Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 2,400 items for :

  • Basic Medical Science, other x
Clear All
Open access

Manol Karadaev, Ivan Fasulkov, Radina Vasileva and Nasko Vasilev

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the fetal number in goats by using hormonal and ultrasonographic examinations. The experiments were conducted with 106 clinically healthy Bulgarian local goats, 1.5 to 7 years of age, weighing 35-52 kg. Hormonal examinations were performed on 24 goats. Serum progesterone concentrations were measured during a 7 days interval, between 21-63 day of pregnancy, and during a 14 days interval until the 133rd day of pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed on 82 goats with a multi-frequency linear transducer (5.0-12.0 MHz). All animals were studied once during an interval of 7 days transrectally (21-28 day, 29-35 day, 36-42 day) and transabdominally (43-49 day, 50-56 day, 57-63 day), respectively. The accuracy of determining the number of singleton and multiple pregnancies by hormonal analysis were 51%, 58%, 69% and 47%, 52%, 62%, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonography to determine the number of fetuses is highest in singletons 76.18%, followed by twins 72.56% and the lowest in triplets and more fetuses 21.43%. Highest accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive diagnosis were established in the period 43-49 day of pregnancy (P<0.05). The obtained results show that the most appropriate period is between 42 and 49 day of pregnancy for determination of the fetal number in Bulgarian local goats using ultrasonography.

Open access

Ismet Kalkanov, Ivan Dinev and Ivan Zarkov

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to report the primary gross and microscopic lesions, as well as etiological agents of field cases of pneumoenteritis in neonate and juvenile calves. The research was done with 370 calves from 6 cattle farms in 4 regions of the country. The age of the animals was from 24 hours to 25 days. Clinical and epidemiological studies were carried out with newborn and growing calves in all farms. For rapid antigenic and viral detection of pathogens, Rainbow calf scour 5 BIO K 306 Detection of Rota, Corona, E.coli F5, Crypto and Clostridium perf. in bovine stool (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium), and Monoclonal Antibody anti-bovine Coronavirus FITC conjugated) 0,5 ml (20X), BIO 023, (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium) were used. Eighteen carcasses of calves with signs of pneumoenteritis syndrome (PES) were submitted to gross anatomy and histopathological studies. Bovine coronavirus (BСoV) was the main etiological agent involved in calf pneumoenteritis. The macro- and micro lesions in the lung and the ileum of calves affected by PES are relevant with regard to the differential diagnosis of the syndrome and its differentiation from respiratory (IBR, BVD, BRSV, M. haemolytica etc.) and intestinal (Cryptosporidium parvum, bovine rotaviruses, bovine coronaviruses and Escherichia coli K99 (F5) diseases in this category of animals.

Open access

S. Yamakawa, O. Razvina, M. Ito, H. Hibino, T. Someya and T. Ushiki

Abstract

For more than 25 years Niigata University School of Medicine has been organizing medical exchanges with universities of the Russian Far East and Siberia. This exchange has turned out to be mutually beneficial for both universities, giving motivation to medical students and young doctors to strive for knowledge of international medicine. “Program for priority placement of foreign students sponsored by Japanese government” and “Re-inventing Japan project” initiated by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) were adopted in 2014, so it gave us a perfect opportunity to expand the existing program. In 2017, the MEXT approved the application of Niigata University together with Hokkaido University for «Program of Globalization in the field of university education (in cooperation with Russia), the creation of a platform for interaction”. We hope advances in the field of medicine and medical care achieved as a result of such unique cooperation between Japan and Russia will greatly contribute not only to the welfare of citizens of both countries, but also to the development of industry and economy. We would like to share experience gained by our university in the sphere of Japanese-Russian medical exchanges and educational programs, as well to describe the prospects for further development.

Open access

K. Kononovich, Jean-Marc Macé and E. Yuryeva

Abstract

The challenges of medical demography have become a major issue today in France, mainly because of the conjunction of two phenomena. Namely, a massive retirement of the “baby boom” generation and a delay in the medical training induced by the “numerus clausus” that had not anticipated that phenomenon. Unfortunately, the repercussion of the population ageing on hospital consumption and consequently on medical demography is very poorly integrated into the calculation and implementation of the medical professions’ numerus clausus in 2010. Thus we suggest a model that not only identifies the effective demand for care on operational geographical scale, namely, the health territory, but that also makes a projection of healthcare consumption based on the age of population of each “health territory” in a T+1 future. To illustrate this model, we take as example the obstetricians’ activity in France.

Open access

E. Avdeeva, S. Nikulina and I. Artyukhov

Abstract

The article discusses the state of Russian education system of future. It is noted that for the effective change of educational process organization, for the increase of modern students’ motivation, it is necessary to reconsider the methods, technologies and the content of higher education, taking global world trends into account. In order to study the out–look on the development of higher education, the following world trends were identified: remote technologies and digital educational resources; creation of digital universities’ models and certification centres for external independent assessment of professional qualifications; introduction of general language for teaching in the system of higher education; organization of training via interactive lectures of the best teachers of the world; introduction of playing and electronic simulators into educational process. However, the attitude to the issues of digitalization of domestic education is debatable in pedagogical circles, dividing the audience into supporters and opponents of this phenomenon, as far as digitalization causes not only a significant change in the appearance of modern education, but digital technologies are aimed at the change of the nature of a person bodily and spiritually. The latest technologies are used for this very purpose, among which are NBIC-technologies – nano, bio, information and cognitive ones. Digital educational space should not do any harm to a person. So, all the participants of this global project, both developers and experts, must take into account the negative consequences of the impact of digital technology on humans. They should not make them the means of destroying domestic education, its culture and morality. If digital technologies are put at the service of a person, Russian higher schools will be really modernized, as well as, medical education in general.

Open access

Nataša Ristić, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Dragana Petrović-Kosanović, Marko Miler, Gordana Ušćebrka and Verica Milošević

Abstract

Andropause, the culminating phase of male ageing, is characterized by deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis and low circulating free testosterone. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistomorphometric characteristics of the pituitary gonadotropic i.e. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) producing cells after testosterone application in a rat model of the andropause. Middle-aged Wistar rats were divided into orchidectomized (ORX; n=8) and testosterone treated orchidectomized (ORX+T; n=8) groups. Testosterone propionate (5 mg/kg b.m. /day) was administered for three weeks, while the ORX group received the vehicle alone. Immunohistochemically stained FSH and LH cells underwent morphometric and optical density-related analysis, while circulating concentrations of the sex steroids were measured by immunoassays. Serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were significantly (p<0.05) increased by 24 and 2.7 fold respectively, compared to the ORX group. The volume of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 51.3% and 56.6% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Relative volume density of FSH and LH cells was also significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 54.0% and 72.8% respectively, compared to the ORX group. Results related to the optical density of gonadotropic cells (reflecting their hormonal content) were in line with the morphometric findings i.e. this parameter of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 25.7% and 16.2% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Conclusion: In conclusion, applied testosterone increased the serum concentrations of sex steroids, as well as it decreased morphometric parameters and optical density of gonadotropic cells in ORX rats.

Open access

Debora Groppetti, Alessandro Pecile, Stefano Frattini, Giulio Pagnacco and Silvana Arrighi

Abstract

The knowledge about ovarian physiology in small ruminants is still limited, especially when compared to other domestic species. Ovarian function in goats is mainly assessed by ultrasonographic techniques, whereas a quali-quantitative feature of the follicular and luteal structures throughout the reproductive cycle in naturally cycling goats is scarce. This study provides a detailed description of the functional morphology and size of 742 ovarian structures (follicles, corpora hemorrhagica and corpora lutea) in relation to the oestrus phase, the body weight and the age of 25 Alpine goats (Capra hircus). The current study demonstrated that, the number and size of the follicles were related to the stage of the reproductive cycle (P < 0.0001). Also, the mean number of follicles was high during both prepubertal anestrus and diestrus, whereas it was low in the oestrus. Large (3-4 mm in diameter) and very large follicles (> 4 mm) (P < 0.001), and small follicles (< 2 mm; P < 0.05) varied throughout the reproductive cycle, while medium follicles (2-3 mm) were invariably observed. Large and very large follicles were predominant during the diestrus phase and small follicles in the prepubertal anestrus. It is evident from the current study that the number of follicles (P < 0.05) was significantly affected with both body weight and age. On the other hand, the size of follicles was significantly affected with body weight only (P < 0.0001). These results could contribute to a deeper understanding of ovarian transformations with important implications in assisted reproductive technologies, thereby concurring in advancing the efficiency of ultrasound in breeding programs for this species.

Open access

Andrew Scott Perrotta and Darren E. R. Warburton

Abstract

Study aim: Recent evidence has revealed a reduction in the strength of correlation between ratings of perceived exertion and a heart rate (HR) derived training load in elite field hockey players during competition. These competitive periods involve sustained levels of cardiovascular performance coupled with considerable time performing above the anaerobic threshold. As such, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the magnitude of correlation between ratings of perceived exertion and time spent above threshold and two HR derived training loads.

Material and methods: Seventeen (n = 17) international caliber female field hockey players competing as a national team were monitored over four matches during a seven-day competition period within the 2016 Olympic Cycle. Cardiovascular indices of exercise intensity were derived from HR dynamics and were quantified through estimating time spent above anaerobic threshold (LT2), the Edwards training load model (TLED) and the Polar Training Load (TLPOL). Sessional ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) were recorded after each match.

Results: 64 samples were recorded for analysis. HR derived (TLED& TL POL) and sRPE training loads remained comparable between matches. A large correlation (p = 0.01) was observed between sRPE and each heart rate derived training load (TLED& TLPOL). An unremarkable relationship (p = 0.06) was revealed between time spent above LT2 and sRPE.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate HR derived training loads (TLPOL& TLED) exhibit a stronger correlation with sRPE than time spent above LT2 in elite field hockey players during competition.

Open access

Sukru Kirkan, Ugur Parin and Gamze Balat

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from urine samples of dogs. A total of 22 Enterococcus sp. samples were isolated and identified from 100 urine samples collected by cystocentesis from dogs of both sexes. The identification with species specific primers for multiplex PCR revealed that all 22 isolates (100%) belonged to E. faecium. Vancomycin resistance was found in 10 (45%) samples of E. faecium strains with PCR study by vanA and vanB primers.

Open access

M Vukovic, N Radlovic, Z Lekovic, K Vucicevic, N Maric, N Kotur, V Gasic, M Ugrin, M Stojiljkovic, L Dokmanovic, B Zukic and S Pavlovic

Abstract

The UGT1A1 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of bilirubin and numerous medications. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, commonly presented as Gilbert syndrome (GS), is a result of decreased activity of the UGT1A1 enzyme, variable number of TA repeats in the promoter of the UGT1A1 gene affects enzyme activity. Seven and eight TA repeats cause a decrease of UGT1A1 activity and risk GS alleles, while six TA repeats contribute to normal UGT1A1 activity and non-risk GS allele. Also, the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype is recognized as a clinically relevant pharmacogenetic marker. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic value of UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping in pediatric GS patients. Correlation of the UGT1A1 (TA)n genotypes and level of unconjugated bilirubin at diagnosis and after hypocaloric and phenobarbitone tests in these patients was analyzed. Another aim of the study was to assess pharmacogenetic potential of UGT1A1 (TA)n variants in Serbia. Fifty-one pediatric GS patients and 100 healthy individuals were genotyped using different methodologies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by acrylamide electrophoresis, fragment length analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Concordance of the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter risk GS genotypes with GS was found in 80.0% of patients. Therefore, UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping is not a reliable genetic test for GS, but it is useful for differential diagnosis of diseases associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Level of bilirubin in pediatric GS patients at diagnosis was UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype-dependent. We found that the frequency of pharmacogenetic relevant UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotypes was 63.0%, pointing out that UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping could be recommended for preemptive pharmacogenetic testing in Serbia.