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Open access

M. Iwańska, A. Oleksy, M. Dacko, B. Skowera, T. Oleksiak and E. Wójcik-Gront

Summary

Wheat is one of the modern world’s staple food sources. Its production requires good environmental conditions, which are not always available. However, agricultural practices may mitigate the effects of unfavorable weather or poor-quality soils. The influence of environmental and crop management variables on yield can be evaluated only based on representative long-term data collected on farms through well-prepared surveys.The authors of this work analyzed variation in winter wheat yield among 3868 fields in western and eastern Poland for 12 years, as dependent on both soil/weather and crop management factors, using the classification and regression tree (CART) method. The most important crop management deficiencies which may cause low wheat yields are insufficient use of fungicides, phosphorus deficiency, non-optimal date of sowing, poor quality of seeds, failure to apply herbicides, lack of crop rotation, and use of cultivars of unknown origin not suitable for the region. Environmental variables of great importance for the obtaining of high yields include large farm size (10 ha or larger) and good-quality soils with stable pH. This study makes it possible to propose strategies supporting more effective winter wheat production based on the identification of characteristics that are crucial for wheat cultivation in a given region.

Open access

Paulo C. Rodrigues

Summary

Genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) is frequently encountered in multi-environment trials, and represents differential responses of genotypes across environments. With the development of molecular markers and mapping techniques, researchers can go one step further and analyse the whole genome to detect specific locations of genes which influence a quantitative trait such as yield. Such a location is called a quantitative trait locus (QTL), and when these QTLs have different expression across environments we talk about QTL-by-environment interaction (QEI), which is the basis of GEI. Good understanding of these interactions enables researchers to select better genotypes across different environmental conditions, and consequently to improve crops in developed and developing countries. In this paper we present an overview of statistical methods and models commonly used to detect and to understand GEI and QEI, ranging from the simple joint regression model to complex eco-physiological genotype-to-phenotype simulation models.

Open access

Tadeusz Caliński and Idzi Siatkowski

Summary

The main estimation and hypothesis testing procedures are presented for experiments conducted in nested block designs of a certain type. It is shown that, under appropriate randomization, these experiments have the convenient orthogonal block structure. Due to this property, the analysis of experimental data can be performed in a comparatively simple way. Certain simplifying procedures are indicated. The main advantage of the presented methodology concerns the analysis of variance and related hypothesis testing procedures. Under the adopted approach one can perform these analytical methods directly, not by combining the results from analyses based on stratum submodels. The application of the presented theory is illustrated by three examples of real experiments in relevant nested block designs. The present paper is the second in the planned series concerning the analysis of experiments with orthogonal block structure.

Open access

Alessandro Magrini

Summary

Linear regression with temporally delayed covariates (distributed-lag linear regression) is a standard approach to lag exposure assessment, but it is limited to a single biomarker of interest and cannot provide insights on the relationships holding among the pathogen exposures, thus precluding the assessment of causal effects in a general context. In this paper, to overcome these limitations, distributed-lag linear regression is applied to Markovian structural causal models. Dynamic causal effects are defined as a function of regression coefficients at different time lags. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a simple lag exposure assessment problem.

Open access

Ewa Skotarczak, Anita Dobek and Krzysztof Moliński

Summary

Data arranged in a two-way contingency table can be obtained as a result of many experiments in the life sciences. In some cases the categorized trait is in fact conditioned by an unobservable continuous variable, called liability. It may be interesting to know the relationship between the Pearson correlation coefficient of these two continuous variables and the entropy function measuring the corresponding relation for categorized data. After many simulation trials, a linear regression was estimated between the Pearson correlation coefficient and the normalized mutual information (both on a logarithmic scale). It was observed that the regression coefficients obtained do not depend either on the number of observations classified on a categorical scale or on the continuous random distribution used for the latent variable, but they are influenced by the number of columns in the contingency table. In this paper a known measure of dependency for such data, based on the entropy concept, is applied.

Open access

Anna Budka

Summary

The consequences of the growing demand for water include a significant deterioration in its quality and a drastic decline in biodiversity, which is a serious threat to the hydrological and biocenotic balance of freshwater ecosystems. A good indicator of aquatic environment quality is macrophytes. Studies on macrophytes are one of the primary elements in the ecological status assessment of surface waters, in accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive. In Poland, research on the ecological status of rivers with regard to macrophytes has been carried out since 2008, using the Macrophyte Index for Rivers (MIR), which takes into account the number and coverage of macrophyte taxa. An analysis of numbers of species that need to be indicated at a site for valid assessment of the ecosystem was conducted on the basis of studies on macrophytes from 2008–2013, at 60 sites in small lowland rivers with a sandy substrate, of which 20 sites were selected on the most diverse watercourses: the least clean (quality class V), moderate (quality class III), and the cleanest (quality class I). The results of the botanical studies served to assess the completeness of the samples (the number of species recorded at a site) used to evaluate the ecological status of a river. The proposed analyses enabled estimation of the approximate number of species required to determine the MIR for rivers in each quality class.

Open access

Anderson Cristiano Neisse, Jhessica Letícia Kirch and Kuang Hongyu

Summary

The presence of genotype-environment interaction (GEI) influences production making the selection of cultivars in a complex process. The two most used methods to analyze GEI and evaluate genotypes are AMMI and GGE Biplot, being used for the analysis of multi environment trials data (MET). Despite their different approaches, both models complement each other in order to strengthen decision making. However, both models are based on biplots, consequently, biplot-based interpretation doesn’t scale well beyond two-dimensional plots, which happens whenever the first two components don’t capture enough variation. This paper proposes an approach to such cases based on cluster analysis combined with the concept of medoids. It also applies AMMI and GGE Biplot to the adjusted data in order to compare both models. The data is provided by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and comes from the 14th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), an experiment concerning 50 genotypes of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) germplasm adapted to low rainfall. It was performed in 36 environments across 14 countries. The analysis provided 25 genotypes clusters and 6 environments clusters. Both models were equivalent for the data’s evaluation, permitting increased reliability in the selection of superior cultivars and test environments.

Open access

Mirosława Wesołowska-Janczarek and Monika Różańska-Boczula

Summary

This paper presents an application of Hellwig’s method for selecting concomitant variables under a growth curve model, where the values of the concomitant variables change over time and are the same for all experimental units. The authors present a simple adaptation of the growth curve model to the multiple regression model for which Hellwig’s method applies. The theoretical considerations are applied to the selection of significant concomitant variables for raspberry fruiting.

Open access

Moawia Alghalith

Summary

We introduce a method that eliminates the specification error and spurious relationships in regression. In addition, we introduce a test of strong causality. Furthermore, hypothesis testing (inference) becomes almost unneeded. Moreover, this method virtually resolves error problems such as heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, non-stationarity and endogeneity.

Open access

Jan Bocianowski, Kamila Nowosad, Alina Liersch, Wiesława Popławska and Agnieszka Łącka

Summary

The objective of this study was to assess genotype-by-environment interaction for seed glucosinolate content in winter rapeseed cultivars grown in western Poland using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. The study concerned 25 winter rapeseed genotypes (15 F1 CMS ogura hybrids, parental lines and two European cultivars: open pollinated Californium and F1 hybrid Hercules), evaluated at five locations in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The seed glucosinolate content of the tested genotypes ranged from 5.53 to 16.80 μmol∙g-1 of seeds, with an average of 10.26 μmol∙g-1. In the AMMI analyses, 48.67% of the seed glucosinolate content variation was explained by environment, 13.07% by differences between genotypes, and 17.56% by genotype-by-environment interaction. The hybrid PN66×PN07 is recommended for further inclusion in the breeding program due to its low average seed glucosinolate content; the restorer line PN18, CMS ogura line PN66 and hybrids PN66×PN18 and PN66×PN21 are recommended because of their stability and low seed glucosinolate content.