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Open access

M. Kožár, H. Hamilton and J. Koščová

Abstract

Skin wounds are a common presentation in small animal practice. The successful management of wound healing in dogs and cats requires knowledge of the physiology of the wound healing process and the application of an appropriate therapeutic intervention. Many wounds are colonised by bacteria or show signs of clinical infection. Infections can delay wound healing, impair cosmetic outcome and increase healthcare costs. Because of a lack of papers giving an overall prevalence of bacteria in different types of wounds, 45 samples were taken from patients treated at the Small Animals Clinic, Section of Surgery, Orthopaedics, Roentgenology and Reproduction of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice during the years 2017 — 2018 to determine the types of wounds and the prevalence of bacterial contamination of the wounds. Samples were obtained by using cotton-tipped swabs and then cultivated on Sabouraud’s plates in the Institute of Microbiology and Gnotobiology of the University. All 45 animals used in this research were first subjected to an anatomical and clinical exam to determine the patient’s health condition and the status of the wounds. Of these 45 samples, 9 were negative. Of the remaining 36 samples, 12 were cultivated and tested to give only the genera of the bacteria present, whilst 24 were tested more extensively for a specific diagnosis of the species. The most common wound was due to a bite from another animal; these made up 12 out of the 45 cases (26.67 %). There were 10 cases of dehiscence of old wounds (22.22 %), whereas there were only 2 cases of surgical wound complications (4.44 %). There were 5 puncture wounds or fistulas (11.11 %), 4 lacerations (8.88 %), 1 degloving injury (2.22 %), 1 seroma (2.22 %), 1 foreign body (2.22 %), 1 crushing injury (2.22 %), 1 case of contusion and necrosis (2.22 %), 1 cases of dermatitis with resulting pruritic lesions (2.22 %), and 1 cutting injury from a tight wire collar (2.22 %). Five cases (11.11 %) were wounds of unknown aetiology. The most commonly found bacteria was Staphylococcus intermedius, which was found in 14 out of the 45 wounds (31.11 %). From this study it appears that the first consideration for treatment of infected wounds should be a treatment plan which will have a high efficacy against Staphylococcus spp. However, despite the high prevalence of Staphylococcus spp., our results revealed that they are not present all of the time.

Open access

Agnieszka Wojtkowiak-Giera, Elżbieta Wandurska-Nowak, Monika Derda, Wiesława Jankowska, Paweł P. Jagodziński and Edward Hadaś

Abstract

Introduction: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the rapid activation of the innate immune response to a variety of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the level of expression of the tlr4 gene in mouse intestines during the intestinal phase of experimental trichinellosis.

Material and Methods: The experimental material consisted of the small and large intestines of BALB/c mice infected with Trichinella spiralis sampled at 4, 8, and 16 days post infection (dpi).

Results: A statistically significant increase was demonstrated in the tlr4 mRNA level isolated from the infected mice jejunum at 4, 8, and 16 dpi over the uninfected control. Moreover, at 4, 8, and 16 dpi in the jejunum of infected mice, a strong positive reaction for the presence of TLR4 protein compared with that of uninfected mice was observed.

Conclusion: Infection with T. spiralis changes the expression of the tlr4 gene in the small intestine of the mouse host.

Open access

Ana Oliveira, Joana S.P. Devesa, Peter B. Hill, Vanessa Silva and Patrícia Poeta

Abstract

Introduction: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis often cause skin diseases in dogs.

Material and Methods: An online survey was e-mailed to veterinary practices nationwide covering demographics, diagnosis methods, and oral and topical treatment options. Of the 740 surveys sent, 100 complete replies were obtained.

Results: The majority of clinicians were unaware of the existence of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases guidelines or did not follow them (53%). Oral antibiotics were used universally for superficial bacterial folliculitis treatment, particularly amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalexin (94%), enrofloxacin (67%), or marbofloxacin (60%). For fold dermatitis (FD) and otitis externa (OE), oral antibiotics were also given as treatment in 88% and 82% of cases, respectively. Oral antifungals were often prescribed for generalised Malassezia dermatitis (85%), FD (70%), and OE (59%). S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis were frequently treated topically, particularly with antibacterials or antifungals only, or a combination of antibacterials, antifungals, and glucocorticoids. Alternative options such as honey-based products were not frequently used.

Conclusion: Our survey suggests that oral antibiotics are overused by Portuguese clinicians despite the spread of antibiotic resistant S. pseudintermedius. Oral antibiotics and antifungals are commonly prescribed for skin conditions manageable with topical treatments.

Open access

Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Jacek Zwoliński, Anna Sawczyn-Domańska, Anna Kloc, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Robert Chmura and Jacek Dutkiewicz

Abstract

Introduction: Exposure to zoonotic factors in veterinary practice is closely related to the nature of the work. The main aim of the study was to determine the risk of selected zoonotic infections among the occupational group of veterinarians in Poland.

Material and Methods: Blood samples of 373 veterinarians (162 males and 211 females) from 12 provinces of Poland were collected by the venipuncture of a forearm for serological tests. Commercial immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) were used for detection of specific IgG antibodies to Echinococcus granulosus, IgM and IgG to Leptospira spp., and IgM, IgA, and I and II phase IgG to Coxiella burnetii. Enzyme-linked fluorescence assays (ELFA) were used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

Results: Positive results were found in 209 (56.0%) veterinarians for at least one of the examined diseases. The overall proportion of participants found to have specific Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the IgM and/or IgG assays amounted to 44.5%. The presence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies was found in 16 (4.3%) subjects, while Leptospira spp. antibodies were detected in 63 (16.9%) veterinarians. Among the 373 veterinarians examined, no Echinococcus granulosus antibodies were found.

Conclusion: Results of the study seem to indicate a slightly elevated risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection and a moderate risk of infection with Leptospira spp. and Coxiella burnetii in veterinarians.

Open access

Y. Nechiporuk, V. Novak and V. Dudka

Abstract

The comparative studies of the tarsal joint capsule of cattle (Bos taurus) and canines (Canis lupus) have clarified general patterns of the structural organization of a joint capsule and the species-specific features of its angioarchitectonics. The differences in the formation of the fibroelastic layer and the location of vascular fields in the cases of animals with different stances were established. The zones of intensive intraorganic vascularization of the joint capsule were revealed; that being—the plantar and dorsal surface in the case of cattle, the lateral and medial surfaces—in case of the canine.

Open access

K. Huňáková, M. Hluchý, M. Kuricová, K. Ševčík, J. Rosocha and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Exosomes are nanovesicles that are involved in inter-cellular communication and are secreted by many types of cells. Exosomes secreted by stem cells can effectively transport bioactive proteins, messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) organelles and play important roles in intercellular communication and the regulation of tissue regeneration. This transfer of bioactive molecules plays a main role in: tumor invasion and metastasis, immune and inflammation modulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and neurobiology. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) exosomes provide new perspectives for the development of an off-the-shelf and cell-free MSC therapy for the treatment of cartilage injuries and osteoarthritis. This report describes the progress in exosome studies and potential clinical use for osteoarthritis treatment.

Open access

Beata Szymczyk, Witold Szczurek, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Zbigniew Sieradzki, Małgorzata Mazur, Dariusz Bednarek and Michał Reichert

Abstract

Introduction: The influence of feeding genetically modified MON 810 hybrid maize on the growth and haematological and biochemical indices of rats was tested.

Material and Methods: Two conventional (non-GM) and two test (MON 810) lines of maize were used in semi-purified diets at the level of 40% w/w. The non-GM I, MON 810 I, non-GM II, and MON 810 II maize lines were near-isogenic. A total of 40 male 6-week-old Wistar-derived rats were assigned to four equal feeding groups corresponding to the four maize lines for 16 weeks. Overall, health, body weight gain, clinical pathology parameters, gross changes, and appearance of tissues were compared between groups.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the weight gain or relative organ weights of rats, but there were some non diet-related histopathological changes in the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Except for creatinine level, no diet-related effects were observed in haematology or most of the biochemical indices. Transgenic DNA of MON 810 maize was not detected in the tissues or faeces nor in the DNA of E. coli isolated from the rectum digesta of rats given transgenic feeds. In our experiment, various metabolic indices of rats fed non-GM diets or genetically modified (MON 810) maize for 16 weeks were similar. No adverse nutrition-related health effects were detected.

Conclusion: MON 810 maize seems to be as safe as the conventional maize lines.

Open access

Bekir Oguz, Nalan Ozdal, Ozlem Orunc Kilinc and M. Serdar Deger

Abstract

Introduction: Echinococcus granulosus is a zoonotic helminth of the Taeniidae family living in the small intestines of dogs. The hydatid cyst, which is the larval form of this parasite, is observed in sheep, goat, cattle, and many other organisms including humans. It causes a disease called cystic echinococcosis. Identification of strains of E. granulosus in dogs is critical in parasite control and eradication where possible. This study aims to determine the genotype of E. granulosus eggs and prevalence of this parasite in the faeces of dogs in the Van Province using the copro-PCR method.

Material and Methods: This study was conducted between 2015 and 2016 on the faeces obtained from 100 stray dogs from different parts of the Van Province. The coprological examination was conducted using the formalin-ether concentration method.

Results: Taeniidae eggs were found in 10 (10%) out of 100 faecal samples. E. granulosus was detected in 4 out of 10 of these (40%) infected samples. Sequence analysis of positive amplicons obtained from PCR showed that there were sheep strains (G1).

Conclusion: Dogs in Van area are primarily infected with the livestock genotype of E. granulosus, which is thought to be a potential zoonotic threat to humans.

Open access

Mehmet Cemal Adiguzel, Belgi Diren Sigirci, Baran Celik, Beren Basaran Kahraman, Kemal Metiner, Serkan Ikiz, A. Funda Bagcigil, Seyyal Ak and N. Yakut Ozgur

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed to isolate thermophilic Campylobacter from chickens raised three rearing methods, determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities, and examine resistance-related genes by PCR.

Material and Methods: Cloacal swabs or intestinal contents were taken in Istanbul, Sakarya, and Izmir provinces. Chickens were from small village-based family-run businesses (n = 70), organically raised (n = 71), and conventionally raised broilers (n = 79). The samples were cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone desoxycholate (mCCD) agar. Suspect isolates were identified with multiplex PCR (mPCR). As per EUCAST standards, MIC values were derived by broth microdilution for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin in isolates of C. jejuni (n = 98) and C. coli (n = 83).

Results: In C. jejuni, 78.6% tetracycline, 87.8% ciprofloxacin, and 81.6% nalidixic acid resistance was detected, but none was to kanamycin, gentamicin, or erythromycin. In C. coli, 98.8% ciprofloxacin and 63.9% nalidixic acid resistance was detected, whereas resistance to nonquinolones was not observed. C257T (Thr-86-Ile) mutation in the gyrA gene of all phenotypically quinolone-resistant isolates was detected through a mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR (MAMA-PCR). It emerged that all isolates bore the tet (O) resistance gene.

Conclusion: Common tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin resistance exists in Campylobacter isolated from chickens raised three rearing methods.

Open access

Hanna Czekaj, Wojciech Kozdruń, Natalia Styś-Fijoł, Jowita Samanta Niczyporuk and Karolina Piekarska

Abstract

Introduction: Avian reovirus (ARV) infections in poultry populations are reported worldwide. The reovirus belongs to the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of ARV infections in the poultry population based on diagnostic tests performed in 2010–2017.

Material and Methods: Samples of the liver and spleen were collected from sick birds suspected of ARV infection and sent for diagnostics. Isolation was performed in 5–7-day-old SPF chicken embryos infected into the yolk sac with homogenates of internal organs of sick birds. Four primer pairs were used to detect the σNS, σC, σA, and µA ARV RNA gene fragments. A nested PCR was used for the detection of the σNS and σC genes.

Results: In 2010–2017, ARV infection was found in birds from 81 flocks of broiler chickens and/or layers, 8 flocks of slaughter turkeys, and in 4 hatchery embryos at 17–20 days of incubation. The primers used in RT-PCR and nested PCR did not allow effective detection of ARV RNA in all virus-positive samples.

Conclusion: The problem of ARV infections in the poultry population in Poland still persist. The primers used for various ARV segments in RT-PCR and nested PCR did not allow effective detection of RNA in the visceral organs of sick birds. The presented results confirm the necessity of using classical diagnostic methods (isolation in chicken embryos, AGID).