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Alexander Bolshoy

Abstract

In this review, I have presented several topics relevant to the present state and to the future state of the scientific field that I propose to call sequence biology (SB). In some pertinent publications, this field was called DNA linguistics. At the heart of SB lies a concept of a sequence code. In this review, I discussed three concepts: a concept of SB, a concept of encyclopaedia of genetic codes, and a concept of a corpus DNA linguistics..

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Michaela Zemková

Abstract

Although language is something deeply embedded in our nature, the question of its origin is of the same order as the misty question of the origin of life. I point out that the core of the problem can be rooted in the dichotomy between language and speech, similar to the dichotomy of genotype and phenotype in biology. Following the ontogeny–phylogeny framework, I propose that studies of language ontogeny, especially its early stages, can bring a new understanding to language, same as the study of communication in non-human primates..

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Marcelo Jacques de Moraes

Abstract

Starting from Walter Benjamin’s reflections on the work of Marcel Proust, we intend to go back to the way they allow us to think the relations between literature and translation, the “life connections” between them. We aim to speculate more specifically on the productive dimension of aging and oblivion taken as critical setbacks, that are natural to every work - original or translation-, and that predestine, necessarily and inexorably, within the “internal forest” of each of the languages involved and the border between them, to incompleteness and “continued life”.

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Romain Rivaux

Abstract

To what extent can the 1929 French translation of Ulysses be conceived of as poor ? We attempt to answer this question by looking at the 2004 retranslation, which provides the reader with a new perspective on the sometimes-debatable decisions made by the original translators. The detail of Joyce’s own annotations on the translated material also facilitates the understanding of some of these decisions. Destruction of rhythms, syntactic ennoblement, and destruction of intertextual networks count among the most obvious types of deformation that can be observed in this masterpiece of translation.

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Samer Omar Jarbou

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants for choosing nominal anaphoric demonstratives in Classical Arabic (CA) by examining their usage in a corpus of CA texts. The study makes use of Ariel’s (1990; 2001) concept of ‘unity’ as a theoretical framework from which to study the relationship between an anaphoric demonstrative, its antecedent and their shared referent. This study builds on Jarbou and Migdady’s (2012) findings that ‘anaphoric distance’ (Ariel, 1990; 2001) has not been found to be a primary determinant of cognitive accessibility concerning the use of anaphoric demonstratives in CA. The results of this study show that the choice of proximal/distal anaphoric demonstratives in CA depends primarily on the ‘time frame’ of the referent. Anaphoric demonstratives are temporally anchored in the present time of interaction; if a referent existed within a past time frame or is expected to exist within a future time frame (in relation to the interlocutors’ present time), that referent has low accessibility because of non-sharedness of time frame; if a referent existed or is experienced within a present time frame, it has high accessibility due to sharedness of time frame. Temporal distance replaces physical distance as a determinant of accessibility. In the corpus, proximal anaphoric demonstratives have been used in contexts of high accessibility while distal anaphors have been used in those of low accessibility. Findings of this study contribute to the dynamic view of demonstratives that textual/physical distance is not the primary or sole determinant of accessibility concerning demonstratives.

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Nikita Probst, Tatiana Shkapenko, Arina Tkachenko and Alexey Chernyakov

Abstract

The article explores pragmasemantic aspects of the speech act of threat (SAT) in everyday conflict discourse, using examples from Russian colloquial speech. The authors analyze the impact of direct and indirect threats on the addressee from the point of view of the theory of speech acts, biopsychology, and physiology, which makes it possible to understand the nature of SATs and identify the key communicative and semantic factors of this type of speech acts.

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Yuya Yokota

Abstract

Translating haiku requires some sense of context. This article examines three elements of that context: seasonal words, the society in which haiku are produced, and prose (such as journal or short story). Behind the haiku there is a particular community in which poet and reader are close to each other, allowing the haiku to communicate more than their literal meaning. Taking this into consideration facilitates their translation.

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Yehudit Dror

Abstract

In the few traditional Arabic grammatical sources that address the term parentheticals it is usually defined as the insertion of a clause between two other clauses, or between two syntactic components, for taʼkīd “emphasis.” In this article I examine Qurʼānic parenthetical clauses in the theoretical framework of relevance theory. It transpires that the parenthetical clause is placed where it achieves optimal relevance and therfore the conveyed utterance does not require the addresses to waste any efforts trying to procees the information and correctly interpret it. Optimal relevance also means having a contextual effect. The Qur’ānic parenthetical clauses have one of the following contextual effects: They serve to affirm God’s omnipotence, indicating that only God produces suras, created heaven and earth. He is the forgiver and all depends on His will; to explain what it meant by a specific statement or to explain the reason behind a certain action; to qualify, to highlight a specific characterization, for example, one of the parenthetical clauses modify the Qur’ān as the truth from God; to provide background information, which could explain further developments in the narrative.

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Tiago da Costa e Silva

Abstract

The aim of this article is to offer a reading of the poetic experience through the scope of the semiotics and pragmatism of Chares S. Peirce. Such a reading through semiotics and pragmatism unveils deeper levels of the process of interpretation involving abduction, an inference through which new meanings implied in the semantic tensions arise. Methodologically, the article begins with Roman Jakobson’s realisation that only a broader semiotical context, which breaches the boundaries of the dyadic components of significant and signified scope of structuralism, enables the access to deeper levels of poetic events. The article’s author then discusses the limitations of the dyadic relations of structuralism and, as a broader processual framework to assess poeticity, sets out to discuss the poetic experience from the perspective of pragmatism and its all-encompassing logic of abduction...

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Aurelija Leonavičienė

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of the reasons and the specificities of the development of translation theory in one of the three post-Soviet Baltic countries, Lithuania, since the first half of the 20th century until 1990. The analysis considers the historical and political circumstances characterising the period of Lithuania’s Independence (1918-1940) as well as the Soviet period (1940-1941 and 1944-1990). The discussion of the development of translation theory in Lithuania helps to reveal general features relevant to the context of translation studies in Latvia and Estonia as well, because the historical and political experiences of these Baltic countries have been similar to those of Lithuania.