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Mariana Oleniak

Abstract

Since simile in this paper is understood as a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared and not only as a construction corresponding to the formula X is like Y, the borderline between the semasiological (from form to content) and onomasiological (from content to form) approaches in respect to the analysis of simile is considered to be crucial. The article is devoted to the analysis of the existing formulas for simile that enumerate the elements in the surface structures of most similes and to the elaboration of a formula that would reflect the essence of the relationship of simile elements regardless of their formal expression. Taking into account existing linguistic studies of similes as well as the author’s own understanding of the problem, simile components are described which also have a symbolic reflection in the aforementioned universal formula for similes. Employing the method of conceptual analysis as well as the methods of description and interpretation, modelling and coding, the author devises a new formula for simile, representing all four of its constituents (a tenor, a vehicle, a comparison marker and a commonly shared salient feature). The devised formula is further subjected to analysis for the possibility of being applied to all formal types of simile. The presented formula of a universal character is essential to identify and analyse different types of similes without limiting research to the formations of a certain model. The formula is labelled universal because it characterizes similes regardless of their forms and languages in which they are used.

Open access

Oryslava Ivantsiv

Abstract

The article focuses on metaphorical modelling as a means of corporate image development. The research data includes an electronic corpus of 185 press releases issued by five international cosmetic companies. A methodology of analysing metaphorical models based on the consideration of the model’s frame-slot structure was applied. The study resulted in the singling out of two major metaphorical clusters within the corporate discourse of image-making – BUSINESS IS A HUMAN BEING and BUSINESS IS ART. Although these models do not embrace the whole range of sources of metaphorical expansion, they nevertheless essentially contribute to creating a relatively holistic image of a cosmetic company as a perfect organism that produces masterpieces to meet the needs and expectations of the target audience.

Open access

Oleksandr Kapranov

Abstract

This article involves a qualitative framing analysis of climate change discourse by Statoil, a Norwegian-based energy corporation, which is considered to be a major actor in the Norwegian fossil fuels market. The corpus of the present framing analysis consists of Statoil’s annual sustainability reports from 2001 until 2015 available online at the official Statoil website www.statoil.com. The framing analysis is based upon the methodological approach to framing described by Dahl (2015). The specific research aim of the present investigation is twofold: i) to identify Statoil’s framing of climate change discourse and ii) to compare how the framing changed diachronically from the time of the first sustainability report published in 2001 until the 2015 Sustainability Report. The results of the framing analysis indicate that Statoil’s climate change discourse in 2001-2015 is framed by a number of qualitatively different frames that are unequally distributed in diachrony, e.g. “Anthropogenic Cause”, “Battle”, “Corporate Responsibility”, “Emissions Reduction” etc. These frames are further presented and discussed in the article.

Open access

Ni Luh Putu Sri Adnyani, Ni Luh Sutjiati Beratha, I Wayan Pastika and I Nyoman Suparwa

Abstract

The contexts and circumstances of the occurrence of cross-linguistic influence in bilingual children’s language development are still a matter of debate. The present study argues that in the early development of a bilingual child exposed to two typologically distinct languages (Indonesian and German), the child developed two separate linguistic systems. The child, raised in Indonesia, was exposed to Indonesian by her Indonesian mother and to German by her German father. The study focuses on the early stages of verbal morphology and word order, from ages 1;3 to 2;2. The corpus took the form of conversational text or speech based on spontaneous interactions in natural settings. The data was collected using diary records, supplemented by weekly video recordings. In analysing the data, two software systems were used: ELAN and Toolbox. The speech was segmented based on utterances. All verbal morphology and word order was coded. The results show that verbal morphology in Indonesian and German was acquired by the child at different times, with the development of German verbs occurring later than Indonesian verb acquisition. In addition, there is evidence of interaction between the two developing systems. Cross-linguistic interference was identified when the child used the Indonesian vocatives-predicate combination in German utterances while, at the same time, the child also applied the German verb-final clause structure in Indonesian utterances when she should have produced German utterances. Thus, the results from this case study suggest that both language external and internal factors account for the occurrence of cross-linguistic influence.

Open access

Ewa Ciszek-Kiliszewska

Abstract

The present paper traces the history of four selected adverbs with the prefix be- in Middle English. Already in Old English behind, beneath, between and betwixt are attested to function as both adverbs and prepositions, which demonstrates that the process of grammaticalisation accounting for the development of prepositions from adverbs started before that period. The focus of the study are the diachronic changes of the degree of grammaticalisation of the examined lexemes in the Middle English period as demonstrated by the ratio of their use with a respective function in the most natural context. Hence, specially selected Middle English prose texts are analysed. The analysis shows that while behind and beneath are still frequently used as adverbs in the whole Middle English period, between and betwixt are predominantly used as prepositions already in Early Middle English. This clearly demonstrates that the degree of grammaticalisation of the latter two Middle English words was much higher than that of behind and beneath.

Open access

Enrique Gutiérrez Rubio

Abstract

According to the cognitive linguistics approach to phraseology, the majority of idioms are not linguistic but conceptual in nature. Moreover, they have to be seen mainly as a cultural product and, consequently, they are a splendid device for revealing the values of a given society. The aim of this study is to reveal the notion of the passing of time, as it is differently conceptualized for women and men in Spanish phraseology. Additionally, their dissimilar representations via linear structures based on the TIME IS SPACE conceptual metaphor will be proposed. The main conclusion of the study is that, according to Spanish idioms, men’s lives can be represented by a single-line structure divided into two opposite, isolated periods – childhood and maturity. On the contrary, women’s linear representation looks more like a continuous line that becomes a “forked” path a short time after women leave childhood behind. Finally, the relationship between the contemporary functioning of PUs and the endurance of the etymological stereotypes underlying these expressions will be considered.

Open access

Edita Hornáčková Klapicová

Abstract

Even though the process of the acquisition of phonology and syntax in bilingual children resembles that of monolinguals, vocabulary acquisition in bilingual children heavily depends on the input in each language. Bialystok (2004, p. 66) holds that “it may be that the acquisition of syntax and phonology is adequately triggered by exposure to the language, but vocabulary needs to be learned”. Children appear to have the capacity for acquiring more than the basic volume of vocabulary necessary for one language system. The aim of the present paper is to examine the following aspects: the processes of the acquisition of meaning; the manifestation of interference, transfer and borrowing; the task of finding translation equivalents; errors in vocabulary usage in bilingual children.