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Oana Bodean, Octavian Munteanu, Diana Voicu, Luciana Arsene, Ana Uzunov, Florina Pauleţ and Monica Cîrstoiu

Abstract

With the growth of the aging population worldwide, osteoporosis represents a serious health problem, which implies higher morbidity and costs, despite the continuous advances in treatment options. It involves both sexes, although menopausal women are mainly affected. This article is a brief review of literature on current osteoporosis treatment options.

Open access

D.N. Tarniţa, D.C. Grecu, M.C. Tenovici, R.C. Văduva, A.D. Tudora, A. Grecu, I.L. Petrovici and B. Căpitănescu

Abstract

A 20-year-old patient presented to the emergency service with radial distal epiphysis after a minor trauma. The radiological examination indicated a fracture at the radial distal epiphysis on the background of a tumor that occupied the radial epiphysis in its entirety, with cortical burglary in some places. When consulting the oncologist, a surgical intervention for biopsy material harvesting was performed. The anatomopathological exam showed: multiple fragments microscopically representing a tumor proliferation consisting of two cell populations, mononuclear cells, densely cellular and strobe pattern; areas of infarction, haemorrhage areas, rare intratumoral osteoid formation zones; appearance of giant cell tumor. The immunohistochemical examination confirmed the anatomopathological diagnosis adding, therefore, the aggressive character and the local relapse. The oncologist decided that it did not require oncology treatment but only orthopedic treatment. Orthopedic treatment required repeated surgery at intervals of about 5 months apart, caused by tumor recurrence. The first intervention consisted of 1/ 3 distal radius resection and replacement with a graft harvested from the peroneum. Tumor recurrence after 5 months required extirpation of tumor tissue and filling of caries caused in the graft with a fluid bone substitute. Recurrence after another 5 months required removal of the graft that was invaded by the tumor and cubitusmetacarpal arthrodesis fixed with a screw plate. Currently, the patient is undergoing complementary oncology treatment finally initiated by a medical oncologist.

Open access

D. Anghelescu, E. Popescu, A. Cursaru, A. Dimitriu, R. Ene and C. Cîrstoiu

Abstract

Objectives. Sacral tumors represent about 1-4,3% of all bone tumors. They typically present with an abundance of blood vessels. Due to their anatomical localization, they are hard to approach surgically. Thus, a presurgical neoadjuvant therapy is indicated. The preoperative angiography with the embolization of the nutritive arteries decreases the perioperative blood loss and the symptomatology, and even decreases the volume of the tumors that cannot be surgically approached. Materials and methods. The principle of embolization consists in the targeting of the nutritive tumoral artery and in obturating it with embolic agents (polyvinyl alcohol, embospheres, etc.) through selective catheterization under angiographic control. The biopsy of the tumor is essential for certain diagnosis. The histological type of the tumor and the degree of differentiation influence the tumor’s physiopathology and often influence the therapeutic decision regarding its degree or recurrence. In some cases in which the tumor’s degree of extension increases the surgical risk, serial embolization can be used as a primary method of treatment. Because of the late onset symptomatology, when they are discovered they are extended and the degree of invasion in adjacent tissues is so high that it requires en bloc resection with nerve root sacrifice to assert complete excision and low recurrence rates. Results. The patients who undergo surgical treatment usually bleed, and the perioperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion volumes were halved in the cases in which presurgical transarterial embolization was performed. Conclusions. Transarterial embolization of sacral tumors is a procedure indicated as a neoadjuvant presurgical therapy to decrease the blood loss risks and for the tumors that cannot be surgically removed it is used in the palliative treatment to reduce symptomatology.

Open access

A.N. Marinescu, A.I. Nicula and G. Iana

Abstract

It is a power point program, which through a succession of steps, allows the obtaining of one shorter diagnosis, from a long list of possible ones, by choosing a character of the bone lesion. The aim of this program is to facilitate the differential diagnosis of this particular aspect of a bone lesion - the cystic, expansile osteolytic bone lesion - from a radiological point of view, but not only. The location, age, pain and other condition will be considered and will represent the first criteria in the differentiation. In this differential diagnosis, we discovered not only benign tumor lesions but also malign bone lesions or other non-tumoral conditions. We considered that this program could be easily used by the radiologist or the orthopedist in training and useful by also employing a representative photo gallery.

Open access

C.A. Coroleucă, C.B. Coroleucă, D. Comandaşu, A. Nastas, D. Mihai, M.M. Cîrstoiu and E. Brătilă

Abstract

Introduction. Soft tissue tumors are a rare pathology encountered in the pregnant patient. Considering the patient’s potential vital risk, the concomitant evolution of pregnancy and the possible infertility acquired after treatment, the therapeutic conduct of these tumors is a challenge to current medical practice. Material and method. The paper aims to present certain cases of soft-tissue tumors diagnosed in pregnant women as well as a retrospective analysis of literature. Results. The diagnosis of certainty was significantly delayed in the case of pregnant patients. The treatment plan was complex and had to take into account the type and the location of the primary tumor, growth rate, associated symptom, age of pregnancy, as well as minimize the fetal toxic effects. Conclusions. The identification of a soft-tissue tumor during pregnancy is associated with limited diagnostic methods. A multidisciplinary team should establish the therapeutic approach for softtissue tumors diagnosed in the pregnant patient. The therapeutic approach should be individualized in each case in order to achieve a balance between tumor treatment, pregnancy outcome, and subsequent reproductive capacity of the patient.

Open access

V. Georgeanu, T. Atasiei, D. Gartonea, B. Shazam, G. Goleşteanu and Şt. Cristea

Abstract

Introduction. Soft Tissue Sarcomas (STS) is a group of rare malignant tumors with mesenchymal tissue origin. At present, over 50 histopathological types with typical chromosome changes are described. Treatment is multidisciplinary, centered on the surgical approach. Method. Between 2014 and 2016, 12 STS cases were treated in our clinic: 3 liposarcomas, 2 synovial sarcomas, 1 angiosarcoma, 2 rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 myxofibrosarcomas, 1 fibroblast sarcoma and 1 clear cell sarcoma. With the exception of angiosarcoma that benefited only from chemotherapy, the other cases were surgically approached, followed by radiotherapy in 7 cases, and chemotherapy in one case. Results. Patient follow-up was for a minimum of 2 years. In 3 cases (fibroblast sarcoma, clear-cell sarcoma, synovial sarcoma), a local recurrence occurred between 3 and 9 months. In 2 cases (fibroblastic sarcoma, synovial sarcoma), pulmonary metastases occurred between 6 and 18 months and the patients died at 8 months and 2 years respectively. The rest of the cases were clinically and imagistically assessed (local MRI, lung CT) at 6 months for at least 2 years and showed no signs of local recurrence or metastasis. Conclusions. The evolution of STS depends on the histological type and to the stage of diagnosis (local extension, degree of differentiation and presence of metastases). Therapeutic approach should be centered on an accurate resection, within the limits of oncological safety even with re-resection. Postoperative radiotherapy is used in most of the cases, and chemotherapy is reserved for special cases with unfavorable local evolution or metastasis.

Open access

D.C. Jinga and D. Chetroiu

Abstract

Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a biologically heterogeneous malignancy with over 50 subtypes. This solid tumor is one of the most challenging diseases to treat for the medical oncologist. STS often forms in the body’s muscles, joints, fat, nerves, deep skin tissues, and blood vessels. The natural history of high-grade STS is characterized by a strong tendency toward local recurrence and metastatic spreading, despite optimal initial strategies. The lung is the most common site of metastases, with poor prognosis. We present the current international guidelines for the adjuvant treatment and systemic treatment for advanced STS and the new discoveries. Many new molecular targeting drugs have been tried in the last ten years, and some were approved for soft tissue sarcoma. The first approved was Imatinib, as a treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Following Imatinib, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) received the approval for GISTs such as Sunitinib and Regorafenib, and Pazopanib for non-GIST soft tissue sarcomas. In 2016, FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody that targets platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α, Olaratumab. The new treatment demonstrates an overall survival advantage. In this review, we aimed to summarize the results from the most recent studies on adjuvant treatment for high-grade STS and systemic strategies for advanced STS.

Open access

D. Rădulescu, A. Bădilă, O. Nuțiu, R. Manolescu, T. Ciobanu, I. Japie and R. Rădulescu

Abstract

Introduction. Giant-cell tumor of the bone is a benign tumor, but with high local aggressiveness, even with risk of remote metastasis. Material and methods. We present the case of a 57-year-old woman, without significant pathological history, who, after clinical, imagistic and anatomopathological investigations, was diagnosed with giant cell tumor of the right distal radius. The patient underwent surgery and due to the size of the tumor and destruction of the surrounding cortical bone, segmental resection of the tumor in oncological limits was performed. The bone defect was filled with the proximal one third of the ipsilateral fibula, fixed to the remaining radius diaphysis with a plate and screws. Also, the autograft was stabilized to the proximal row of the carpal bones with 2 k-wires for 6 weeks. Postoperatively, clinical and X-ray check-ups were performed at 6, 12, 24 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Results. According to Mayo functional assessment score, the results were good. At 1 year after surgery, the patient gained 85 points, representing a good functional outcome of the surgery. This way, the wrist joint mobility and the carpal cartilage were preserved, providing a barrier against distal migration of any remaining tumoral cells, as well. Conclusions. It can be stated that in aggressive giant cell tumors located at the distal radius, the best therapeutic option is a segmental resection of the lesion followed by the replacement of the bone defect with a proximal fibular autograft. This method provides the best postoperative functional results with a lower risk of local recurrence and does not require microvascular surgery or access to a bone bank.

Open access

I.M. Rădulescu

Abstract

Introduction. Osteosarcomas represent 40% of bone sarcomas and occur mainly in children and young adults. They are tumors with a high degree of pulmonary metastasis. Pulmonary metastases occur in about 80% of the relapsed patients after primary tumor therapy, whether or not they have received chemotherapy. As therapeutic solutions, both first intention resection of the metastasis and the post-chemotherapy resection or repeated resections in each relapse, represent satisfactory results with prolongation of survival. Material and method. The present study describes a group of 17 patients who were surgically treated for osteosarcoma with different localizations and who presented themselves in the thoracic surgery department during 2011-2016 with suspicion of pulmonary metastases. Three of them were at their second intervention for metastasis resection. Following investigations, 4 of them (23.5%) could not benefit from surgical resection of pulmonary metastases (lesional extension with postoperative vital risk or technical impossibility of metastatic excision). Surgical interventions were curative; lobectomies were performed in 4 cases (30.7%), atypical resections in 8 cases (61.6%) and one pneumonectomy (7.7%). Postoperative progression was favorable in all 13 patients. Discussions and conclusions. Surgical excision of osteosarcoma pulmonary metastases can prolong survival and sometimes even cure disease. In order to benefit from the intervention, the patient should be served by a thoracic surgery clinic in the shortest possible time after the discovery of the pulmonary nodules. Thus, the need for thoracic imaging is required in patients treated for osteosarcoma. Late presentation makes the intervention impossible, particularly because of the lesional extension in the lung parenchyma or the invasion of the adjacent structures, extension given by the number of metastases or their size.

Open access

M. Moga, G. Dinache, M. Pogărăşteanu and S. Lupascu

Abstract

Background. Primary bone tumors are rare and affect especially young persons, being at the same time very aggressive and mutilating, often also implicating the disarticulation of the affected hip. That is why it is necessary to find alternatives of treatment, so that these young people to be able to keep their normal functionality and mental comfort. Objectives. The objective of this paper was to be able to offer a surgical treatment alternative to the hip disarticulation in case of malignant tumors of the proximal femur in young patients. Methods. We present the case of a 25-year-old female patient, who was hospitalized in our clinic for pain and functional impairment of the right hip. The clinical and radiological exams established the diagnosis of fracture of pathological bone of the proximal femur and it raised the suspicion of a tumor with malignant characters. We performed arteriography of the right inferior member, which showed a very good vascularized tumor, possibly vascular, localized to the proximal femur, arterially powered by the branches of right profunda femoris artery. We surgically intervened and made an incisional biopsy with anatomopathological exam, which established the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Then, we practiced the segmental resection of the tumor, preceded by the embolization of the right femoral artery and after that the reconstruction with bipolar cemented modular prosthesis of the right hip. The patient had a favorable evolution, she did neuromotor rehabilitation, and then she presented to the oncologist for the initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy, which she followed conformably to the recommendations.