Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 118 items for :

Clear All
Open access

M. Niksefat, M. Akbari-Fakhrabadi, Z. Mousavi, V. Ziaee, J. Fallah and A. H. Memari

Abstract

Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance as a result of prolonged strenuous exercise leads to poor thermoregulation and impaired muscle performance. Thus, appropriate rehydration during and after exercise with a solution that has a balanced combination of nutrients including electrolytes, carbohydrates and proteins is crucial in preventing the side effects of dehydration. Yogurt drink as a traditional drink with an appropriate nutritious content could be used as an alternative to expensive commercially available drinks for rehydrating athletes after long exercises in warm and humid environments and in developing countries. In this cross-over trial we examined the rehydration potential of yogurt drink in comparison to water and a commercial drink after a strenuous exercise (cycling) session in a hot and humid environment. Blood measurements included blood osmolality, serum glucose, hematocrit and serum electrolytes. Urine measurements included urine volume, osmolality and electrolyte concentrations. The results showed that early after rehydration Yogurt drink compared to water significantly increased urine sodium (mmol/L) (138.8 ± 93.4 vs. 90.0 ± 50.7, P < 0.01), urine potassium (mmol/L) (105.6 ± 55.1 vs. 35.8 ± 22.0, P < 0.05) and urine chloride (mmol/L) (113.2 ± 28.4 vs. 35.8 ± 25.1 P < 0.01). This degree of improvement was the same as with the commercial drink for urine sodium, potassium, and chloride. Yogurt drink prevented dehydration-induced changes in the blood as it stabilized the hematocrit and serum sodium, potassium and osmolality within the normal range after exercise. Finally, our results indicated that yogurt drink, as a natural and affordable rehydration option, can be considered to restore fluid and electrolyte losses after strenuous exercises in hot and humid environments.

Open access

A. I. Onishchenko, A. S. Tkachenko, I. M. Kalashnyk, V. L. Tkachenko, O. A. Nakonechna and G. I. Gubina-Vakulyck

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate vimentin expression in inflamed nasal mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9).

Material and Methods. We measured concentrations of MMP-9 in blood serum of twenty patients with CRSsNP using ELISA and compared them with the control group composed of twenty healthy subjects. Vimentin expression in nasal mucosa was studied by an immunohistochemical method.

Results. Blood serum levels of MMP-9 were found to be elevated in patients with CRSsNP. The disease was also associated with the upregulation of vimentin expression both in the lamina propria and nasal epithelial layer.

Conclusion. CRSsNP is accompanied by a higher number of vimentin-expressing cells in the nasal epithelium, which may indicate their epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We speculate that MMP-9 may contribute to the increased rate of EMT of nasal epithelial cells in CRSsNP.

Open access

Z. Tajabadi, M. E. Akbari and A. A. Hafez

Abstract

Introduction: Western lifestyle characterized by increased consumption of red meat, fat, processed food, smoking, alcohol drinking, lower consumption of vegetables and physical inactivity has been associated with a higher gastrointestinal cancer risk. Digestive system cancers are diagnosed at late stages when they show poor response to treatment and are associated with a high mortality rate. Colorectal, gastric, esophageal and pancreatic cancers are among the most common cancers worldwide. Studies show that more than 50% of gastrointestinal cancers develop as a result of inappropriate lifestyle. An inverse association between physical activity and many chronic diseases has been proved so far. However, the association between physical activity and some gastrointestinal cancers is still controversial. This study was aimed to determine the association between physical activity and gastrointestinal cancers risk.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of English and Persian databases from February 2007 till December 2017, for studies investigating the association of physical activity and risk of gastrointestinal cancers. Finally, after reading full text of articles, 123 studies were included.

Results: Physical activity can be helpful in reducing the risk of gastrointestinal cancer, especially colon and pancreatic cancers. The risk reduction is not similar for different types of gastrointestinal cancers and also among males and females.

Conclusion: Different types of physical activity are associated with a lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer. However, it is unknown which type and intensity of physical activity are associated with a protective effect against gastro-intestinal cancer.

Open access

A. Nikolov, A. Blazhev, M. Tzekova, K. Kostov and N. Popovski

Abstract

Background and Aims: An important factor in the development of vascular wall lesions is the degradation of the elastic fiber major protein – elastin. Elastin peptides (EDP) derived from this degradation are present in the circulation and are a stimulus for the production of anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) IgM, IgG and IgA. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between AEAbs, lipid indices and the development of microvascular complications.

Material and Methods: Sera of 93 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and arterial hypertension (AH) were investigated (mean age 61,4 ± 11,3 years, diabetes duration 9,88 ± 3,12 years; hypertension duration 9,28 ± 4,98). ELISA was used for determination of anti-elastin antibodies. These levels were compared to serum AEAbs in 42 age- and sex-matched controls. Diabetic patients were divided in two groups according to the presence – Group 1 (n = 67) or absence – Group 2 (n = 26) of microangiopathy. The lipid profile and lipid indices (log TG/HDL, LDL/HDL, TC/HDL and TG/HDL) were also studied.

Results: Patients with T2DM and AH showed statistically significant higher levels of serum AEAbs IgA than healthy controls – 0,338 (0,133÷0,452) vs. 0,006 (0,052÷0,068) (KW = 19,54; P < 0.0001). Group 1 showed statistically significant higher levels of AEAbs IgA than patients without microangiopathy – 0,353 (0,173÷0,471) vs. 0,235 (0,098÷0,377) (KW = 3,36; p = 0.05) and healthy controls – 0,353 (0,173÷0,471) vs. 0,006 (0,052÷0,068) (KW = 20,37; p < 0,0001) (0.37 ± 0,03 vs. 0.06÷0.01) (p = 0.0001). Patients from Group 2 showed significantly higher levels of AEAbs IgA than controls 0,235 (0,098÷0,377) vs. 0,006 (0,052÷0,068) (KW = 8,54; P = 0.003). AEAbs IgA showed correlation with insulin dose (r = −0.35); (p = 0.01), SBP (r = 0.31); (p = 0.001), HbA1c (r = 0.21); (p = 0.04), BMI (r = 0.22); (p = 0.01). AEAbs IgA correlated with log TG/HDL (r = 0.28); (p = 0.001), LDL/HDL (r = 0.22); (p = 0.01) TC/HDL (r = 0.22); (p = 0.01) and with TG/HDL (r = 0.15); (p = 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study proved a relationship between elevation of AEAb IgA, high lipid indices and the development of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension.

Open access

M. Baleva, M. Nikolova-Vlahova, Tsv. Lukanov, M. Ivanova-Shivarova, Zh. Karagjozova, F. Martinova and E. Naumova

Abstract

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease with multifactorial and polygenic pathogenesis. Recently, the genetic predisposition in APS has been subjected to wide discussion. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DRB1 and DQB1 loci in Bulgarian population of healthy persons and patients with primary (PAPS) and secondary (SAPS) APS. Patients are divided in 5 groups: I-29 patents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with SAPS, II-35 patients with PAPS, III-32 women with spontaneous abortions without aPL, IV-15 patients with different thrombosis (deep venous thromboses, pulmonary embolism, mesenterial thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke) without laboratory data for APS, and V-16 SLE patients without clinical and laboratory data for APS. SAPS patients have more frequently DRB1*03 and DQB1*02 and more rarely DRB1*11 and DQB1*03 in comparison with healthy subjects and patients with PAPS. Patents with PAPS, those with spontaneous abortions and patients with thrombotic events but without antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have DRB1*03, DRB1*11, DQB1*02 and DQB1*03 alleles similar to the general population. There are no differences between group I (SLE+APS) and group V (SLE) in DRB1* and DQB1*alleles.

Open access

V. Ilieva, T. Mihalova, Yo. Yamakova, R. Petkov and B. Velev

Abstract

Introduction: In the light of constant pressure for minimizing healthcare costs we made a cost-minimization analysis comparing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as treatment for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF).

Aim: The primary objective was to estimate the direct medical costs generated by a patient on IMV and NIV. A secondary objective was to identify which aspect of the treatment was most expensive.

Material and Methods: This is a single center retrospective study including 36 patients on mechanical ventilation due to hypoxemic ARF, separated in two groups – NIV (n = 18) and IMV (n = 18). We calculated all direct medical costs in Euro and compared them statistically.

Results: On admission the PaO2/FiO2 and SAPS II score were comparable in both groups. We observed a significant difference in the costs per patient for drug treatment (NIV: 616.07; IQR: 236.68, IMV:1456.18; IQR:1741.95, p = 0.005), consumables (NIV: 16.47; IQR: 21.44, IMV: 98.79; IQR: 81.52, p < 0.001) and diagnostic tests (NIV: 351; IQR: 183.88, IMV: 765.69; IQR: 851.43, p < 0.001). We also computed the costs per patient per day and there was a significant difference in the costs in all above listed categories. In both groups the highest costs were for drug treatment – around 61%.

Conclusions: In the setting of hypoxemic ARF NIV reduces significantly the direct medical costs of treatment in comparison to IMV. The decreased costs in NIV are not associated with severity of disease according to the respiratory quotient and SAPS II score.

Open access

V. Grozeva and A. Kundurzhiev

Abstract

Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are commonly associated with calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders. The general term of “renal osteodystrophy” (ROD) encompasses a complex spectrum of abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism in CKD. This is one of the most serious and debilitating complications of CKD. It is related to disproportionately high direct and indirect costs of healthcare, thus posing a major burden on society. The development of ROD begins too early in the course of CKD. Some mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ROD are reduced calciferol production, calcium deficiency and hyperphosphatemia. Clinically, ROD occurs with varied manifestations – osteomalacia, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease. The diagnosis and the treatment are a challenge for the physician and effort should be made to prolong the duration and quality of life of the affected patients.

Open access

V. Borisova, M. Eftimov and S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova

Abstract

Depression and anxiety are prevalent chronic psychiatric disorders affecting many people worldwide. Over the past decades, much attention has been drawn to herbal psychopharmacology, offering fewer adverse reactions. The main bioactive compounds in Chaenomeles maulei fruits are polyphenols known for their behavioral effects. The objective of the present study was to assess Chaenomeles maulei fruit juice (CMFJ) effects in tests for anxiety and depression. The animals used were 32 male healthy Wistar rats treated orally with CMFJ for 16 days. They were divided in four groups of 8 animals. The control group received distilled water and the rest of the groups were treated with CMFJ at 2.5, 5 and 10 ml/kg doses. We assessed the social interaction time as a measure of anxiety and the immobility time in the forced swim test as a measure of behavioral despair. In the social interaction test, the 14 days administration of CMFJ did not produce any significant changes in the time spent in social interaction. After 16 days of administration all doses of CMFJ significantly decreased the immobility time of the rats (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results allow making the conclusion that CMFJ lacked anxiolytic activity, but showed an antidepressant-like effect.

Open access

V. Koritarova and S. Georgiev

Abstract

Introduction: A lot of clinical studies have shown that during prolonged surgery protective ventilation strategy, including low tidal volume, PEEP and recruitment maneuvers (RM) can reduce the rate of postoperative pulmonary complications, which are the second most common cause for postoperative mortality. Therefore, it is important to investigate clinical methods for preventing them. The strategy of protective ventilation is easy and safe for the patients and inexpensive for application during prolonged surgery.

Aims: The objective of this trial was to study whether application of PEEP in patients during prolonged gynecological surgery could decrease the postoperative complications.

Material and Methods: We compared the rates of postoperative complications in patients after prolonged open gynecological surgery, who were divided into 2 groups – group A, which was the control group on non-protective ventilation (35 patients) and group B on protective ventilation (35 patients). The patients in the control group were ventilated with tidal volume (VT) of 8-10 ml/kg without PEEP and RM; the patients in group B were ventilated with VT = 6-8 ml/kg according to their Predicted Body Weight, with a PEEP of 6 cm H2O and RM, which consisted of applying continuous positive airway pressure of 30 cm H2O for 30 seconds. RM was performed after intubation, after every disconnection from ventilator and before extubation. The study was successfully performed without a need for a change in the type of ventilation strategy because of hypoxia or hemodynamic instability. Statistical nonparametric test (e.g. chi-square) was applied.

Results: Total rate of all postoperative complications observed in both groups was 27,1%. We found a significant relationship between application of PEEP and lower rates of postoperative pulmonary complications in group A (39,4%) compared to group B (12,1%), lower rate of respiratory failure (33,3% in group A vs. 9,1% in group B -) and atelectasis (21,2% in group A vs. 0% in group B).

Conclusion: The protective ventilation strategy (low VT, PEEP and RM) in patients during prolonged gynecological surgery can reduce the rate of postoperative pulmonary complications such as respiratory failure and atelectasis.

Open access

N. Yancheva, N. Temelkova, D. Strashimirov, I. Gabarska and T. Tchervenyakova

Abstract

Objective: To determine the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Bulgarian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.

Methods: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 41 Bulgarian HIV-infected patients.

Results: Overall, 27% of patients had reduced BMD (7% osteoporosis and 20% osteopenia). There was a significant correlation between low BMD and increasing age and between low BMD and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) but no correlation with gender, therapy regimen or serum calcium or phosphate levels. Seventy-one percent had elevated serum cystatin C levels but there was no correlation between BMD and cystatin C levels. Serum calcium, phosphate, cystatin C and creatinine levels and the T- and Z-scores were tested for dependence on duration of therapy. Dependence was found for T- and Z-scores, (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038) but not for calcium, phosphate, cystatin C or creatinine levels. These variables were subsequently tested by means of cross-tabulation tables for correlations between pairs of parameters; no significant correlation was found between any pairs (R > 0.5 for all comparisons).

Conclusions: Significant correlations were observed between low BMD and increasing age and longer duration of ART but no relationship was observed with gender or therapy regimen.