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CD4/CD8 Antibodies Reduce Histopathological Damage in Salivary Glands of Spontaneously Diabetic Mice

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes affects the metabolism promoting damage in different tissues, including salivary glands. Current treatments, such as insulin, are ineffective to recovery of these tissues. In this aspect, the immunotherapy has been tested, but it can be inefficient as an agent for the control of damage caused by diabetes. The aim of this study to evaluate the association in anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody in the recovery of salivary glands of diabetic NOD mice.

Material and methods: Fifteen spontaneously diabetic mice (NOD) were divided into three groups with 5 animals each: group I (Balb/C control mice), group II (untreated NOD mice), group III (NOD mice treated with CD4 and CD8 antibodies). The CD4 and CD8 antibodies (IMUNY, Rheabiotech Ltda, Brazil) were administered by intravenously injections (25 ug/days: 0, 7, 14, and 21). After treatment salivary glands samples were analyzed by immunofluorescence, microscopy, light microscopy and stereology. (ethical approval process: 304/11), Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test were used.

Results: Elevated levels of glucose (mg/dl) were observed in untreated animals (group II) (605.25 ± 31.23, p≤0.05), whereas in treated animals (group III), were noted a decrease in these levels (464.77 ± 39.66, p≤0.05). Tissue restructure, characterized by cell volume recovery, also was observed in group III (nuclear volume of parotid glands: (109.91 ± 02.03, p≤0.05) and submandibular glands: (107.52 ± 02, p≤0.05) (cytoplasmic volume of parotid glands: (356.14 ± 26.34, p≤0.05) and submandibular glands: (331.22 ± 32.11, p≤0.05). Intense signaling (+++) of insulin receptors was observed in animals of group I. On the other hand, in group II was noted a reduction of these receptors (+). In treated animals (group III) were observed a recovery of the insulin receptors (+++).

Conclusions: This treatment was effective in the recovery of salivary acinar cells, contributed also to homeostasis of body metabolism. Thus, this immunomodulation promoted a beneficial effect on the recovery of these tissues.

Open access
Epidemiology of Dyslipidemia Among Adult Population of Bangladesh

Abstract

Background and aims: evatedEl level serum of lipids stimulate atherosclerosis, which is the risk factor for stroke, peripheral vascular taeohrrratrrocvtra disease. The aim of this study was to explore the pattern and associated factors of dyslipidemia among Bangladeshi adult population.

Material and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient department (OPD) of four Medical College Hospitals, Bangladesh. 200 adults aged 20 to 65 years diagnosed case of dyslipidemia were randomly selected. Fasting CHO, HDL, LDL and TG were measured. According to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), dyslipidemia was classified into (a) Hyper-lipidemia: TC>200 mg/dl, TG>150 mg/dl, (b) Hyper cholesterolemia: TC>200 mg/dl, (c) Hyper-triglyceridemia: TG>150 mg/dl, and (d) Atherogenic-dyslipidemia: TG>150 mg/dl, LDLC>165 mg/dl.

Results: Study found 46% hyperlipidemia, 37% atherogenic dyslipidemia, 13.5% hypercholesterolemia and only 3.5% hypertriglyceridemia. BMI, FBS and HDL-C were significantly higher among female compare to male (p=<0.01, <0.01 and 0.04 respectively). TC and TG were significantly higher among higher calorie intake group in compare to normal intake group (p=0.04).

Conclusions: Results of this study concluded that hyperlipidemia and atherogenic dyslipidemia are common and female dyslipidemic patients are susceptible to develop higher BMI, FBS, and HDL-C.

Open access
Evaluation of Pancreatic and Extra Pancreatic Effects of Branched Amino Acids

Abstract

Background and aims: Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine collectively known as Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), can be closely associated with metabolic dysregulates and with insulin resistance. We aimed to explore the role of BCAAs as potential treatment option for diabetes.

Material and method: Bioassay the effect of BCAAs on MIN6 cell line on insulin secretion and pancreatic beta cells expansion, then were checked for inhibitory potential of pancreatic amylase, glucosidase and lipase as alternative approach for diabetes treatment.

Results: BCAAs significantly enhance insulin secretion parallel to L-alanine efficacy. Furthermore, BCAAs obtain a dose dependent β-cell proliferation similar to glucagon-like peptide-1. Moreover, these acids could restore the secretory function of MIN6 β-cell despite stressful gluco-lipo-toxicity; separately or combined. Moreover, BCAAs exerted a dose dependent dual inhibition of amylase, glucosidase and lipase.

Conclusions: Our current findings suggest that BCAAs supplementation may have a potential therapeutic effect against diabetes as insulin releasing agent and as specific inhibitors for both-amylase/α-amyloglucoside and lipase

Open access
Gender-Specific Differences of Oxidative Processes in the Population of Circulating Neutrophils of Rats in a Setting of Prolonged Administration of Monosodium Glutamate

Abstract

Background and aims: Monosodium salt of glutamic acid (MSG) is one of the most common food additives. The aim of study was to assess, in gender-specific terms, how prolonged administration of MSG effects on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation and the apoptotic/necrotic processes in the population of rats circulating neutrophils.

Material and methods: Experimental studies were conducted on 32 mature white rats. MSG was administered intragastrical at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The analysis of cell samples to determine neutrophils with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signs of apoptosis\necrosis was evaluated with flow laser cytometry method. The total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was determined by monitoring the rate of conversion of L-arginine into citrulline. The total quantity of NO metabolites was assessed by evaluating of nitrite and nitrate ions.

Results: We found a significant increase in generation of ROS, intensification of nitroxydergic processes, an increase in the percentage of apoptotic neutrophils and no changes in the percentage of necrotic neutrophils.

Conclusions: We observed activation of oxidative and nitroxydergic processes in rats with prolonged administration of MSG, which initiate apoptosis. In gender-specific terms, a more pronounced changes were seen in male rats.

Open access
The Impact of Structured Diabetes Education on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at Initiation of Basal Insulin – The Basal-EDUC-RO Study: A Randomized Prospective Study

Abstract

Background: Basal-EDUC-RO Study evaluated the impact of structured education provided at the initiation of basal insulin therapy on glycaemic control in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).

Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel group study (ACTRN12616001273471) which enrolled 711 patients initiated on insulin therapy with a basal insulin analogue. The subjects were randomized (1:1) to either structured education (structured education group; 353 patients) or standard education (control group; 358 patients) and followed for 6 months.

Results: The median HbA1c levels at 6 months after start of basal insulin were significantly lower in the structured education group than in the control group (7.2% vs. 7.4%, p <0.001). In the structured education group, 49.4% of subjects achieved HbA1c targets vs. 34.4% in the control group, p <0.001. Number of documented symptomatic hypoglycemic episodes (all and nocturnal) was lower in the intervention group (139 vs. 217 for all episodes and 13 vs. 26 for nocturnal hypoglycemia) but with no statistical significance. No effect of intervention was seen on body weight, but there was no weight gain in any of the groups at 6 months.

Conclusions: A structured diabetes education program delivered to patients with T2D started on a basal insulin analogue significantly improved glucose control at 6 months compared to a less intense education strategy. The positive effect was mainly seen on the percentage of patients who achieved individualized HbA1c pre-set targets, with a non-significant reduction in episodes of overall and nocturnal documented symptomatic hypoglycemia.

Open access
Interrelations Between Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Obese Women with Two Complications (Hypertension, Diabetes)

Abstract

Background and aims: Interaction between oxidative stress and inflammation has not been comprehensively investigated in the association obesity – diabetes - hypertension. Our aim was to investigate interrelations between inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in obese women with two complications (hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Material and Methods: 54 obese patients without complications, 46 diabetic patients with obesity, 48 hypertensive diabetic obese women, and 120 healthy controls were recruited from the department of nuclear medicine (Algeria). Inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were assayed by appropriate methods.

Results: Inflammatory markers were significantly higher in all obese groups compared to controls. Elevated pro-oxidants and decreased antioxidant markers were noted in obese women. These alterations were accentuated when obesity was associated with hypertension and diabetes. A positive interrelationship between inflammatory mediators and oxidative status, and a negative one with antioxidants were noted during obesity. Hypertension and diabetes enhanced these correlations. Leptin, C-reactive protein, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ion superoxide, peroxynitrite were found to be the best inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers that can predict diabetes and hypertension in obese women.

Conclusions: oxidative stress and inflammation were intimately interconnected in women obesity associated with diabetes and hypertension.

Open access
Low Total Testosterone-Component of Metabolic Syndrome

Abstract

Background and aims: To assess the levels of total testosterone in the metabolic syndrome patients.

Material and Methods: We included ninety-six patients in our study, forty-nine with metabolic syndrome according to the definition of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and forty-seven as control. Anthropometric measurements were registered and blood samples were taken after an overnight fast.

Results: The mean values of different parameters showed significant differences between both groups. The total testosterone mean value was (338,97±91,2 ng/ml) substantially lower as compared to patients with metabolic syndrome to control group.

Conclusion: There is an inverse relationship between total testosterone and metabolic syndrome. Low total testosterone can be a predictor of rising incidence of metabolic syndrome.

Open access
Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity and Clinical Parameters in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Report from the Walking with Diabetes Study

Abstract

Background and aims: This study investigate the effects of increases in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on several clinical parameters in Indonesian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Material and methods: This study used clinical and physical activity data of forty-two T2DM patients who completed a 6 month-free-living physical activity program, the Walking with Diabetes Study. Upon completion of the program, participants were categorised into a group with increases in MVPA (the MVPA+ group, n=24) or a group with steady/decreases in MVPA (the control group, n=18). High density lipoprotein, triglyceride, routine hematology profiles, blood pressure, body mass index, weight/hip ratio and self-reported MVPA, at baseline, 3 and 6 months were retrospectively analysed. Generalized estimating equation adjusted for age and sex were conducted to assess group and time effects on the clinical parameters.

Results: Hemoglobin (p <0.01), erythrocytes (p<0.05), hematocrits (p<0.001) and thrombocytes (p<0.05) were higher in the MVPA+ group. The 1h and 2h-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) increased in both groups across time (p<0.001). No changes between groups across time were found for other parameters.

Conclusions: Increases in MVPA improve several hematology parameters in T2DM patients, but it does not have protective effects in controlling systemic inflammation in T2DM patients.

Open access
Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), increasing the risk of progression of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active TB threefold, threatening the TB control, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess active and latent TB infection frequency in patients with DM.

Material and methods: There were enrolled in this study 503 adult DM patients. Active TB screening was performed through anamnestic data, clinical examination and chest X-ray and latent TB infection screening was evaluated using the tuberculin skin tests (TST).

Results: A number of 63 (12.5%) patients had type 1 DM and 440 (87.5%) had type 2 DM. Personal history of TB was present in 21 (4.2%) subjects, 5 (8.1%) with type 1 DM and 16 (3.6%) with type 2 DM. The TST was positive in 258 (51.5%) patients and 54 (10.7%) presented cough for more than two weeks at the time of examination. The chest X-ray revealed suggestive lesions for active TB in 4 (1%) subjects and lesions of inactive TB in 90 (22.4%) subjects.

Conclusions: TB screening must receive proper attention in patients with DM, being essential for diagnosis in those with nonspecific symptoms.

Open access
Renoprotective Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitors
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