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Open access

Marek Kociuba, Zofia Ignasiak, Anna Sebastjan, Katarzyna Kochan, Ireneusz Cichy, Andrzej Dudkowski, Marcin Ściślak and Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract

It is believed that the second to fourth finger length ratio is an indirect indicator of fetal testosterone levels. It is pointed out that there is a relationship between the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio and the body structure in women and men. Studies on the relationship between body composition and 2D:4D finger length among military students have not been carried out so far. The work aims to determine the dependence of body composition and the quotient of the 2nd and 4th fingers length of military students. The research material has been gathered as a result of examinations of women and men studying military subjects. The study involved 55 women and 65 men. The tests included anthropometric measurements (body height, body weight, length of the second and the fourth fingers) and body composition measurements. As a result of the tests, no dimorphic differentiations in the digit length ratio (2D:4D) was indicated. The BMI, muscle mass, lean body mass and water in the body demonstrated higher values in men than in women. However, the fat content in men was low. It was found that the relationship exists between muscle mass, lean mass and total water content in the body and the 2D:4D finger length ratio in the left hand in women. A higher level of fetal testosterone, characterized by lower values of the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio, may be associated with a higher content of muscle mass, lean body mass and water in the body of adult women leading a similar lifestyle.

Open access

Justyna Karkus

Abstract

Manifestations of periodontitis, the destructive form of periodontal disease affecting the alveolar bone, are often clearly recognizable in archaeological human remains. Analysis of this disease allows to obtain data not only about biological condition but also diet and nutrition of past populations. The objective of this paper was to asses periodontitis in the Polish urban population of Brześć Kujawski during Medieval – Modern transition (14th–17th centuries AD). An attempt was also made to explain the relationship between atrophy of alveolar bones and the type of diet. Lowering of alveolar crests was diagnosed based on measurements of the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar crest edge (CEJ– AC) distance and morphology of the alveolar edge. In studied population periodontitis affected 77.1% of individuals and 41.4% of all alveoli. Frequency, intensity and severity of the disease was higher in males and increased with the individual’s age. Severity of alveolar destruction was associated with dental calculus accumulation. It seems that a high prevalence of the disease may be, among others, result of carbohydrate-rich diet and fragmented food. Sex differences could be related to differences in diet (especially in protein intake) and hormone levels or lack of oral hygiene in part of the population.

Open access

Katarzyna Maciałczyk-Paprocka, Joanna Dudzińska, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska and Alicja Krzyżaniak

Abstract

Postural defects including scoliotic posture constitute one of the most frequently observed health problems in school-aged children. The incidence of this multifactorial condition has been observed to increase recently. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of scoliotic posture in primary and secondary school students living in a large city. The sample consisted of 1,325 boys and 1,355 girls, aged 6 to 18, living in the city of Poznań. Their postures were assessed through skilled visual inspection method based on the criteria delineated by Wiktor Dega. Additionally, measurements of scoliotic deformities were taken using the Bunnell’s scoliometer. It was found that the incidence of scoliosis assessed on the basis of Dega’s postural defect chart amounted in total to 14.6% in boys and 17% in girls. No substantial differences between boys and girls in particular age categories were found. Scoliometer examination appeared to be a more accurate method for screening scoliosis and revealed higher incidence of this condition in total and both in boys and girls as compared to the visual screening method. The contractures which may lead to scoliotic posture appeared most frequently in the knee joints, both in boys and in girls. The incidence of lateral spinal curvatures was related to age and increased with age. Scoliometer proved to be a more effective tool in detecting lateral spinal curvatures and should be more widely used in school healthcare.

Open access

Zdzisław Lewandowski and Dariusz P. Danel

Abstract

Human lips are one of the most sexually dimorphic facial features. Although lip morphology is considered particularly important for female facial attractiveness no systematic empirical study has been conducted in this respect. This study aimed to investigate a relationship between female Caucasian facial attractiveness and their lip morphology. Two series of morphologically average composite portraits with digitally increased and decreased lip width and height measurements were assessed by adult men and women. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA. When compared to the average lip shape both a decrease and an increase in lip width were associated with lower female facial attractiveness. A systematic increase in lip height from the lowest values to the highest, was associated with an increase in attractiveness scores. Attractiveness assessments of men and women did not differ significantly. The results show that perception of lip attractiveness may be intersexually congruent and that a variation in lip morphology may significantly affect female facial attractiveness.

Open access

Sylwia Trambacz-Oleszak, Alicja Krzyżaniak, Ineza Szafrańska-Komarowska and Maria Kaczmarek

Abstract

Depression and unhealthy weight status are among the most common concerns in adolescent boys and girls. Research results on the relationship between depression and weight status are contradictory. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between body weight status and depressive symptoms among Polish adolescent boys and girls. The cross-sectional survey was carried out on adolescents attending lower and higher secondary schools located in three medium-sized cities and one big agglomeration in Poland. Anthropometric measurements, such as body height and weight, were performed. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to assess depressive symptoms. The total sample consisted of 624 boys and 910 girls aged 13-18 (the mean age was 16.4 ± 1.8) participated in the study. Of them, 73.3% had a healthy weight status, 12.9% were classified as thin, 11.4% were overweight and 2.5% were obese. The prevalence of depression based on BDI-II was 20.2% in boys and 34.9% in girls. The Kruskal–Wallis test revealed a lack of association between the body weight status and total scores of depressive symptoms after controlling for age (p=0.98 and p=0.4 for boys and girls, respectively). The multiple regression analysis revealed that gender and age differentiated the depressive symptoms (for gender: ß=0.19; SE=0.38; p<0.001 and for age: ß=0.05; SE=0.1; p<0.05). Age and gender explained 3.5% of the total variance of depressive symptoms. The study did not confirm the association between the body weight status and depression in adolescence.

Open access

Veronika Candráková Čerňanová, Ján Čerňan, Zuzana Danková and Daniela Siváková

Abstract

The pre-season preparation aim is to improve the components of physical performance through the changes in training intensity, gradual increment in volume, variation in training frequency and optimizing the body composition. The problem in team sports is the lack of individualization, because most coaches in team sports focus their training on the group and not on improving each player’s strengths and weaknesses. The aim of this study is to identify differences in the body composition and physical performance of young ice-hockey players (15-18 years) with different pre-season training approaches (collective vs. individual). This longitudinal study monitored 13 ice-hockey players with collective training and 8 ice-hockey players with individual training during their pre-season preparation. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance analyzer BIA 101 (Akern, S.R.L.) and the Myotest PRO determined player physical performance in power, force and velocity. Performance and body composition comparisons showed gradual increase in the differences between the two studied groups during the training process. This increase escalated to significant differences in the final output test results and was especially noted in the upper limbs power and force (p=0.016; p<0.001) and lower limbs power and force (p=0.029; p=0.001) with better performance results by individual training approach. Stepwise linear regression also showed significant relationship between upper limbs power, resistance (p<0.001) and fat mass (p<0.001). The upper limbs force was significantly associated with intra-cellular (p<0.001) and extra-cellular water (p=0.026), body cell mass index (p<0.001), basal metabolic rate (p<0.001) and training approach (p<0.001), while the lower limbs power was significantly associated with total body water (p<0.001), training approach (p=0.033) and the pre-season preparation phase (p<0.001). In addition, the training approach (p<0.001), preparation phase (p<0.001), player position (p=0.012) and fat free mass (p<0.001) were significantly associated with lowers limb force. Our results indicate the importance of using an individual training approach and optimal body composition in physical performance progression.

Open access

Nandini Ganguly, Subho Roy and Susmita Mukhopadhyay

Abstract

A shift towards the concept of thin body image is occurring among the urban girls, as an outcome of mass media exposure. A large section of the girls are involved in attaining thin body image which at times develops dissatisfaction over body weight. Body weight dissatisfaction gives rise to the development of body weight concern and disordered eating behavior. The present research aimed to find out the association of socio-cultural factors with disordered eating behavior among a group of urban girls. The study group included 400 girls aged between 14 and 21 years, residing in the city of Howrah, West Bengal, eastern state of India. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, body weight concern, media habits, and family-peer environments was collected using standard pretested questionnaires. A cross-culturally tested questionnaire developed by Srinivasan and colleagues in 1998, was used to measure disordered eating behavior. Bivariate analyses found significant associations between eating behavior and several socio-cultural factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that education level of fathers and birth order of the participants, body weight concern and peers’ influence were the significant predictors of disordered eating behavior of the study participants. Socio-cultural factors have significant associations with the disordered eating behavior of the study participants.

Open access

Zofia Sikorska-Piwowska, Piotr Śliwka and Bogdan Ciszek

Abstract

The authors present an original mathematical model based on features identified with discrete variables using vector and hierarchical cluster analysis in primates locomotion. Proposed model allows to formalize and analyze the synchronization variability of movements in given locomotion types of adaptation and specialization in monkeys, apes and humans. The material covers observations of 102 forms including 9 species of primates: the chimpanzee, bonobo, orangutan, gibbon, gelada, mandrill, brown capuchin and ring–tailed lemur. The studies included also the synchronization of locomotory movements in man. The sequences of moves of pectoral and pelvic limbs, right and left, were studied in four categories: walking, running, jumping and brachiation. The locomotion movements depend on the brain centers and allow to find phylogenetic relations between examined forms in the evolution process. The knowledge of the pattern of movements is used in the treatment of paraplegia and paraparesis in humans.

Open access

Yuan Yuan Lu, Carsten Zorn, David Král, Ming Bai and Xing Ke Yang

Abstract

The small Southeast Asian ruteline genus Glenopopillia Lin, 1980 is revised. We describe four new species: Glenopopillia albopilosa Zorn & Lu sp. nov. from Vietnam, Glenopopillia forceps Zorn & Lu sp. nov. from India, Glenopopillia mengi Lu & Zorn sp. nov. from China and Laos, and Glenopopillia skalei Zorn & Lu sp. nov. from Vietnam; and one new subspecies: Glenopopillia rufi pennis nigropicta Zorn & Lu subsp. nov. from Laos; propose two new combinations: Glenopopillia fossulata (Benderitter, 1929) comb. nov. (from Strigoderma fossulata Benderitter, 1929) and Glenopopillia klossi (Ohaus, 1926) comb. nov. (from Spilota klossi Ohaus, 1926), bringing the total number of species group taxa in this genus to ten. We characterize the genus, provide a key to the species, describe and diagnose each species group taxon, and compile a distribution map. A lectotype for Spilota klossi Ohaus, 1926 is designated.

Open access

Svetlana Chigray, Maxim Nabozhenko, Bekir Keskin and Gayirbeg Abdurakhmanov

Abstract

The taxonomic review of the tenebrionid genus Calyptopsis Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae: Tentyriini) of Turkey and Western Transcaucasia is given. Four new species and one new subspecies are described: C. capnisiformis volcanica subsp. nov. (from calderas of extinct volcanoes in Karaman and Manisa provinces), C. fouquei sp. nov. (Artvin Province), C. egecemi sp. nov. (Izmir Province), C. kaszabi sp. nov. (Bayburt Province), C. ottoi sp. nov. (Turkey: Hakkari and Van provinces; NE Iraq: Zagros Mts.). The lectotype of Calyptopsis lineimargo Reitter, 1897 is designated. The key and images for the Turkish and Western Transcaucasian species are given. In total, eleven species and one subspecies are known from Turkey, of which eight taxa are endemic for Anatolia.