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Abstract

Background

The quadriceps tendon is a promising alternative graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Morphology of the graft directly affects the biomechanical properties. However, a few studies are evaluating the anatomical structures of quadriceps tendon as a graft in Asian population.

Objective

To define the anatomical structures of quadriceps tendon as a graft for ACL reconstruction.

Methods

Forty-nine quadriceps tendons were dissected and analyzed. Measurements were also done including length, width, and thickness.

Results

The maximum length of superficial quadriceps tendon was 63.2 ± 12.5 mm (range 37.6–83.4). The maximum length of tendon at the deepest part was 57.2 ± 11.5 (range 30.9–83.4). The maximum length of quadriceps tendon was located at 61.4% ± 13% (range 31.8–83.6) from medial edge of the patella insertion (approximately 5 mm lateral from the center of quadriceps tendon insertion). The width of quadriceps tendon at patella insertion was 42.4 ± 3.8 mm (range 33.8–50.5). The thickness of quadriceps tendon at its maximum length on patella insertion was 6.9 ± 2.0 mm (range 1.5–9.5). Positive correlation between the height of cadaver and the maximum length of quadriceps tendon was noted.

Conclusions

The maximum length of quadriceps tendon was located 5 mm lateral from the center of quadriceps tendon insertion. Thus, we recommend marking midline of the quadriceps tendon insertion as a medial border of the harvested graft to get maximum length of the graft. Graft length measurement using superficial anatomy should be cautioned because graft shortening might occur.

Abstract

Background

Trauma is a major cause of death in young adults. The mortality rate is one of the key performance indices of trauma centers.

Objective

To demonstrate a mortality rate, cause of death, and cause of nonpreventable death in a level-1 trauma center in Thailand.

Methods

There was a retrospective study of the death cases from a trauma registry. The number of trauma deaths during the study period was collected to identify the death rate. The causes of death and a death analysis were obtained from the morbidity and mortality.

Results

The death rate was 6.6%. The most common cause of overall death was head injury, and exsanguination was the most common cause of death in the first 24 h. The preventable death rate was 2%, and the most common cause of preventable death was exsanguination.

Conclusions

The mortality rate of trauma patients in Thailand was not higher than that in other countries. The majority of deaths were caused from head injury. Therefore, improvement in injury prevention is needed to decrease the number of deaths.

Abstract

Background

While the assisted reproductive technology (ART) relieves the burden of infertility in many couples, it presents significant public health challenges due to the substantial risk for multiple birth delivery and preterm birth, which are associated with poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. For this reason, it is important to monitor the development and effectiveness of ART services in Thailand.

Objective

To analyze the trends of ART services in Thailand between 2008 and 2014.

Methods

ART clinics in Thailand are required to submit data to the Royal Thai College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists via the National Reporting System. The data from 2008 to 2014 were collected and analyzed.

Results

The number of ART centers was increased from 35 to 47. The total fresh ART cycles were also increased from 3,723 to 6,516. The percentage values of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and zygote intrafallopian transfer cycles were changed from 77.87 to 95.59, 21.43 to 4.31, 0.21 to 0.09, and 0.45 to 0.05, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates were 28.79–33.19, 22.84–51.34, 14.29–42.86, and 0.00–26.67, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates in fresh vs. frozen-thawed cycles were 31.01–36.33 vs. 31.54–37.34 (P < 0.05). The clinical pregnancy rates in female age <35 vs. 35–39 vs. ≥40 years were 36.97–40.70 vs. 32.74–33.42 vs. 21.08–31.34, respectively (P < 0.001), and the percentage values of multifetal pregnancy rate were 18.75 vs. 13.30 and 13.69, respectively (P < 0.001). There were increasing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles, with the percentage of the clinical pregnancy rate (25.90–42.63, P < 0.05). The clinical pregnancy rates in medium-sized ART centers (100–300 cycles per year) vs. in small and large centers were 30.79–41.14 vs. 28.01–34.04 and 8.70–40.35, respectively (P < 0.001). Trends of increasing percentage of ART birth rate to total birth rate ratio were 0.24–0.34 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

There were higher clinical pregnancy rates in frozen-thawed cycles. Higher multifetal pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rate were also found in younger females. There were increasing uses of ICSI and PGS. A trend toward increasing ART birth to total birth ratio was observed.

Abstract

Background

Autophagy and ubiquitin–proteasome (UPS) are two main degradation systems for intracellular proteins. They are essential for homeostasis of neurons during normal and pathological conditions, but their changes after nerve injury remain unclear.

Objective

To examine the protein expression of autophagy and UPS in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), including intact and injured sciatic nerves after crush injury in rats.

Methods

Left sciatic nerve crush was done in all Wistar rats and the specimens were removed at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after injury. Expression of the autophagic (Beclin-1 and p62) and UPS proteins [muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and ubiquitinated proteins] was measured using Western blot analysis.

Results

Expression of p62 was significantly increased in the injured versus intact sciatic nerves on day 1 and day 7 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). There was a trend toward higher expression of Beclin-1 on the crushed nerve. In the DRG, expression of p62 and Beclin-1 was not significantly different between the two sides. Expression of MuRF1 and ubiquitinated proteins was not significantly different between the left and right DRG. The low quantity of MuRF1 and high variations in the ubiquitinated protein levels in the nerve prevented further analysis.

Conclusions

These results indicated the induction of autophagy with accumulation of autophagosomes in the nerve, but not DRG, after nerve injury. Future studies on the effects of the autophagic changes and the precise activity of UPS in nerve trauma are crucial.

Abstract

Background

Complications in periodontitis and other systemic infections related to Porphyromonas gingivalis poses a serious impediment in the treatment process. This leads to the search of novel target proteins to develop newer drugs against P. gingivalis. Prolyl tripeptidyl peptidase (ptp-A) seem to be a vital protein in P. gingivalis virulence and can be a good target for the novel natural bioactive compounds.

Objectives

To explore the inhibitory potential of Rosmarinus officinalis biocompounds against the ptp-A of P. gingivalis.

Methods

Three-dimensional structure of ptp-A was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank with further optimization of both the protein and ligands. In silico inhibitory potential of the selected ligands against ptp-A was done by AutoDock 2.0 and was visualized with Biovia discovery studio visualizing tool with the assessment of the molecular properties of the ligands against ptp-A by molinspiration calculations and drug likeliness.

Results

High ptp-A inhibitory effect was observed using rosmarinic acid and luteolin with a bonding energy of −9.81 kcal/mol with 10 hydrogen bond interactions and −9.99 kcal/mol with 7 hydrogen bond interactions, respectively. Carnosic acid and p-coumaric acid showed a binding energy of −7.14 kcal/mol and −6.34 kcal/mol, respectively, with 5 hydrogen bond interactions. Molinspiration assessments showed R. officinalis compounds as the best drug candidates with the topological polar surface area scores <140 Å toward the best oral bioavailability.

Conclusion

The carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and luteolin from R. officinalis seem to possess a promising inhibitory effect against ptp-A of Candida albicans suggesting ptp-A as the best target to combat P. gingivalis with further in vivo validation.

Abstract

Background

The arylidene indanone scaffold has contributed many lead molecules in chemotherapeutic anticancer agent research.

Objectives

To determine the oxidant-scavenging activities and antiproliferative activity of (2E)-2-benzylidene-4,7-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (MLT-401), an arylidene indanone derivative.

Methods

Jurkat cells, primary lymphocytes, and Vero cells were treated with MLT-401. Antioxidant properties of MLT-401 were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-based, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)-based, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assays. Inhibition of cell proliferation was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based assay. Nuclear status was determined using a DNA fragmentation assay, and cell cycle stage was analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane enzyme activities were measured using colorimetric methods.

Results

The antioxidant assays gave MLT-401 half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 1611 nM (DPPH-based assay), 2115 nM (ABTS-based assay), and 1586 nM (FRAP assay). MLT-401 inhibited proliferation of Jurkat cells with a concentration for 50% of maximal inhibition of cell proliferation (GI50) of 341.5 nM, being 12- and 9-fold less than GI50 concentrations for normal lymphocytes and Vero cells, respectively. MLT-401 caused nuclear fragmentation and DNA laddering as seen by electrophoresis. Jurkat cells showed a time-dependent accumulation of sub G0/G1 cells after MLT-401 treatment. Mitochondrial membrane-bound Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, and Mg2+ ATPase activities were inhibited by MLT-401 in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion

MLT-401 possesses significant antiproliferative activity and scavenges free radicals released through mitochondrial membrane damage in a Jurkat cell line model of cancer cells. Further investigation of MLT-401 as a chemotherapeutic anticancer agent and development of other arylidene indanone analogues are warranted. A detailed elucidation of mechanistic pathways is required for further development.

Abstract

Postpartum fatigue is an important issue that threatens women’s health. The incidence of postpartum fatigue is high. Failure to intervene in time may lead to adverse outcomes such as postpartum depression, premature termination of breastfeeding, child abuse, and low infant development. This article reviews the concepts, characteristics, related factors, adverse effects, and interventions of postpartum fatigue. The aim is to improve doctors’ and nurses’ awareness of on postpartum fatigue in pregnant women, enrich the research content and methods, stimulate the interest of nurses, and actively carry out targeted intervention research to prevent or reduce the occurrence of adverse outcomes.

Abstract

Anxiety is often mentioned in people’s daily life, especially in the field of medicine and psychology. For nursing, a clear understanding of anxiety is conducive to clinical nursing practice and research. Under the guidance of the Walker and Avant method, this article conducts a concept analysis of anxiety that provides a comprehensive and rounded analysis of anxiety and helps nurses gain a better understanding of anxiety.

Abstract

Objective

To review and analyze the basic information and distribution of core articles in the global research frontier of nursing, so as to ascertain the current trend in the field.

Methods

A total of 37 highly cited essential science indicator (ESI) papers in the nursing discipline were retrieved, which were compared with the core article collection of the ESI research frontier in January 2019 to understand the current nursing research frontiers. Subsequently, a statistical analysis of the core articles that constituted the nursing research frontiers was performed using a bibliometric method. The analysis was conducted with multiple aspects including the number of core articles, total number of citations, average publication year, issuing country, participating institution, citing paper, journal distribution, and core researcher.

Results

At present, the two international research frontiers of nursing are patient-centered care (Research Frontier 1) and missed care (Research Frontier 2). These two frontiers include a total of 12 core articles, 6 of which are highly cited Web of Science-indexed nursing papers. Research Frontier 1 includes three core articles that were cited 389 times. Research Frontier 2 includes nine core articles that were cited 841 times. Articles in the two frontiers were cited by 454 and 841 papers, respectively, most of which are in the United States. In addition, the 12 core articles were published across eight journals, the impact factors of which are all relatively high. Lastly, Research Frontier 1 involves 11 authors, whereas Research Frontier 2 involves 49 authors, of which seven authors have published more than two articles.

Conclusions

The core articles in the frontier of international nursing research demonstrate distinctive features in their issuing country/region, journal distribution, and participating institution. Review and analysis of the core articles of international nursing research frontiers can help nursing staff understand the current research hotspots and consequently perform corresponding scientific research to promote the development of the nursing discipline.