Of the four unrounded front vowels in Primitive Cornish, /i/, /ɛ/ and /a/ remained stable when long in closed syllables, but /ɪ/ had a tendency to fall together with /ɛ/. Jackson (1953) and Williams (1995) dated this change to the twelfth century, but the present research indicates that in most words, the change took place substantially later. An analysis of spellings and of rhymes show that not all words changed at the same time. Most stressed monosyllables in historical /-ɪz/ were pronounced [-ɪːz] in Middle Cornish and [-ɛːz] in Late Cornish. Those with historical /-ɪð/ and /-ɪθ/ were dimorphic in Middle Cornish (i.e. they were spelled with both <y~i> and <e>), showing the sound-change in progress during that time. The process of change from [ɪː] to [ɛː] was one of lexical diffusion. The implications for the revived language are briefly examined.
J. O. Ogbe
The study was meant to explore the readiness of primary schools toward school health emergencies in Delta State, Nigeria. The method was the use of exploratory / descriptive study design of the expost facto method. Three variables of personnel, equipment and environment were used, while three research questions and three hypotheses were used as a guide. Simple questionnaire of Yes or No was used to generate data. Descriptive statistics of frequency count, percentages and paired t-test statistics were used to analysed the data. It was found that personnel for school health emergency were not available in schools and were found to be negatively significant at −30.97 (p = 0.05) and had negative correlation of −1.00. Equipment was found to be available (at least, at the level of First Aid Box) and found significant at paired t - test value of 19.01 (p = 0.05) while environment for school health emergency was not available and negatively significant at paired t – test value of -111.891 (P = 0.05). The study concluded that readiness of primary schools in Delta state for health emergencies is still at its infancy. The study concluded that readiness of primary schools in Delta State is still at its infancy. It was recommended among others Government and stakeholders in primary school education should provide at least one school health Nurse in every primary school and school health teachers be provided with opportunity of training in First Aid and school health emergency.
This paper deals with the long-debated question of the origins of tree names and the methodological problems related to PIE etymologies. It aims at putting forward some basic principles of etymology, and at applying these principles to the analysis of twelve tree names. It also seeks to demonstrate the relevance of substratic pre-IE languages’ influence on the lexicon, and at isolating geographic areas corresponding to pre-Indo-European lexical stocks lying behind modern Celtic languages.
Saxhide Mustafa, Fatos Berani and Hajdin Berisha
Organizations and managers during their organizational activities, not rarely face different conflicts. Managers, depending on their gender, use different ways to resolve these conflicts while this reflects on their subordinates. The purpose of this study is to analyse the most common approaches applied to resolve conflicts in organizations in Kosovo and the impact of gender on the choice of style to handle conflicts. The study employs a quantitative approach whilst convenience sampling method is used for the purpose of selecting respondents. The study is conducted in ten largest companies in Kosovo in which hundred employees and fifty managers were included. A structured questionnaire is used to collect primary data and necessary tests were conducted through SPSS. Results reveal that managers use the integrative style more than other styles during the conflict management process; gender partially affects the choice of the style and the style of conflict management affects the likelihood of managers among employees. The study suggests that the field of conflict management among organizations in Kosovo needs more academic research.
Joseph N. Bayeh and Georgios C. Baltos
The Peace of Westphalia signed in 1648 signaled the beginning of the modern international system of states. International relations (IR) theory identifies this treaty as the founder of the principle of political sovereignty whereby each nation-state has full control over its territory and domestic affairs, thus it is the beginning of an international system of states. The latter is based on the sanctity and inviolability of interstate borders as its main defining feature. This paper investigates the recent developments in international relations and their significance to the concept of borders in IR theory; on the one hand, a “clash of civilizations” thesis assumes that new “fault lines” borders among civilizations of, mainly, different religions are taking precedence over traditional territorial borders of nation-states, while, on the other hand, a rise in conservative nationalism and, possibly, protectionism, over the traditionally liberal West reasserts the primacy of territorial borders in IR. In particular, this study examines whether such developments signal a paradigm shift in IR theory that may necessitate revisiting certain fundamentals of mainstream respective theories.
In a previous issue of this journal, Natasha Sumner of Harvard claimed of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi that the “exact date of composition for the text is not known”; she yet quoted Professor Catherine McKenna, also of Harvard, for the tales as certainly predating the Fall of Gwynedd in 1282. A response to Professor Sumner’s comment thus has three functions. It cites publications on the question from 1897 to 2018; reveals the scholarly disagreement therein; but concludes with evidence to put the tales in the 1120s or early 1130s.
Shpresa Tolaj Gjonbalaj and Rregjina Gokaj
This article tries to give a vivid frame of the historical background of the development of figurative art in both sides of Albanian boarders, thus that of Kosovo and Albania, as a unique belonging of the same national features. It is represented through a historical and theoretical background so that to show the roots and the layers of the development of art in Europe, which is in all senses the impact Albanian art, but not only has taken from. Pure and concrete examples of Albanian painters of the very first generation and as an inspiration to what follows later, are given to demonstrate the will and need of Albanian society to cultivate artistic tastes.
Kelechi Elijah Nnamani, Chukwuemeka Enyiazu, Ikemefuna Sunday Nwoke, Ebere Dorothy Ochiaka, Joy Nkiru Agbo and Obinna Augustine Ovaga
Given the low level of economic development and the attendant burgeoning social vices at local level in Nigeria, this study illuminates on the strategic framework for sustainable wealth creation in Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. The study argues that rather than the constant reliance on the ‘one size fits all’ analysis which has fundamentally blurred the minds of development experts and policymakers, greater emphasis should be placed on context-driven and specific studies. Among other things, the study notes that context-driven studies would enable each local government identify problems peculiar to it and evolve problem-solving measures consistent with local realities and demands. In the context of the present study, we share the optimism that Odukpani Local Government Council should prioritize wealth creation as basis for stimulating economic growth and development in the area. The study relies on triangulation of data involving interviews with key stakeholders, on-the-spot observation, participatory rural appraisal and information derived from relevant literature.
Kingsley Okechukwu Dimuna and Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah
The objective of the study is to analytically assess the residents’ perception of planning of six housing estates and their satisfaction levels in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all residents of the six housing estates in Benin City as at 2018 which is the study period. The data were collected from the six (6) estates covered by this study: Oluku Housing Estate, EDPA Housing Estates Ugbowo, Federal Housing Estate, Oregbeni, Federal Housing Estate on Ikpoba Hill, Iyekogba Housing Estate, Ebo Village, and Andrew Wilson Housing Estate, Evbuoriaria. A total of 1200 copies of questionnaires were administered across the six housing estates. However, the total response rate of 1000 was achieved as only these copies of questionnaires were retrieved in usable format. Descriptive statistical tools such as means, standard deviations, kruskal-willis test and categorical regression analysis were utilized for the data analysis. The result showed that the relative satisfaction index scores for the all the estates are on the fairly satisfied region (RSI: 2.1-3.0) and this implies that residents are fairly satisfied with the estate planning conditions. The Kruskal-willis test confirms the absence of any significant differences in RSI scores across the estates while the categorical regression analysis results shows that estate planning has a positive effect on residents satisfaction and this is significant at 5% (p=0.003) which implies improvement in estate planning results in higher satisfaction levels. The study recommends the need for Government policy to encourage a decent living environment in terms of planning of estates.