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Open access

Ramin Tavakoli, Hamid Yaghooti, Robab Daghagheleh, Rohollah Yousofi and Parisa Rahimifar

Abstract

Background

Depression is a neuroprogressive disorder that is characterized by neurotransmitter derangement and decreased neurogenesis and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

Objectives

To determine the lipid profiles and BDNF levels in university students at an institution in Iran and association of these factors with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores.

Methods

We conducted an observational study of a cross-section of male students at the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Iran. For each of the 100 participants, a BDI score was obtained and serum levels of BDNF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Castelli’s risk index type I (CRI-I), Castelli’s risk index type II (CRI-II), CRI-I = TG/HDL-C and CRI-II = LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), AIP = log (triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol), were calculated.

Results

Based on BDI scores, lower levels of BDNF, triglycerides, cholesterol, and HDL, but higher levels of LDL were found in participants with higher BDI scores. CRI-I was also increased in participants with depression.

Conclusion

The levels of BDNF and lipid factors are associated with the severity of depression in Iranian male university students. Deranged levels of BDNF and lipids may predispose depressed students to cardiovascular diseases.

Open access

Prangmalee Leurcharusmee, Guy Kositratna, De Q. Tran and Thomas Schricker

Abstract

Surgical patients commonly develop hyperglycemia secondary to the neuroendocrine stress response. Insulin treatment of hyperglycemia is required to overcome the perioperative catabolic state and acute insulin resistance. Besides its metabolic actions on glucose metabolism, insulin also displays nonmetabolic physiological effects. Preoperative glycemic assessment, maintenance of normoglycemia, and avoidance of glucose variability are paramount to optimize surgical outcomes. This review discusses the basic physiology and effects of insulin as well as practical issues pertaining to its management during the perioperative period.

Open access

Ratikorn Methavigul and Komsing Methavigul

Abstract

Background

Coronary angiography (CAG) or stress imaging has been performed in almost all Thai patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. If CAG results reveal insignificant coronary stenosis, such patients are diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM); however, CAG is considered to provide no benefit and may even harm these patients because it is invasive.

Objectives

To identify predictors associated with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (stenosis) in Thai patients with LV systolic dysfunction without angina and without LV regional wall motion abnormality and create a prediction score.

Method

Retrospective data from patients at a single tertiary-care center with LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction <50%) diagnosed between August 2000 and October 2014 were separated into a group with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and a group with NICM according to CAG. Predictors associated with CAD found in normal populations were determined. Multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors associated with significant coronary stenosis in patients with LV systolic dysfunction to develop a model to create a prediction score.

Results

We included data registered from 240 Thai patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Predictors associated with ICM were age (>60 years), sex (male), and a history of diabetes mellitus (DM). Predictors associated with NICM were body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 and the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on electrocardiography. A simplified equation to predict significant CAD in patients with LV systolic dysfunction is: 3(male sex) + 3(age >60 y) – 5(BMI >25 kg/m2) - 5(LBBB) + 5(DM) - 5. The sensitivity and specificity of this score are 60.5% and 85.1%, respectively.

Conclusion

Our prediction score has modest sensitivity, but high specificity for predicting significant CAD and can be used to determine who should not undergo CAG.

Open access

Supat Chamnanchanunt, Pravinwan Thungthong, Sirvicha Kudsood, Waraporn Somwong and Manassamon Hirunmassuwan

Abstract

Background

Anemia is a common problem among patients with malaria infection, which induces hemolysis during treatment. A few patients present with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and autoantibodies, such as autoanti-E and autoanti-I, during malaria infection.

Objective

To report the clinical response of a patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection with a hemolytic condition.

Methods

We reviewed medical records of a patient with P. falciparum malaria and related literature.

Results

Our patient presented with P. falciparum malaria infection and received artesunate and ceftriaxone to cover potential tropical infectious diseases. After malaria parasite was eradicated, her hemoglobin declined, and AIHA and autoantibodies were found, explaining the cause of anemia. Corticosteroid was given at a standard dosage, and her hemoglobin became normal within 1 week.

Conclusion

Patients with falciparum malaria and both AIHA and autoantibody complications are rare. Our patient responded to malaria eradication and corticosteroid treatment. Most cases reported seem to respond to corticosteroid with a variety of recovery times. However, corticosteroids might increase the severity of infection; more clinical data to support a standard regimen to treat properly rare hematologic complications (AIHA and autoantibodies) in malaria patients are warranted.

Open access

Duy Toan Pham, Thi My Huong Vo, Phuong Truong, Phuoc Tinh Ho and Manh Quan Nguyen

Abstract

Background

Infectious diseases, especially those caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, are becoming a serious problem worldwide because of the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Moreover, most antifungal drugs exhibit low efficacy and high toxicity because of the similarity between fungal and human cells. These issues warrant the search for potential new agents.

Objectives

To synthesize potent 2-(2-iodophenylimino)-5-arylidenethiazolidin-4-one derivatives, improve the synthetic process, elucidate their structures, and determine their antimicrobial activity.

Methods

2-Iodoaniline was used as an initial reactant in a 3-step process for the synthesis of 2-(2-iodophenylimino)-5-arylidenethiazolidin-4-one derivatives, including an acylation reaction, a cyclization reaction, and aldol condensation reactions. The structures of the obtained derivatives were investigated and elucidated using spectral methods. Antimicrobial activity toward 5 bacterial strains and 2 fungal strains was determined using Kirby–Bauer and agar dilution methods.

Results

We successfully synthesized 12 novel compounds and elucidated their structures. The derivatives had no antifungal activities. By contrast, they showed remarkable antibacterial activities. Some of them with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≤8 μg/mL in both Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

Conclusions

A simple and flexible way to synthesize new compounds with a thiazolidin-4-one ring was determined. Some of these new compounds have outstanding effects with low MICs for bacteria. Their further investigation as therapeutic agents is warranted.

Open access

Xi Tan, Jin-Lian Cheng and Yu-Jiao Li

Abstract

Objective

The aims of this study were to understand the status quo of authors, collaborations between institutions, research hotspots, and research frontiers of fund-sponsored clinical nursing papers and to provide a reference for Chinese scholars to conduct clinical nursing studies in the future.

Methods

The visualization software CiteSpace was used to analyze fund-sponsored clinical nursing papers published between 2012 and 2016 in 12 core journals of nursing.

Results

In the clinical nursing field, there are many cooperative author groups; however, the collaborations between institutions are not close and exist mainly within the same province or city. High-frequency keywords have revealed the four clinical nursing research hotspots of population, diseases, nursing intervention, and others. Chinese medicine nursing, prevention, treatment and nursing, and new technology-aided nursing of ventilator-associated pneumonia are the study frontiers of clinical nursing.

Conclusions

Clinical nursing studies are rich in content and cover a wide range of areas, and their hotspots and frontiers are closely related to the requirements of clinical nursing. Collaborations across regions, provinces, and cities are not adequate; there is an urgent need to strengthen the cross-regional exchanges and collaborations to promote the further development of clinical nursing.

Open access

Hua Yin, Ling Yang and Qiao Ye

Abstract

Objective

This review aimed to examine the effectiveness of clinical nurse specialist (CNS) interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD significantly affects people’s health worldwide. With the development in nursing, CNSs are playing increasingly important roles in different departments. However, the studies on the effectiveness of CNSs in COPD are not as well organized as the studies on the effectiveness of CNSs in bronchiectasis and asthma. Therefore, this review aims to find some updated evidence on the CNS interventions for patients with COPD and on whether these interventions are effective.

Methods

A narrative analysis of the data was performed for the eligible studies. Four databases were chosen: CINAHL, MEDLINE, British Nursing Index, and Cochrane Library. Other websites such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, National Health Service Evidence, Association of Respiratory Nurse Specialists, and National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialist were searched as well. Two reviewers performed study identification independently, and all the retrieved articles were stored using the EndNote X7 software. The risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool.

Results

A total of nine studies were included in this review. There were five current interventions by CNSs for patients with COPD. These interventions were home nursing support, CNS’s supported discharge, multidisciplinary cooperation programs, nurse-led care programs, and self-care management education. The effectiveness of these five interventions was evaluated individually. There is low- to moderate-quality evidence indicating that home nursing support interventions may have a positive effect on mortality and quality of life. No significant difference in quality of life has been found between the CNS-supported discharge intervention and the usual service. The multidisciplinary cooperation program probably had a positive effect on quality of life in patients with COPD. Both nurse-led care and self-care management education intervention had a positive effect on mortality of patients with COPD.

Conclusions

The findings of this review provide updated evidence on the effectiveness of CNS interventions for patients with COPD. Although nine trials were included and five types of interventions were identified, there is still lack of high-quality evidence.

Open access

Feng-Guang Guan, Mei Wang and Xiao-Qin Lian

Abstract

Objective

The aims of this study were to investigate the status quo of self-management behaviors in stroke patients at the recovery stage and to explore its influencing factors.

Methods

A total of 440 hospitalized convalescent stroke patients were recruited and investigated using the Basic Situation Questionnaire, Self-management Behavior Scale of Stroke, Stroke Prevention Knowledge Questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale.

Results

The mean self-management behavior score was (151.95±23.58), and dimensions in descending order were as follows: dietary management, drug safety management, social function and interpersonal relationships, life management, emotion management, rehabilitation exercise management and disease management. Five regional self-management behavior scores were statistically significant, and the scores from Minnan and Minzhong of the Fujian province, China, were higher than the others. Gender, age, family income and self-management behavior were significantly correlated (P<0.05); educational level, stroke knowledge level, social support level and self-management behavior were positively correlated, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).

Conclusions

The overall self-management level of convalescent stroke patients should be improved to strengthen health education; focus on the educational level, which is relatively low; strengthen the social support system of patients; stimulate the enthusiasm and initiative of self-management disease patients to promote disease rehabilitation and improve the quality of life.

Open access

Hui Xie, Pei-Wen Chen, Long Zhao, Xuan Sun and Xian-Jie Jia

Abstract

Objective

The purposes of this study were to explore the associations of activities of daily living (ADL) and depression among older adults with family caregivers’ quality of life and provide evidence for improving family caregivers’ quality of life.

Methods

Older adults (n=395) and their family caregivers (n=395) were selected as participants. The ADL scale and Geriatric Depression Scale were used to assess ADL and depression among older adults, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess family caregivers’ quality of life. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data.

Results

The older adults’ ADL and depression scores were 21±7 and 11±6, respectively. Approximately 69.9% of older adults had declining or severely impaired ADL, and 47.1% had mild or moderate-to-severe depression. Family caregivers’ mean quality of life score was 529±100. There was a negative correlation of older adults’ ADL and depression with caregivers’ quality of life. The correlation coefficient between ADL and the SF-36 mental component summary score was stronger than it was with the SF-36 physical component summary score.

Conclusions

The ADL and depression of older adults influenced family caregivers’ quality of life. Psychological health deserves closer attention, especially that of caregivers of disabled older adults.