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The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.


A field experiment was carried out in sub-tropical climate of Bhimdattanagar, Kanchanpur to assess the effect of site specific nutrient management approach in productivity of spring rice. The experiment was carried in single factor randomized completely block design with four replication, in four different farmer’s field, each farmers’ field as single replication. The seedlings were grown in the mat nursery bed and transplanted in the experimental plots with different nutrient management practices. Nutrient management practices were Site Specific Nutrient Management with Nutrient Expert dose (SSNMNE)(109:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Government recommendation dose (100:30:30kg NPK/ha +6 ton FYM), Farmer’s field practice (FFP)(different among farmers) with three omission plots viz. omission of Nitrogen (0:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Omission of Phosphorus (109:0:38 kg NPK/ha) and Omission of Potassium (109:28:0 kg NPK/ha). SSNM-NE dose was obtained by household survey in the respective area and using nutrient expert model. The growth parameters, yield, yield attributing traits and total cost of production were recorded. Data were analyzed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) in Genstat. Result indicates that the highest grain yield (5.81 t/ha) was obtained from SSNM-NE which was statistically at par with government recommendation (5.54 t/ha). Similarly, thousand grains weight, straw yield in the experiment 23.20g, 6.90t/ha were significantly higher in SSNM-NE respectively. Straw yield, grain yield and thousand grain weight of SSNM-NE were found to be statistically at par with government recommendation. The economic analysis revealed that higher B: C ratio (1.91), net return and gross return were higher in SSNM-NE.


Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in Nepal as well as globally. But due to varied climatic and sowing conditions low production has been reported throughout the world including Nepal. Sowing rates are highly correlated to yield and its yield attributing characters. Yield loss has been reported 50-62% under a late sown condition which shows a heavy threat to food security problems. Vijaya is the most recommended varieties under late sown conditions due to its high yield and less threat to late sown conditions. Thus identification and release of varieties suitable under late sown conditions are of the utmost importance. Researches should be accelerated under different agro-ecological zones to study the constraints associated with late sown wheat in Nepal.


Carbon emission is the biggest problem all over the world. The actualizing of low carbon emission in the bread kitchen and dessert shop segment permits the difference in its mechanical procedure through the improvement of an eco-proficient framework. This study was to line up bread and cake with fully completely different wheat quality, baking time, and temperature through low carbon emission. The prepared samples were chemically analyzed for wet content, ash content, compound content, and organoleptic. Among the four processed cake products based on each parameter tested organoleptically, cupcake products were the most preferable one. Bread products made with substitution of 50% have been received by consumer panelists. The results of this study were also in line with the research conducted by which resulted in a substitution of spinach flour substitution of up to 60% still acceptable by panelists. Sponge cake from flour can still be received by panelists with 50% substitution. 12% of moisture will help 5 days’ self-life without chemical preservatives. The oven is the largest of the three consumers and typically accounts for between 35% and 45% of the total site carbon emissions. The dark cake pan, which holds in more heat than light-colored baking pans and bakes our cake batter faster. Considering that the most significant dark non-stick pan was suggested for baking low carbon emission, it will be reducing the baking temperature by 25° F. Good practice opportunities can be delivered for various plant/equipment utility serving could deliver on average a 10% saving in total CO2 emissions for the sector. This would speak to a CO2 decrease of 57 000 ton CO2 / year over the world.


The research was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019 to study the fish production and marketing system in fish zone, Rupandehi. Altogether 95 respondents including 27 small farmers, 35 medium farmers and 33 large farmers were selected for household survey using simple random sampling for the study. Statistical tools, Ms- excel and SPSS of version 23 were used for data analysis. From the study, it was evident that, six species of carps of fingerlings size were stocked with high average number of common carps (3885.5/ha.) followed by silver carp (3880.5/ha). The average production of fish species was 6.06ton/ha which is slightly higher than the national average. The observed data revealed that, marketing of major quantity of fish was from on farm sale i.e. 55.78% followed by local market sale (18.94%), live fish sale in retailers (5.26%). Similarly, percentage of farmers selling fish to wholesaler, consumers, retailers and neighbours were 63.3%, 30.5%, 26.5% and 26.3% respectively. Cost and returns analysis showed average B/C ratio of 2.13. Problem ranking using 5 point scale value showed high cost of feed as the most serious problem with index value of 0.94 in the study area.


This review tends to analyze the importance of halal animal feed from the Islamic standpoint and describes the drawbacks of non-halal. Mischievousness to animal handling during production, transport, and slaughter in states where Islam is the main doctrine has created doubts about the quality of products. Islam is a religious conviction that illustrates empathy to animals and well-being of humankind food as mentioned in the holy book Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). In a variety of animal-based halal food products, a Muslim should be conscious of not only about the rearing organization of the animals but also the slaughtering procedure. Animal feed is the preliminary Critical Control Point to establish the halal authenticity of animal-based food products. Regardless of the recognized agenda on animal feed in Middle East Asia, impurity in animal feed ingredients is still occurring and repetitively reported by the media. Feed inflicts direct effect on the animal originated feedstuffs like meat, milk, and eggs and it has been acknowledged as the foremost cause of diseases in both humans as well as animals. Consequently, any action that is associated with the production of livestock must be intimately explored to spot any vulnerability with liable Islamic laws of food and hit upon those traditions to avoid them. The intent of this review is to appraise the halal nutritional system of animals and see whether it has any optimistic or depressing effects on the health of the customers. Our advancement will be comprehensive as we have focused on the socio-religious aspects of human health. The verdict of this review could be made as an orientation by the policymakers of emerging officially authorized business bodies for producing, importing and auction of halal animal feed according to Islamic set of guidelines.


Objectives. The purpose of the present paper is to propose and introduce novel biomarkers of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes that are relevant to the early diagnosis and optimal medical management of the patients who already suffer from type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Methods. We hypothesize and demonstrate on a case study that various organ-specific autoimmune endocrinopathies can result in lowered basal insulin requirements, leading to unexplained hypoglycemia.

Results. It can be hypothesized that hypothyroidism in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may deteriorate glycemic control and can lead to an increased rate of hypoglycemia, particularly the overnight and morning hypoglycemia. Thus, the decreased requirements for particularly overnight basal insulin can be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-3 with subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. Further, it could be proposed that unexplained hypoglycemia during the late afternoon or evening could be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-2 with subclinical autoimmune Addison disease in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. As a result, an altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements can occur, characterized by a decreased late afternoon basal insulin rate.

Conclusions. After exclusion of other causes, the unexplained reoccurring hypoglycemia can be a remarkable feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensive insulin replacement therapy.


Objective. Pregnancy can cause diabetic conditions and gestational diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder of the era. Scientific evidence suggests that obesity increases the incidence and severity of gestational diabetes. Adipokines are proteins secreted from adipose tissue in response to extracellular stimuli and altered metabolism. These hormones are involved in regulating the energy balance, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. One of the types of adipokines is called adiponectin, which has anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects. Accordingly, this study is aimed to investigate the correlation between the serum adiponectin level with the gestational diabetes and the postpartum metabolic syndrome.

Methods. This case-control study was carried out on 37 pregnant women (in Sari, Iran) with gestational diabetes and 37 non-diabetic pregnant women who were matched regarding age and body mass index (BMI). Serum adiponectin and glucose levels were measured. Finally, six weeks after termination of pregnancy, women in both groups were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. All statistical analyses of this study were performed using IBM SPSS software version 21 and, in all cases, the two-way p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results. The mean age of pregnant women was 28.46±4.11 years in the non-diabetic group and 30.03±4.71 in the diabetic group. There was no statistically significant difference found between the mean age (p=0.123) and BMI (p=0.727) in two groups. Serum adiponectin levels in the diabetic group (5.51±3.15 µg/ml) were significantly lower than in the non-diabetic group (8.35±4.54 µg/ml) (p=0.003). In the diabetic group, serum adiponectin level did not correlate with the maternal age, maternal BMI, and postpartum metabolic syndrome (p>0.005).

Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate a correlation of low adiponectin concentrations with gestational diabetes, but this association with postpartum metabolic syndrome is uncertain. However, to elucidate the mechanism of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes and postpartum metabolic syndrome further studies are required.


Objective. The vast majority of type 1 diabetes leads to a higher prevalence of reproductive system’s impairments. Troxerutin has attracted much attention owing to its favorable properties, including antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. This investigation was proposed to evaluate whether pretreatment with troxerutin could prevent apoptosis-induced testicular disorders in prepubertal diabetic rats.

Methods. Fifty prepubertal male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control (C), troxerutin (TX), diabetic (D), diabetic+troxerutin (DTX), and diabetic+insulin (DI). Diabetes was induced by 55 mg/kg of streptozotocin applied intraperitoneally. In TX and DTX groups, 150 mg/kg troxerutin was administered by oral gavage. Diabetic rats in DI group received 2–4 U NPH insulin subcutaneously. Troxerutin and insulin treatments were begun immediately on the day of diabetes confirmation. After 30 days, the testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity, apoptosis process, and stereology as well as serum glucose and insulin levels were assessed.

Results. The results showed that diabetes caused a significant increase in the blood glucose, the number of TUNEL positive cells and tubules, and the malondialdehyde level as well as a significant decrease in serum insulin level compared to controls. The stereological analysis also revealed various alterations in diabetic rats compared to controls. Troxerutin treatment improved these alterations compared to the diabetic group.

Conclusion. Troxerutin-pretreatment may play an essential role in the management of the type-1 diabetes-induced testicular disorders by decreasing blood glucose and modulating apoptosis.


Objective. The goal of this study was to reveal the impact of four types of atypical antipsychotics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI), with different receptor-affinity profile and dissociation constant, on the activity of hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons.

Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of vehicle (VEH) (0.1 ml/100g), AMI (20 mg/kg), OLA (5 mg/kg), QUE (15 mg/kg/) or ARI (10 mg/kg). Ninety min after treatment, the animals were fixed by transcardial perfusion, the brains removed, and cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black end product. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent Alexa Fluor 568 dye. The data were evaluated from c-Fos and AVP or OXY merged sections.

Results. The present study shows that all four antipsychotics applied induced c-Fos expression in the SON. With respect to the stimulation efficacy of the individual antipsychotics, estimated based on the quantity of c-Fos-labeled AVP and OXY neurons, could be a preferential action assigned to QUE over moderate effect of ARI and lower effect to OLA and reduced effect of AMI (VEH < AMI < OLA < ARI < QUE).

Conclusion. The present data for the first time provide an insight into the quantitative pattern of brain activity within the clusters of SON AVP and OXY cells in response to different atypical antipsychotics single treatment.