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Open access

L.F. Paludetti, K. Jordan, A.L. Kelly and D. Gleeson

Abstract

In this study, the effect of storage temperature (2 or 4°C) on the composition of milk and microbiological load was investigated over 96 h. Milk samples were collected from farm bulk milk tanks after one complete milking and stored at 2 or 4°C over 96 h. Total bacterial count (TBC), psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC) and proteolytic bacterial count (PROT) were affected by storage time and temperature and varied significantly between farms (P < 0.05). The levels of TBC, PBC and PROT bacterial count increased from 4.37 to 6.15 log cfu/mL, 4.34 to 6.44 log cfu/mL and 3.72 to 4.81 log cfu/mL, respectively, when the milk was stored for 96 h at 2°C. The milk samples stored at 4°C had higher increases in these bacterial counts after 72 h in comparison to milk samples stored at 2°C. The casein fraction content was lower in milk samples stored at 4°C, which could be due to high levels of PROT bacteria or enzyme activity in these samples. Milk stored for 96 h at 2°C has less impact on composition or processability parameters compared to milk stored at 4°C.

Open access

N. Kumari Gautam, P. Kumar Misra and A. Murari Saxena

Summary

Snakehead fishes are widely consumed throughout South East Asia, China and India because of their good taste of meat and high nutrient values such as presence of prostaglandins, thromboxane and Omega-6 fatty acid. Parasitic infection constitutes significant economic loss in fish production. The aim of this work was to study the seasonal variation of helminths in snakeheads. In the presented study, a three-year survey has been performed. A total of 1013 individuals of Channa punctatus and 247 individuals of Channa striatus were examined. A total of 3783 helminths were collected, with an average of 3.02 helminths/fish. 43.50 % individuals of C. punctatus and 59.10 % of C. striatus were found to be infected with acanthocephalans, trematodes, nematodes and cestodes per year. The prevalence and mean abundance of Pallisentis sp. was at its peak in summer. However the prevalence of trematodes, nematodes and cestodes was at peak during autumn. Mean abundance of nematodes was at peak in summer. Interestingly, the males were found more infected as compared to the females and the infection rate in males peaked in summer. In comparison to other weight groups, medium size hosts (21 – 40 g) were found more consistently infected. Thus the results indicate that there are seasonal variations in parasitic helminths infecting C. punctatus and C. striatus which also depend upon sex and weight. These variations may be attributed to various environmental and biological factors including parasite life cycle and immune level of host.

Open access

O. Bjelić Čabrilo, V. Simin, M. Miljević, B. Čabrilo, D. Mijatović and D. Lalošević

Summary

As part of routine monitoring of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and jackals (Canis aureus) on the territory of Vojvodina province (northern Serbia), an analysis of respiratory and cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes was conducted. Both host species harbored Eucoleus aerophilus, E. boehmi and Crenosoma vulpis, whereas Angiostrongylus vasorum was found only in foxes. A high prevalence of infection (72.6 %) was noted for E. aerophilus in foxes. The remaining parasite species occurred less frequently in both host species. In all species where it could be quantified, a high degree of parasite aggregation within host individuals was noted. Single species infections were most common, whereas two and three species infections occurred less frequently in both host species. The distribution of abundance of E. aerophilus was affected by host sex, with abundances higher in male foxes. Sampling site and year influenced abundance variation in E. boehmi.

Open access

B. Čabrilo, V. M. Jovanović, O. Bjelić Čabrilo, I. Budinski, J. Blagojević and M. Vujošević

Summary

Fifty-one yellow-necked mice from the Obedska bara locality were analysed for the presence of intestinal nematode parasites in order to assert whether there was a host sex bias in infection. Previous research indicated that males would be the more infected sex, either due to the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone or their different allocation of resources towards immune defence. Quantitative infection parameters were compared between host sexes for all nematode species and nematodes in general. In addition, the influence of host sex, age, total body length, body mass and presence of other nematode species on parasite abundance was analysed. No statistically significant differences between males and females were noted for any of the studied quantitative parameters, leading to an absence of sex-biased parasitism in this study.

Open access

Paulo C. Rodrigues

Summary

Genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) is frequently encountered in multi-environment trials, and represents differential responses of genotypes across environments. With the development of molecular markers and mapping techniques, researchers can go one step further and analyse the whole genome to detect specific locations of genes which influence a quantitative trait such as yield. Such a location is called a quantitative trait locus (QTL), and when these QTLs have different expression across environments we talk about QTL-by-environment interaction (QEI), which is the basis of GEI. Good understanding of these interactions enables researchers to select better genotypes across different environmental conditions, and consequently to improve crops in developed and developing countries. In this paper we present an overview of statistical methods and models commonly used to detect and to understand GEI and QEI, ranging from the simple joint regression model to complex eco-physiological genotype-to-phenotype simulation models.

Open access

Anderson Cristiano Neisse, Jhessica Letícia Kirch and Kuang Hongyu

Summary

The presence of genotype-environment interaction (GEI) influences production making the selection of cultivars in a complex process. The two most used methods to analyze GEI and evaluate genotypes are AMMI and GGE Biplot, being used for the analysis of multi environment trials data (MET). Despite their different approaches, both models complement each other in order to strengthen decision making. However, both models are based on biplots, consequently, biplot-based interpretation doesn’t scale well beyond two-dimensional plots, which happens whenever the first two components don’t capture enough variation. This paper proposes an approach to such cases based on cluster analysis combined with the concept of medoids. It also applies AMMI and GGE Biplot to the adjusted data in order to compare both models. The data is provided by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and comes from the 14th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), an experiment concerning 50 genotypes of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) germplasm adapted to low rainfall. It was performed in 36 environments across 14 countries. The analysis provided 25 genotypes clusters and 6 environments clusters. Both models were equivalent for the dataâĂŹs evaluation, permitting increased reliability in the selection of superior cultivars and test environments.

Open access

M. Chunchukova and D. Kirin

Summary

Species diversity and composition of the parasite communities of barbel (Barbus barbus) at the infracommunity and component community levels were studied in the Lower Danube River, Bulgaria. During the two-year investigations, five parasite species have been found in 92 host fish: Bathybothrium rectangulum (Cestoda), Acanthocephalus anguillae and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) and larval stages of Contracaecum sp. and Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda). Bathybothrium rectangulum and R. acus found in barbel represented new host records in Bulgaria. Parasite communities of barbel were species-poor and highly unbalanced. Pomphorhynchus laevis represented the dominant (core) species (prevalence 98.9 %), the second most frequent component parasite was Contracaecum sp. (P = 14.1 %) and remaining three species occurred only accidentally in barbels. Differences in species richness, prevalence, intensity of infection and ecological indices between individual seasons (spring, summer, autumn) were statistically significant, but considerably affected by unequal species structure of communities with highly prevailing P. laevis. Low parasite species diversity of barbel and low values of most ecological indices, when compared with previous studies in this area (or other Bulgarian parts of the River Danube) might indicate that environmental conditions are impaired and thus, not favourable for the development of barbel parasites (primarily to their intermediate host survival) in the Lower Danube River of Bulgaria.

Open access

N. B. Ederli, I. De Oliveira C. Demarque, S. S. Mello Gallo, H. J. Leandro, L. S. Da Silveira and F. C. R. De Oliveira

Summary

Chrysocyon brachyurus, the largest South American canid, is a native species of the Brazilian cerrado. The present study is aimed to report the occurrence of the trematode, Athesmia foxi, in the liver of a new host, C. brachyurus, and to describe its morphology and pathology. One C. brachyurus individual was necropsied and examined for the presence of parasites. Worms were collected from the bile ducts and based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics, such as a relatively large, slender, aspinose, elongated shape with vitellarium present on the upper left side of the body were identified as A. foxi. On the host, hepatic lesions limited to the bile ducts and periportal regions, were characterized as chronic-active cholangitis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis. This is the first report of A. foxi parasitizing C. brachyurus, demonstrating that this parasite has no host specificity and can be widely distributed. A. foxi lesions noted in C. brachyurus are similar to those noted in various other mammalian hosts.

Open access

Laima Liepa and Māra Viduža

Abstract

The culture of Lactobacillus fermentum was isolated from the biogas substrate. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of perorally applied L. fermentum additive to prevent metabolic diseases in the early lactation period of dairy cows. The experiment was performed in the early lactation group of a herd with 240 cows. The control and experimental group each consisted of 10 clinically healthy cows with normal concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose. On day 1–5 (D1–D5), the experimental cows received orally 150 ml of L. fermentum product of 8.1x105 CFU/ml. On D1, D2, D5 and D20, the rumen fluid samples were collected from all animals in both groups with an oral-ruminal probe once per day for detection of pH and concentration of volatile fatty acids, on D1, D5 and D20 – blood samples for biochemical analyses. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: Significant changes were observed in the concentration of the liver enzymes AST and GGT. On D1, in the experimental animals AST concentration 100.5±14.0 IU/L was higher than in control cows – 51.4±5.7 IU/L (p<0.05). On D20, AST was reduced significantly only in experimental cows. On D1, GGT concentration 31.5±6.91 IU/L was higher (p<0.05) in experimental animals than in control cows – 13.6±1.53 IU/L, but on D5, GGT concentration in experimental animals was reduced to 18.4±6.41 IU/L (p<0.05), and remained until D20. Conclusion: L. fermentum culture administered orally for five days improved the blood liver enzymes in cows, and the effect lasted for two weeks.

Open access

Zofia Włodarczyk

Abstract

Biblical gardens have existed in the public space for almost 80 years, and yet still up to this moment no scientific definition of this type of garden layout has been developed, nor has any detailed characterization of them been published. Multifaceted, interdisciplinary research carried out in the years 1996-2017 made it possible to gather detailed data pertaining to 63 biblical gardens all over the world, primarily including the oldest ones. The fundamental characteristics of existing sites were determined on the basis of these results, including their naming in different languages, presentation through a logo and motto, plant selection along with the manner of its presentation, the symbols that they employ, street and garden furniture being used and the arrangements of miniature landscapes. An in-depth analysis of the material that had been gathered made it possible to formulate a scientific definition of a biblical garden as a specific type of greenery arrangement. The specifics of biblical gardens lie in the fact that they possess significant semantic value and are an illustration of the sacred texts of the Bible, one of the greatest works of literature. Various artistic works are being used in their arrangement, in addition to modern forms of design, which highlight sensory values through referring to the senses: sight, touch, hearing, smell and taste.