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Maria A. Sarika, Anastasia N. Christopoulou, Sevasti D. Zervou and Andreas C. Zikos

Abstract

The vegetation of the European Natura 2000 protected area of Spercheios river and Maliakos gulf, that includes Mediterranean sclerophyllous shrublands, as well as riverine and coastal habitats, was studied during 2000 and 2014–2015. The vegetation was analysed following the Braun-Blanquet method. Twenty six plant communities were recorded, one of which (Pistacio terebinthi-Quercetum cocciferae) described for the first time. The communities belong to fifteen alliances, fourteen orders and eleven phytosociological classes. The distinguished vegetation units are described, presented in phytosociological tables and compared with similar communities from other Mediterranean countries. Eleven different habitat types were identified. Two of them (“Quercus coccifera woods” and “Reed beds”) are Greek habitat types, while the rest are included in Annex I of the Directive 92/43/EEC. Three of the latter (1420, 2110, 3170) have a scattered presence in the Natura 2000 network in Greece, while one (3170) is a priority habitat type.

Open access

Omar M. Amin

Abstract

The respectable community of parasitologists aimed at the broad-spectral research of acanthocephalan parasites met at the 9th Acanthocephalan Workshop. The workshop took place in the beautiful surroundings of the High Tatras, Slovakia in the Congress Centre Academia, Stará Lesná near Tatranská Lomnica on September 9 - 13th. This special event was hosted by the Slovak Society for Parasitology, the Institute of Parasitology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia, and the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic. It consisted of nearly three dozen lectures presented by distinguished acanthocephalan specialists who came from 13 countries and five continents. Vibrant discussions and creating new plans for future collaborations were accompanied by local mountain touring that offered the venue richly endowed with nature, deep forests and beautiful mountains. The contributions were addressed to resolve current systematic, taxonomic, biological, behavioural, ecological, and related topics. Presented results showed the most recent progressive developments comparable with all the other parasitic worm groups. The 10th Acanthocephalan Workshop will be hosted by Dr. Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, Bourgogne, France, in 2022.

Open access

Denisa Bazalová, Katarína Botková, Katarína Hegedüšová, Jana Májeková, Jana Medvecká, Mária Šibíková, Iveta Škodová, Mária Zaliberová and Ivan Jarolímek

Abstract

Replacing native forests by alien tree plantations can lead to changes in the species composition of the understory. However, differences in the understory species spectrum can also be a part of the natural variability of forest stands. We have tested the suitability of the twin plots method for an evaluation of the impact of alien trees on the species composition of the understory. This research was conducted on an alluvial plain (SW Slovakia) that was originally covered by a hardwood floodplain forest. The study was based on 7 twin plots of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and native forest plots, with a maximum distance of 100 meters between the members of the twins. The dissimilarity of the plots within the black locust forest was significantly lower than the dissimilarity between the twin plots. In addition, the dissimilarity of the plots within the hardwood floodplain forest was also significantly lower than the dissimilarity between the twin plots. Under the same environmental conditions, the higher dissimilarity of the twin plots was caused by major edificators and their impact on the understory vegetation. The twin plots method proved to be a suitable tool for analyses of the impact of alien trees on understory vegetation.

Open access

Somayeh Esfandani-Bozchaloyi, Masoud Sheidai, Maryam Keshavarzi and Zahra Noormohammadi

Abstract

Species identification is fundamentally important within the fields of biology, biogeography, ecology and conservation. The genus Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) comprises about 430 species distributed throughout most parts of the world. According to the most recent treatments, subg. Geranium is the largest subgenus with over 370 species classified in ten sections. The subg. Geranium is represented in Iran by 13 species. These species are grouped 3 sections. In spite vast distribution of many Geranium species that grow in Iran, there are not any available report on their genetic diversity, mode of divergence and patterns of dispersal.

Therefore, we performed molecular (ISSR markers) and morphological studies of 102 accessions from 13 species of Geranium (subg. Geranium) that were collected from different habitats in Iran. The aims of present study are: 1) can ISSR markers identify Geranium species, 2) what is the genetic structure of these taxa in Iran, and 3) to investigate the species inter-relationship? The present study revealed that combination of morphological and ISSR data can identify the species.

Open access

C. Hu, X. G. Xia, X. M. Han, Y. F. Chen, Y. Qiao, D. H. Liu and S. L. Li

Abstract

To study the effect of fertilization on soil nematode communities in a paddy-upland rotation system, an ongoing thirty-three years long-term fertilizer experiment is conducted which includes seven treatments; an unfertilized treatment (control), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) fertilizer treatments (N, NP, NPK) and organic manure (M) combined with chemical fertilizer treatments (MN, MNP, and MNPK). The soil nematode community structure and crop yields were determined in 2012 and 2013. Overall total nematode abundance was increased by an incremental nutrient input both in the rice and wheat fields. Total number of nematode was 1.25 - 2.37 times greater in the rice field and was 1.08 - 2.97 times greater in wheat field in the fertilization treatments than in the unfertilized treatment. Soil free-living nematode abundances was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer treatments in rice field. Fungi-feeders and plant-feeding nematodes abundances were not significantly different among treatments in rice and wheat fields. Omnivorous and predatory nematodes were the most dominant groups in the present study. Omnivores, predators and Prodorylaimus abundances were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in organic manure combined with NPK fertilizer treatments than in chemical fertilizer alone and unfertilized treatments both in rice and wheat fields. Stepwise regressions revealed that soil free-living nematodes were significant predictors of rice grain yields (R2 = 0.56, P < 0.001) and omnivorous and predatory nematodes were significant predictors of the wheat grain yield (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.001). Therefore, long-term application of organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer could increase nematode abundances and crop yields. Organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer application was recommended in agricultural ecosystem.

Open access

Daniel Dítě, Zuzana Dítětová, Pavol Eliáš and Róbert Šuvada

Abstract

Between 2011 and 2016 we surveyed 42 sites of coastal salt marshes of Croatia. We confirmed the occurrence of several rare and endangered plant species. Ten of them are included in the Red List of Croatia; critically endangered (CR) Eleocharis uniglumis, Triglochin barrelieri and T. maritima, endangered (EN) Carex divisa and C. extensa, vulnerable (VU) Parapholis incurva, Salsola soda and Suaeda maritima and category data deficient (DD) Limonium virgatum and Puccinellia festuciformis. We also report localities of other rare taxa of salt marshes like Allium telmatum, Tripolium pannonicum subsp. tripolium, Juncus gerardii, Parapholis filiformis, Plantago cornuti, Samolus valerandi and Scorzonera parviflora. Several plant species are endangered. Their habitats, salt marshes were converted into fields or destructed by construction for developing tourist infrastructure. Today only a part of the remained areas are under protection.

Open access

I. Dakskobler, A. Seliškar and A. Rozman

Abstract

Using the (unweighted) average linkage clustering (UPGMA) method we classified 458 phytosociological relevés of Larix decidua forests in the Southeastern Alps into 25 clusters. Based on their analysis we described the following new subassociations: Rhodothamno-Laricetum deciduae geetosum rivalis, sorbetosum chamaemespili, piceetosum abietis, adoxetosum moschatellinae, cystopteridetosum fragilis, cyclaminetosum purpurascentis, dryadetosum octopetalae and sorbetosum ariae. The selected method proved adequate in identifying the differences between larch stands on potential subalpine spruce and beech sites, and larch forests on the upper forest line, as well as the differences between initial larch stages on the upper forest line and more stable development stages on better developed soils on promontories and ledges above the upper beech forest line. Larch forests occur mainly in the altitudinal belt between (1,500) 1,600 and 1,800 (1,900) m, on shady aspects and slopes that are steeper than 30°. They are some of the best preserved forest types in the Southeastern Alps, on smaller surface areas (Macesnje above the Beli Potok valley in the Julian Alps) even virgin forests, and their role as biotopes is exceptional.

Open access

Slaviša Stajić, Nikola Stanišić, Steva Lević, Vladimir Tomović, Slobodan Lilić, Danijela Vranić, Marija Jokanović and Dušan Živković

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the extent of changes in physico-chemical and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages where pork backfat was partly replaced by flaxseed oil used as liquid (FXL), after encapsulation (FXE), and pre-emulsified with alginate (FXA) and soy protein isolate (FXI). During production and storage, similar pH values of all products were observed. FXL sausages had significantly lower (p<0.05) weight loss which led to significantly higher moisture content, significantly lower fat content, hardness and chewiness. Also, FXL sausages had the lowest grades in terms of sensory attributes, such as colour, odour, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Flaxseed oil preparations affected the parameters of instrumental colour analysis of sausages. All modified products had significantly higher yellowness (relative to control) and FXI sausages relative to other modified products. Regarding consumer sensory evaluation, FXA sausages stood out among modified products because all other modified products had significantly lower grades relative to control. The thirty-day storage period did not lead to significant changes (p>0.05) in any of the observed sensory characteristics.

Open access

Veronika Kuchtová, Zlatica Kohajdová, Jolana Karovičová and Michaela Lauková

Abstract

This study is oriented to the effect of the incorporation of grape skins and grape seeds (0, 5, 10, and 15% to weight of flour) obtained from a red grape on the rheological properties of wheat dough, and on qualitative parameters and sensory properties of the prepared cookies.

With regarding to dough rheological parameters, addition of grape skins concluded in increased water absorption and reduced dough stability. The opposite effect to these parameters was observed after inclusion of grape seeds. Moreover, it was found that the addition of both types of grape skin and seed preparations resulted in reduced volume, thickness and decreased hardness of cookies. Also, it was recorded, that the addition 10% of grape seeds and 15% of grape skins significantly decreased fracturability of cookies. The results of sensory analysis showed that the cookies incorporated with grape skins and grape seeds up to a level of 5% resulted in products with good overall acceptability accounting for 87.44% and 91.44%, respectively.

Open access

K. Apiwong, Ch. Wongsawad and P. Butboonchoo

Abstract

Cyprinoid fish in Chiang Mai province has been reported the presence of a large number of metacercariae, particularly the metacercariae of Haplorchoides and those not identified to species. This study aims to investigate morphological and molecular characteristic of the minute intestinal fluke H. mehrai metacercariae in two cyprinoid fish species from Chom Thong district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand: the Tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii) and the White eye barb (Cyclocheilichthys repasson). A total of 180 fish (90 from B. schwanenfeldii and 90 from C. repasson) were collected over three seasons: cool, hot and the rainy season (December 2015 to August 2016). Fish were examined for H. mehrai metacercariae infection, including areas such as muscle and the inner side of body scales, by using a light microscope. The prevalence of H. mehrai metacercariae in B. schwanenfeldii and C. repasson was 73.33 % and 100 % respectively. Haplorchoides metacercariae were identified as H. mehrai based on the morphological characteristics; the position of the acetabulum and the number and arrangement of the acetabular spines. Phylogenetic analysis based on Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene showed that H. mehrai metacercariae from B. schwanenfeldii and C. repasson were the same species as the adult stage of H. mehrai from Hemibagrus nemurus and Mystus multiradiatus. Both morphological and molecular characteristic could indicate that Haplorchoides metacercariae originated from this study were H. mehrai. Furthermore, it is a new record of the minute intestinal fluke Haplorchoides mehrai in Chiang Mai Province