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Rafal Baranski, Magdalena Klimek-Chodacka and Aneta Lukasiewicz

Abstract

In this review, we present genetically modified (GM) horticultural events that have passed the regulatory process and have been approved for cultivation or food use in different countries. The first authorization or deregulation of a GM horticultural plant issued 25 years ago initiated a fast expansion of GM organisms (GMO) engineered by using gene transfer technology. The list of GM horticultural species comprises representatives of vegetables, fruit plants and ornamentals. We describe their unique characteristics, often not achievable by conventional breeding, and how they were developed, and the approval process. Information on the adoption of GM horticultural cultivars and sale is accessed if commercialization has occurred. The review comprises, among others, Flavr SavrTM and other tomato cultivars with delayed ripening and improved shelf-life, insect-resistant eggplant (or brinjal), as well as virus-resistant squash, melon and the common bean, and also fruit trees, plum and papaya. Cultivation of the latter was particularly valuable to farmers in Hawaii as it ensured restoration of papaya production devastated earlier by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). In contrast, a plum resistant to sharka (Plum pox virus; PPV) deregulated in the USA is still awaiting commercialization. GM events with improved quality include the recently marketed non-browning apple and high-lycopene pineapple. We also present orange petunia, blue ‘Applause’ rose and Moon-series carnations with a modified purple and violet flower colour. Finally, we discuss prospects of GM horticultural plants, including their development using promising new breeding technologies relying on genome editing and considered as an alternative to the transgenic approach.

Open access

Manol Karadaev, Ivan Fasulkov, Radina Vasileva and Nasko Vasilev

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the fetal number in goats by using hormonal and ultrasonographic examinations. The experiments were conducted with 106 clinically healthy Bulgarian local goats, 1.5 to 7 years of age, weighing 35-52 kg. Hormonal examinations were performed on 24 goats. Serum progesterone concentrations were measured during a 7 days interval, between 21-63 day of pregnancy, and during a 14 days interval until the 133rd day of pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed on 82 goats with a multi-frequency linear transducer (5.0-12.0 MHz). All animals were studied once during an interval of 7 days transrectally (21-28 day, 29-35 day, 36-42 day) and transabdominally (43-49 day, 50-56 day, 57-63 day), respectively. The accuracy of determining the number of singleton and multiple pregnancies by hormonal analysis were 51%, 58%, 69% and 47%, 52%, 62%, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonography to determine the number of fetuses is highest in singletons 76.18%, followed by twins 72.56% and the lowest in triplets and more fetuses 21.43%. Highest accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive diagnosis were established in the period 43-49 day of pregnancy (P<0.05). The obtained results show that the most appropriate period is between 42 and 49 day of pregnancy for determination of the fetal number in Bulgarian local goats using ultrasonography.

Open access

N. Yu. Rubtsova and R. A. Heckmann

Summary

New morphometric data, including details of the copulatory system and attachment structures, as well as inner organs are provided for Ancyrocephalus paradoxus Creplin, 1839. Scanning electron microscopy reveals new information of the body shape, position of the cephalic organs’ openings, and structure of anchors, as well as differences in the in anchors’ structure in adults and sub-adults of A. paradoxus. Energy dispersive analysis for X-ray was conducted for the first time for anchors in Monogenea and revealed structural differences between different parts of the anchors in two age groups.

Open access

D. Nugaraitė, V. Mažeika and A. Paulauskas

Summary

This study presents the helminthological data on three mustelid species with overlapping ecological niches in Lithuania. In general, 14 helminth species or higher taxa were reported from all mustelids: Isthmiophora melis, Strigea strigis metacercariae, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Alaria alata mesocercariae, Phyllodistomum folium, Opisthorchis felineus, Metametorchis skrjabini, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia martis, Aonchotheca putorii, Crenosoma schachmatovae, Eucoleus aerophilus, Molineus patens, and Nematoda g. sp. The largest number of helminths was detected in M. putorius (11) and N. vison (10) from wetlands; 7 helminths were detected in M. putorius from forests, and 8 in N. vison and 4 in L. lutra from water bodies. Habitat-related differences were found in the abundance and prevalence of E. aerophilus in M. putorius. M. putorius has higher indices of infection by I. melis, S. strigis metacercariae, and E. aerophilus compared to N. vison in wetlands. Differences in the abundance and prevalence of P. truncatum among N. vison and L. lutra in water bodies have been observed. Helminths detected in N. vison in the present study are native European parasites.