Murat Genc, Omer Coban, Ugur Ozenturk and Omer Eltas
The aim of this study was to determine some morphological traits of the udder teat and their influence on the milk flow rate in three dairy cattle breeds (Brown Swiss, Holstein and Simmental). The average milking time and milk yield was 8.79±0.16 minutes and 9.40±0.28 kg, respectively. There was a finding that the breed of the dairy cows had no effect on the total milking time, with the Holstein cows having the highest milk yield (P<0.01). The average milk flow rate was 1.09±0.04 kg/minute and the Holstein cows had the highest milk flow rate (P<0.05). The cow parity didn’t affect the milk flow rate and the milk yield. The average teat length, average teat diameter and average teat volume varied among the cattle breeds and were highest in the Brown Swiss, and lowest in the Simmental cows. In conclusion, the milk flow rate varies among cattle breeds, and it was observed that dairy cows with high milk yields have higher milk flow rates.
Stanimir Dimitrov, Vesna Karapetkovska-Hristova, Ljupce Kochoski, Biljana Trajkovska, Borche Makarijoski, Vesna Prodanovska-Poposka and Godswill Ntsomboh-Ntsefong
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of season and number of parity on the reproductive performance of sows kept on a commercial farm. To achieve this objective, 800 nrs productive parent sows and a total of 958 parities were analyzed. The results show that sow’s breeding season had a significant effect on the weaning-to-oestrus interval, the farrowing rate, the litter size and weaning piglets with positive results during autumn, winter and spring seasons. The number of parity has a significant effect on the weaning-to-oestrus interval, litter size and weaning piglets with acceptable values in sows with more farrowing. The results of this study on a pig farm with analysis which highlights the risk factors associated with reproductive performance of sows, could be used to improve sow farm practices.
Federica Pirrone, Ludovica Pierantoni, Valerio Albizzati and Mariangela Albertini
Many studies have analyzed the behavior of puppies during their socialization period, while little attention has been paid to the transitional period, when vision and hearing develop. Here, we compared the average age of sensory and motor development, and the behavior among a total of 25 puppies. Each litter was videotaped during 1-hour daily sessions on postnatal days 10-21 and coded for the following mutually exclusive behavioral categories: sleeping, suckling and moving. The moving category included side-to-side head swinging, exploring, rolling and allogrooming. The opening of the eyelids, appearance of the startle response and ability to stand up with either the front or hind legs were identified. The duration and frequency of puppy behaviors varied significantly with breed and season of birth. Breed and gender differences in gross motor and sensory development were also observed. These findings may turn out to be crucial to enhance the welfare, standards of rearing, and behavioral interventions aimed at improving adaptability to novel stimuli in pet dogs.
Laima Liepa and Māra Viduža
The culture of Lactobacillus fermentum was isolated from the biogas substrate. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of perorally applied L. fermentum additive to prevent metabolic diseases in the early lactation period of dairy cows. The experiment was performed in the early lactation group of a herd with 240 cows. The control and experimental group each consisted of 10 clinically healthy cows with normal concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose. On day 1–5 (D1–D5), the experimental cows received orally 150 ml of L. fermentum product of 8.1x105 CFU/ml. On D1, D2, D5 and D20, the rumen fluid samples were collected from all animals in both groups with an oral-ruminal probe once per day for detection of pH and concentration of volatile fatty acids, on D1, D5 and D20 – blood samples for biochemical analyses. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: Significant changes were observed in the concentration of the liver enzymes AST and GGT. On D1, in the experimental animals AST concentration 100.5±14.0 IU/L was higher than in control cows – 51.4±5.7 IU/L (p<0.05). On D20, AST was reduced significantly only in experimental cows. On D1, GGT concentration 31.5±6.91 IU/L was higher (p<0.05) in experimental animals than in control cows – 13.6±1.53 IU/L, but on D5, GGT concentration in experimental animals was reduced to 18.4±6.41 IU/L (p<0.05), and remained until D20. Conclusion: L. fermentum culture administered orally for five days improved the blood liver enzymes in cows, and the effect lasted for two weeks.
Johad Khoury, Elias Andrawus, Boaz Y. Bishop and Zaher S. Azzam
Objectives. Diabetes mellitus is an endemic disease of the current era. It is important to treat it properly. All antidiabetic medications have side effects and various safety profiles.
Case report. Fifty-two years old patient with type II diabetes mellitus, who had spontaneous cutaneous and intra muscular bleeding after starting treatment with Exenatide. The patient’s history did not include any kind of spontaneous bleeding. Investigations did not reveal abnormal platelets count and function or coagulation profile. The use of the Exenatide was discontinued and during one year of follow-up, the patient did not experience an additional occurrence of spontaneous bleeding.
Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous bleeding probably caused by Exenatide. The exact pathophysiology, by which the drug can cause spontaneous bleeding, is still not clear and has to be revealed.
Ivan Barbov, Jasmina Korunoska, Valentina Bonevska and Aleksandar Smokovski
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment aims not only to prevent the rate of relapse, but also to slow down patient’s disability progression. Monoclonal antibodies constitute a new class of therapeutic agents and are administered by intravenous (IV) infusion. Treatment satisfaction and incidence of adverse drug events influence the patient’s treatment adherence which is essential to ensure patients obtain the best treatment outcomes and also to make that treatment cost-effective. Our primary objective was to assess the current IV treatment satisfaction among MS patients.
Methods: A standard questionnaire was developed which contained 20 questions about patient’s disease, IV treatment satisfaction and drug safety awareness. Analyzed data was presented as a percent of the respondents.
Results: The cross-sectional study included 13 MS patients on IV treatment, with mean age of 35 years. 54% of them had relapse-remitting MS, while 46% had secondary progressive MS. The most common onset symptoms were tingling reported in 46% and numbness in 31% patients. 70% of patients were satisfied, while 23% were not satisfied with the conditions under which they were receiving their IV treatment that lasts in average 2 hours. Well-established pharmacovigilance practice enhanced the patient’s knowledge that was reflected through 100% reporting of adverse drug reactions in the past.
Conclusion: High level of satisfaction from the current IV treatment conditions and high drug safety awareness among MS patients was shown. Establishment of infusion centre as a proposed strategy by MS patients would substantially increase their IV treatment satisfaction and adherence.
Regisnei Aparecido de Oliveira Silva, Nestor Persio Alvim Agricola and Lidia Andreu Guillo
Objective. Occupational/mental stressors, which may be evaluated with measurements of salivary cortisol concentrations, affect the endothelial function and has implications on cardiovascular health. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have an important role in cardiac function and may also be assessed in the saliva, but its participation in physiological responses to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stimulation is still not completely understood. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that salivary NO (as nitrite) and cortisol concentrations in school teachers vary throughout the academic year.
Methods. Saliva samples were collected from 13 teachers distributed across five secondary schools. The samples were collected at 6:30 a.m., 11:30 a.m., and 5:30 p.m. in the months of March, July, and December. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and salivary NO concentration was determined by the quantification of nitrite. The area under the curve in relation to ground (AUC) was calculated to assess the cortisol and nitrite concentrations throughout the day.
Results. No significant changes were observed in cortisol or nitrite concentrations across the three periods of the school year, while cortisol and nitrite levels showed a low positive and significant correlation (r=0.3455, p=0.0336).
Conclusion. The results suggest that changes in salivary cortisol levels are accompanied by changes in salivary nitrite levels. This is the first time that such association has been demonstrated. These results encourage further studies aimed to confirm the importance of salivary NO measurement in relation to occupational stress and cardiovascular health.
Carlos Eduardo C. Martins, Vanessa B. de Sousa Lima, Henrique Quintas T. Ribeiro and Julio Tirapegui
Objectives. Diabetes mellitus is associated with dyslipidemia, which contributes to a higher risk of thrombosis, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the effects of leucine and resistance training on the serum lipid profile in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes for 8 weeks.
Methods. Wistar rats with neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with leucine supplementation (5%) and/or resistance training (3 days per week) for 8 weeks, and divided in DL (diabetic and leucine), DT (diabetic and resistance training group) and DLT (diabetic, leucine and resistance training) groups. Others 2 groups of animals received isonitrogen AIN-93M diet that was defined as a control diet: group D (diabetic untreated) and group C (non-diabetic).
Results. The decrease in serum total cholesterol and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed in the resistance training-induced diabetic rats when compared with diabetic rats. There was no change in serum lipid profile in leucine-supplemented diabetic rats and no synergistic effect of leucine and resistance training. The fasting glucose levels were reduced in all animals treated compared to D group.
Conclusion. The diabetic trained rats demonstrate a protective effect of resistance training on the serum lipid profile.
Lucas de Lucena Simões e Silva, Matheus Santos de Souza Fernandes, Eline Autran de Lima, Raul Emídio de Lima and Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire de Moura
Study aim: Was to verify whether the regular practice of physical activity promotes some protective factor against the development of LS in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Materials and method: Clinical data were obtained through medical records available at the Pernambuco Liver Institute. Physical activity levels were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form to classify the patients according to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Results: The sample consisted of patients of both genders, over 18 years of age, who had positive anti-HCV, HCV-RNA and confirmatory tests for presence or absence of liver steatosis. 126 patients were included in the study. Patients with liver steatosis (G1) were more frequently male (57%) compared to patients without liver steatosis (G2) (p = 0.02). Physical activity analysis showed significant differences for GGT (p = 0.04), HDL (p = 0.04), AF (p = 0.02), viral genotype 3 (p = 0.04) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.01) in anthropometric data. Correlation analysis showed a significant difference for GGT (r = -0.23; p = 0.01) and total bilirubin (BT) (r = -0.22; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Regular practice of physical activity generates a protective factor against the development of LS in patients infected by the hepatitis C virus and it is associated with the maintenance of variables related to hepatic and biochemical damage in patients infected with HCV.