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Abstract

Background

The quadriceps tendon is a promising alternative graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Morphology of the graft directly affects the biomechanical properties. However, a few studies are evaluating the anatomical structures of quadriceps tendon as a graft in Asian population.

Objective

To define the anatomical structures of quadriceps tendon as a graft for ACL reconstruction.

Methods

Forty-nine quadriceps tendons were dissected and analyzed. Measurements were also done including length, width, and thickness.

Results

The maximum length of superficial quadriceps tendon was 63.2 ± 12.5 mm (range 37.6–83.4). The maximum length of tendon at the deepest part was 57.2 ± 11.5 (range 30.9–83.4). The maximum length of quadriceps tendon was located at 61.4% ± 13% (range 31.8–83.6) from medial edge of the patella insertion (approximately 5 mm lateral from the center of quadriceps tendon insertion). The width of quadriceps tendon at patella insertion was 42.4 ± 3.8 mm (range 33.8–50.5). The thickness of quadriceps tendon at its maximum length on patella insertion was 6.9 ± 2.0 mm (range 1.5–9.5). Positive correlation between the height of cadaver and the maximum length of quadriceps tendon was noted.

Conclusions

The maximum length of quadriceps tendon was located 5 mm lateral from the center of quadriceps tendon insertion. Thus, we recommend marking midline of the quadriceps tendon insertion as a medial border of the harvested graft to get maximum length of the graft. Graft length measurement using superficial anatomy should be cautioned because graft shortening might occur.

Abstract

Background

Trauma is a major cause of death in young adults. The mortality rate is one of the key performance indices of trauma centers.

Objective

To demonstrate a mortality rate, cause of death, and cause of nonpreventable death in a level-1 trauma center in Thailand.

Methods

There was a retrospective study of the death cases from a trauma registry. The number of trauma deaths during the study period was collected to identify the death rate. The causes of death and a death analysis were obtained from the morbidity and mortality.

Results

The death rate was 6.6%. The most common cause of overall death was head injury, and exsanguination was the most common cause of death in the first 24 h. The preventable death rate was 2%, and the most common cause of preventable death was exsanguination.

Conclusions

The mortality rate of trauma patients in Thailand was not higher than that in other countries. The majority of deaths were caused from head injury. Therefore, improvement in injury prevention is needed to decrease the number of deaths.

Abstract

Background

While the assisted reproductive technology (ART) relieves the burden of infertility in many couples, it presents significant public health challenges due to the substantial risk for multiple birth delivery and preterm birth, which are associated with poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. For this reason, it is important to monitor the development and effectiveness of ART services in Thailand.

Objective

To analyze the trends of ART services in Thailand between 2008 and 2014.

Methods

ART clinics in Thailand are required to submit data to the Royal Thai College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists via the National Reporting System. The data from 2008 to 2014 were collected and analyzed.

Results

The number of ART centers was increased from 35 to 47. The total fresh ART cycles were also increased from 3,723 to 6,516. The percentage values of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and zygote intrafallopian transfer cycles were changed from 77.87 to 95.59, 21.43 to 4.31, 0.21 to 0.09, and 0.45 to 0.05, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates were 28.79–33.19, 22.84–51.34, 14.29–42.86, and 0.00–26.67, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates in fresh vs. frozen-thawed cycles were 31.01–36.33 vs. 31.54–37.34 (P < 0.05). The clinical pregnancy rates in female age <35 vs. 35–39 vs. ≥40 years were 36.97–40.70 vs. 32.74–33.42 vs. 21.08–31.34, respectively (P < 0.001), and the percentage values of multifetal pregnancy rate were 18.75 vs. 13.30 and 13.69, respectively (P < 0.001). There were increasing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles, with the percentage of the clinical pregnancy rate (25.90–42.63, P < 0.05). The clinical pregnancy rates in medium-sized ART centers (100–300 cycles per year) vs. in small and large centers were 30.79–41.14 vs. 28.01–34.04 and 8.70–40.35, respectively (P < 0.001). Trends of increasing percentage of ART birth rate to total birth rate ratio were 0.24–0.34 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

There were higher clinical pregnancy rates in frozen-thawed cycles. Higher multifetal pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rate were also found in younger females. There were increasing uses of ICSI and PGS. A trend toward increasing ART birth to total birth ratio was observed.

Abstract

Background

Autophagy and ubiquitin–proteasome (UPS) are two main degradation systems for intracellular proteins. They are essential for homeostasis of neurons during normal and pathological conditions, but their changes after nerve injury remain unclear.

Objective

To examine the protein expression of autophagy and UPS in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), including intact and injured sciatic nerves after crush injury in rats.

Methods

Left sciatic nerve crush was done in all Wistar rats and the specimens were removed at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after injury. Expression of the autophagic (Beclin-1 and p62) and UPS proteins [muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and ubiquitinated proteins] was measured using Western blot analysis.

Results

Expression of p62 was significantly increased in the injured versus intact sciatic nerves on day 1 and day 7 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). There was a trend toward higher expression of Beclin-1 on the crushed nerve. In the DRG, expression of p62 and Beclin-1 was not significantly different between the two sides. Expression of MuRF1 and ubiquitinated proteins was not significantly different between the left and right DRG. The low quantity of MuRF1 and high variations in the ubiquitinated protein levels in the nerve prevented further analysis.

Conclusions

These results indicated the induction of autophagy with accumulation of autophagosomes in the nerve, but not DRG, after nerve injury. Future studies on the effects of the autophagic changes and the precise activity of UPS in nerve trauma are crucial.

Abstract

Background

Complications in periodontitis and other systemic infections related to Porphyromonas gingivalis poses a serious impediment in the treatment process. This leads to the search of novel target proteins to develop newer drugs against P. gingivalis. Prolyl tripeptidyl peptidase (ptp-A) seem to be a vital protein in P. gingivalis virulence and can be a good target for the novel natural bioactive compounds.

Objectives

To explore the inhibitory potential of Rosmarinus officinalis biocompounds against the ptp-A of P. gingivalis.

Methods

Three-dimensional structure of ptp-A was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank with further optimization of both the protein and ligands. In silico inhibitory potential of the selected ligands against ptp-A was done by AutoDock 2.0 and was visualized with Biovia discovery studio visualizing tool with the assessment of the molecular properties of the ligands against ptp-A by molinspiration calculations and drug likeliness.

Results

High ptp-A inhibitory effect was observed using rosmarinic acid and luteolin with a bonding energy of −9.81 kcal/mol with 10 hydrogen bond interactions and −9.99 kcal/mol with 7 hydrogen bond interactions, respectively. Carnosic acid and p-coumaric acid showed a binding energy of −7.14 kcal/mol and −6.34 kcal/mol, respectively, with 5 hydrogen bond interactions. Molinspiration assessments showed R. officinalis compounds as the best drug candidates with the topological polar surface area scores <140 Å toward the best oral bioavailability.

Conclusion

The carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and luteolin from R. officinalis seem to possess a promising inhibitory effect against ptp-A of Candida albicans suggesting ptp-A as the best target to combat P. gingivalis with further in vivo validation.

Abstract

The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out in sub-tropical climate of Bhimdattanagar, Kanchanpur to assess the effect of site specific nutrient management approach in productivity of spring rice. The experiment was carried in single factor randomized completely block design with four replication, in four different farmer’s field, each farmers’ field as single replication. The seedlings were grown in the mat nursery bed and transplanted in the experimental plots with different nutrient management practices. Nutrient management practices were Site Specific Nutrient Management with Nutrient Expert dose (SSNMNE)(109:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Government recommendation dose (100:30:30kg NPK/ha +6 ton FYM), Farmer’s field practice (FFP)(different among farmers) with three omission plots viz. omission of Nitrogen (0:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Omission of Phosphorus (109:0:38 kg NPK/ha) and Omission of Potassium (109:28:0 kg NPK/ha). SSNM-NE dose was obtained by household survey in the respective area and using nutrient expert model. The growth parameters, yield, yield attributing traits and total cost of production were recorded. Data were analyzed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) in Genstat. Result indicates that the highest grain yield (5.81 t/ha) was obtained from SSNM-NE which was statistically at par with government recommendation (5.54 t/ha). Similarly, thousand grains weight, straw yield in the experiment 23.20g, 6.90t/ha were significantly higher in SSNM-NE respectively. Straw yield, grain yield and thousand grain weight of SSNM-NE were found to be statistically at par with government recommendation. The economic analysis revealed that higher B: C ratio (1.91), net return and gross return were higher in SSNM-NE.

Abstract

Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in Nepal as well as globally. But due to varied climatic and sowing conditions low production has been reported throughout the world including Nepal. Sowing rates are highly correlated to yield and its yield attributing characters. Yield loss has been reported 50-62% under a late sown condition which shows a heavy threat to food security problems. Vijaya is the most recommended varieties under late sown conditions due to its high yield and less threat to late sown conditions. Thus identification and release of varieties suitable under late sown conditions are of the utmost importance. Researches should be accelerated under different agro-ecological zones to study the constraints associated with late sown wheat in Nepal.

Abstract

Carbon emission is the biggest problem all over the world. The actualizing of low carbon emission in the bread kitchen and dessert shop segment permits the difference in its mechanical procedure through the improvement of an eco-proficient framework. This study was to line up bread and cake with fully completely different wheat quality, baking time, and temperature through low carbon emission. The prepared samples were chemically analyzed for wet content, ash content, compound content, and organoleptic. Among the four processed cake products based on each parameter tested organoleptically, cupcake products were the most preferable one. Bread products made with substitution of 50% have been received by consumer panelists. The results of this study were also in line with the research conducted by which resulted in a substitution of spinach flour substitution of up to 60% still acceptable by panelists. Sponge cake from flour can still be received by panelists with 50% substitution. 12% of moisture will help 5 days’ self-life without chemical preservatives. The oven is the largest of the three consumers and typically accounts for between 35% and 45% of the total site carbon emissions. The dark cake pan, which holds in more heat than light-colored baking pans and bakes our cake batter faster. Considering that the most significant dark non-stick pan was suggested for baking low carbon emission, it will be reducing the baking temperature by 25° F. Good practice opportunities can be delivered for various plant/equipment utility serving could deliver on average a 10% saving in total CO2 emissions for the sector. This would speak to a CO2 decrease of 57 000 ton CO2 / year over the world.