05 in all cases). In the IP group, 50.5% of patients lost ≥10% body weight. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the control group. The IP diet was well tolerated, and no safety signals were noticed.
A ketogenic, hypocaloric resulted in striking weight loss and significant improvements in metabolic parameters and liver tests, suggesting that this approach carries promise for the dietary management of patients with NASH.