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Francesc Vilanova

Abstract

During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), Spanish fascism developed its own repressive tools and resources against their enemies (Republicans, Socialists, Communists and Anarchists among others) in the same way other European fascisms did. The depth of the Spanish nationalism brought Franco’s repression against the Catalan society to the height of the processes of cultural and linguistic persecution in the same way that Nazism or Italian fascism had done in the territories they occupied during the years of World War II.

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Anna D. Havinga and Adam Z. Wyner

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of two text analytic projects on the Aberdeen burgh records, which are legal records of the city of Aberdeen, Scotland. These records contain detailed information about a range of activities in the city and their legal treatment. The projects cover the periods 1398–1511 (Law in the Aberdeen Council Registers project – LACR) and 1530–1531 (A Text Analytic Approach to Rural and Urban Legal Histories project – TAHL). The completed TAHL project annotated a selected corpus with rich semantic information for the purpose of facilitating historical research by querying and extracting data from across the corpus. The LACR project, which is ongoing, focuses on transcribing the first eight volumes of the Aberdeen burgh records (1398–1511) into the Text Encoding Initiative’s standard, thus making the text machinereadable. This project lays the foundation for further analysis and enrichment of the corpus.

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Joan Cuscó Clarasó

Abstract

During the twentieth century, the Catalan painter Salvador Dalí and philosopher Francesc Pujols wished for contemporary art an exceptional position in society, based upon an understanding of reality through scientific knowledge, and a new type of Humanism able to provide human life with spiritual values. This is a type of art and a worldview built on the legacy of architects Antoni Gaudí and Claude Ledoux, painters Marià Fortuny and Gustave Moreau, Wagnerism, and philosophers Aguste Comte and Ramon Llull.

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Xavier Ferré Trill

Abstract

The article lays out the conceptual bases that Manuel Pedrolo developed –in the form of philosophical literature– in a section of his narrative. I describe the directionality of the author’s intellectual program with regard to the ‘double liberation' in detail. The interest of the work lies in exposing the inherent limitations of ‘literature for literature' –with disregard of human nature– that can also be applied to any international literature, not only written in the fifties and sixties, but in the (ideologically) present time.

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Vanessa Palomo Berjaga

Abstract

Josep Maria de Sagarra translated twenty-eight of Shakespeare’s plays into Catalan in the early forties, at a time when Catalan language and culture were suffering severe repression due to Franco’s regime. The manuscript of Macbeth by Sagarra is from 1942; and the first edition (an impressive hard-bound clandestine edition) is from 1946 or 1947. Before his translation, there were three other Catalan translations of Macbeth, produced by Cebrià Montoliu (1907), Diego Ruiz (1908) and Cèsar August Jordana (1928). The main purpose of this article is to show that Sagarra’s translations marked a turning point regarding the translation of Shakespeare’s works in Catalan culture. This is done by reflecting on both cultural and personal circumstances that led Sagarra to translate Shakespeare and by comparing Sagarra’s translation of Macbeth with the other three from the first half of the twentieth century.

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Dídac Pujol

Abstract

This article shows how the language of Shakespeare’s plays has been rendered into Catalan in three especially significant periods: the late 19th century, the early 20th century, and the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The first section centres on the contrast between natural and unnatural language in Hamlet, and considers how this differentiation is carried out (by linguistic techniques that differ substantially from Shakespeare’s) in a late 19th-century Catalan adaptation by Gaietà Soler. The second part of the article investigates the reasons why in an early 20th-century translation of King Lear the translator, Anfòs Par, resorts to medieval instead of present-time language. The last section of the article illustrates how and explores the motivations why Salvador Oliva’s first (1985) version of The Tempest is retranslated in 2006 using a different language model. The ultimate aim of the paper is to put forward the hypothesis that, in the case of Catalan, Shakespearean translations are both a reflection of the current state of the language and a major linguistic experimentation that shapes and creates (sometimes through a via negativa) the Catalan literary language.

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Zorica Bečanović Nikolić and Xenia Georgopoulou

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María Jesús Lorenzo-Modia

Abstract

This presentation will deal with the reception of performances, translations and retranslations of Shakespeare’s plays into the Galician language. As is well-known, Galician is a Romance language which historically shared a common origin with Portuguese in the Iberian Peninsula, and which had a different evolution due to political reasons, i.e. the independence of Portugal and the recentralization of Spain after a long partition with the so called Catholic monarchs. As a consequence, Galician ceased to be the language of power and culture as it was during the Middle Ages, and was spoken by peasants and the lower classes in private contexts for centuries. With the disappearance of Francoism in the 1970s, the revival of Galician and its use as a language of culture was felt as a key issue by the Galician intelligentsia and by the new autonomous government formed in 1981. In order to increase the number of speakers of the language and to give it cultural respectability, translations and performances of prominent playwrights, and particularly those by Shakespeare were considered instrumental. This article will analyse the use of Shakespeare’s plays as an instrument of gentrification of the Galician language, so that the association with Shakespeare would confer a marginalized language social respectability and prestige.

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Márta Minier

Abstract

This article explores a theatre performance (National Theatre Pécs, 2003, dir. Iván Hargitai) working with a 1999 Hungarian translation of Hamlet by educator, scholar, translator and poet Ádám Nádasdy as a structural transformation (Fischer-Lichte 1992) of the dramatic text for the stage. The performance is perceived as an intersemiotic translation but not as one emerging from a source-to-target one-way route. The study focuses on certain substructures such as the set design and the multimedial nature of the performance (as defined by Giesekam 2007), and by highlighting intertextual and hypertextual ways of accessing this performance-as-translation it questions the ‘of’ in the ‘performance of Hamlet (or insert other dramatic title)’ phrase. This experimentation with the terminology around performance-as-translation also facilitates the unveiling of a layer of the complex Hungarian Hamlet palimpsest, which, as a multi-layered cultural phenomenon, consists of much more than literary texts: its fabric includes theatre performance and other creative works.

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Paulina Rosińska

Abstract

Inspired by the fact that there are as many as five different Polish translations of Gunnar Ekelöf’s poem Absentia animi (Non serviam, 1945), this paper aims to present and discuss several criteria that may be helpful to identify, describe and evaluate conditions, tendencies and strategies concerning Polish translations of Swedish poetry. The most crucial of the presented criteria, that may be used in order to ascertain what kind of poetry has been translated from Swedish into Polish so far, is the translator’s attitude to literary canons. It is based on Jerzy Jarniewicz’s distinction between two possible attitudes, i. e. ‘ambassador’ and ‘legislator’, which stand for respectively transferring the established canon from the source-language literature, and creating a new one that can influence the target-language literature. The other criteria discussed refer to the following questions: the affiliation of the translated text with either the source-language literature or the target-language literature (1), the possibility of evaluation of poetry translation (2), and the concept of untranslatability (3). All of the mentioned criteria can help to analyze the specific strategies applied in the translation process. The paper is to be seen as an introduction to a larger ongoing research conducted by the author.