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Open access

S.M. Yasir Arafat, M A Al Mamun and Md. Saleh Uddin

Abstract

Objectives

Early detection of depression has been assumed to lead to its earlier and better care. Increased depression literacy among the general population might play a vital role in the early and successful detection and treatment. We aimed to investigate depression literacy among the first year university students, to be able to compare their depression literacy with those of other previously investigated groups, we hypothesized that depression literacy might be different from other groups such as patients and other subjects from the general population. Knowledge about depression might also be different in female and male students.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted among the first-year students of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh between January and May 2018. A convenience sample of 306 students was randomly identified from a list of students obtained from the authority. Relevant sociodemographic variables were collected. Students were interviewed using the Bangla Depression Literacy scale (D-Lit Bangla). This was a semi structured interview asking for the knowledge on 20 different characteristics of depression. Collected data were analysed to estimate the mean score and 95% confidence intervals of D-Lit Bangla scores.

Results

The mean score of the correctly identified characteristics of depression was 6.55 (95% CI = 6.31 to 6.89). Only five characteristics of depression were correctly identified by more than 50% participants, that is, sleep change (76.7%), feeling of guilt (75.2%), low self-esteem (81.8%), psychomotor changes (64.6%) and identification of famous people suffering from depression (66.7%). Only a very small portion of the participants correctly knew about psychotic symptoms and different options for the treatment of depression. There were no significant differences between male and female students in the amount and pattern of knowledge of depression.

Conclusions

The study revealed poor literacy status among the first-year university students of Bangladesh. Both male and female gender have similar amount of depression literacy.

Open access

Sankalp Yadav and Gautam Rawal

Abstract

The waterpipe tobacco smoking is an ancient form of smoking that is present in the society since centuries. The majority of consumers of this exotic activity are still unaware of the serious consequences that this type of smoking has on the health of the smoker. The paucity of data related to the prevalence and extent of this habit in the society is still not available. In this present short review, the authors try to highlight this serious health issue and suggest preventive measures.

Open access

Xiangbo Xu, Zhaohui Bai, Qingchun Zhao, Hongyu Li, Qiang Shi, Jiao Deng, Jingqiao Zhang, Xiaozhong Guo and Xingshun Qi

Abstract

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a potentially lethal syndrome, which is characterized by an acute deterioration of liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The present paper reported that an alcoholic cirrhotic patient with ACLF developed septic shock, hydrothorax, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, acute kidney injury, and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding at the same hospitalization and was successfully rescued by pharmacotherapy alone without any invasive intervention.

Open access

Pakkapon Rattanachaisit, Paweena Susantitaphong, Kessarin Thanapirom, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, Piyawat Komolmit, Pisit Tangkijvanich and Sombat Treeprasertsuk

Abstract

Background

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease. The primary treatment of NAFLD by statins has not been clearly elucidated.

Objectives

To evaluate the effectiveness of statin use in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis on the change in liver histology.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for clinical trials and observational studies investigating the effects of statins on histological change regardless of type or dosage from inception to December 2015. Random-effect model meta-analyses were used to compute changes in outcomes of interest. The study protocol was registered in advance with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2016 CRD42016033132).

Results

We identified 6 studies (111 patients), representing 5 cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled clinical trial. There was significant decrease in steatosis grading with a standardized mean difference of –2.580 (95% confidence interval [CI] –4.623 to –0.536; P = 0.013) and NAFLD activity score standardized mean difference of –1.488 (95% CI –2.506 to –0.471; P = 0.004). However, there was no significant change in fibrosis stage (0.156; 95% CI –0.553 to 0.865; P = 0.667).

Conclusions

Statin use can possibly reduce the extent of steatohepatitis but not the stage of fibrosis. Further randomized controlled studies to assess histological evidence with adequate sample size and duration are required in order to establish the role of statin as a primary treatment of NAFLD.

Open access

Songkran Nakbun, Pramote Thongkrajai and Choosak Nithikathkul

Abstract

Background

Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health issue in the Mekong basin region, resulting in a high prevalence of cholangiocarcinoma. Nakhon Phanom province had the highest prevalence of O. viverrini infection in Thailand at 60% of the surveyed population in 2009, despite the attempted control of opisthorchiasis for >50 years. Knowing risk factors for O. viverrini infection in Nakhon Phanom may lead to improved control and prevention of opisthorchiasis.

Objectives

To determine risk factors for O. viverrini infection in Nakhon Phanom.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Nakhon Phanom province from February to March 2014. The community was selected using a stratified random sampling method, and then, participants were selected by systematic random sampling. Individuals ≥15 years old were included. Knowledge of O. viverrini infection, and attitudes and practice to avoid it were assessed using a questionnaire. O. viverrini infection was determined by stool examination with a formalin–ether concentration method. Factors associated with the infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results

Of the 134 participants, 75 (56%) were infected with O. viverrini. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, 3 independent factors were associated with O. viverrini infection: age ≥ 55 years, odds ratio (OR) adjusted 6.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–31.66); consumption of chopped raw-fish salad (koi pla), OR adjusted 28.74 (95% CI 3.59–230.24); and perceived susceptibility, OR adjusted 0.15 (95% CI 0.03–0.74).

Conclusions

Age ≥ 55 years, consuming koi pla, and perceived susceptibility were independently associated with O. viverrini infection in Nakhon Phanom.

Open access

Ningning Zhu, Dijiong Wu and Baodong Ye

Abstract

Aplastic anemia (AA) is a common hematologic disease that is characterized by hematopoietic failure of the bone marrow and pancytopenia of the peripheral blood, which can be divided into severe and non-severe aplastic ane-mia, or acute and chronic aplastic anemia according to the severity of the disease and the progress of the clinical course. During the past years, the advantages of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on the treatment of AA have been well clarified and its theory system has been improved as well. This review is mainly on representing the pathogenesis, therapeutic principle and method, research progression, and advantages of TCM on AA.