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Paulina Wróbel-Knybel, Michał Flis, Rafał Dubiel and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

Abstract

The aim of this work is to present the most important information about the disorder known as sleep paralysis - its history, cultural context, pathophysiology, prevalence, symptomatology, coexistence with other somatic and mental disorders as well as diagnostics and available forms of prevention and treatment.

Open access

Aleksandra Iwanicka, Joanna Iwanicka and Anna Urbańska

Abstract

The aim of the article is to point out to the specificity and difficulties an expert psychologist faces while producing a court expertise in family and guardianship cases. Such a diagnosis is prepared at the request of a family court. The questions asked by the court in family and guardianship cases determine the range and aim of diagnosis including the type of examined case. Having considered the court’s questions, a psychologist formulates hypotheses and operationalizes variables. This article will present the main areas of problems which arise while developing opinions in family and guardianship cases. The two main issues will be discussed: the range of an expert psychologist’s competences in the light of the court’s expectations frequently exceeding an expert’s capabilities and the impact of the choice of research methods on the quality of an opinion issued to obtain the final ruling in the court case.

Open access

Małgorzata Futyma-Jędrzejewska, Ewelina Drzał and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

Summary

Pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood are new situations for women and require adjustment. Women suffering from schizophrenia require special attention due to the course of the disease. Physiological changes that occur in the body during pregnancy may be unacceptable for women suffering from schizophrenia. They may delusively deny the existence of the pregnancy, lead an unhealthy lifestyle (stimulants, poor diet, lack of gynaecological check-ups), which in turn causes an increased risk of complications. In the research conducted so far, it has been proven that three kinds of complications are associated with schizophrenia: complications concerning pregnancy itself (bleeding, diabetes, Rh-incompatibility, pre-eclampsia), intrauterine growth restriction (low birth weight, congenital malformations, small head circumference) and complications regarding labour (uterine atony, asphyxia, emergency Caesarean section). The course of the labour itself in this specific group of patients has not yet been sufficiently examined. It has also been proven that perinatal complications are one of the factors determining an increased risk of schizophrenia.

Open access

Aneta Perzyńska-Starkiewicz

Abstract

In creating his Psychophysiological Theory, Jan Mazurkiewicz transplanted John Hughlings Jackson’s method into the field of psychiatry. Like his precursor, he distinguished four evolutionary levels, but this time with regard to mental activity. According to Mazurkiewicz’s approach, disease is the reverse of evolution. Doing damage to the highest evolutionary level, it allows evolutionarily lower levels to take control of the patient’s psyche. Distorted by the etiological factor, the lower mental levels manifest as mental disease. In his Psychophysiological Theory, Mazurkiewicz distinguishes three types of dissolution: intra-level dissolution (psychoneuroses), slow dissolution or dissociation proper (schizophrenia), and rapid, delirium-like dissolution (impaired consciousness). Kaczyński noted that, based on an in-depth analysis of the phylogenetic and ontogenetic development of the successive evolutionary levels of the nervous system, Mazurkiewicz transposed the principles of the Jacksonian concept of hierarchical evolution – dissolution. Within a dozen or so years from birth to maturity, the process of evolution of mankind is recapitulated, with the speed of lightning, in an individual – from instincts, which are phylogenetically the oldest, to the highest functions of the frontal lobes. The present paper makes mention of research conducted at Lublin’s Department of Psychiatry which expands on Mazurkiewicz’s theory.

Open access

Aneta Gerhant, Ewa Krzewicka-Romaniuk, Dagna Siedlecka, Magdalena Derewianka-Polak and Marcin Olajossy

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the range of socio-demographic variables, selected clinical variables, temperament and character traits, coping with stress strategies and the level of aggression in alcohol addicts with or without a history of suicide attempt(s). Methods: The study involved 90 people addicted to alcohol, treated in inpatient alcohol dependence treatment program. In order to collect data on socio - demographic variables and selected clinical variables, a self-made questionnaire was used. The severity of alcohol dependence was verified using the MAST and SADD scales. Characteristics of temperament and character were examined with the TCI questionnaire. The BPAQ and COPE questionnaires were used to examine the level of aggression and styles of coping with stress. Results: Out of 90 subjects with alcohol dependence syndrom, 20% had attempted suicide in the past. The respondents with a history of suicide attempts were statistically significantly younger, were characterized by a younger age of alcohol drinking initiation and the initiation of regular alcohol drinking, and a greater severity of alcohol dependence in the MAST and SADD scales. A significantly larger percentage of respondents who had attempted suicide inflicted self-injury in the past, used other psychoactive substances as well as hypnotics and sedatives. The subjects with a suicide attempt in the interview obtained statistically significantly higher scores in terms of the level of aggression, harm avoidance and self-directedness, and more often used the style of coping with stress based on avoidance and accepting the situation. Conclusions: The obtained results correspond with data available in the literature and may provide a foundation for theoretical models explaining the phenomenon of suicidal behavior in alcohol addicts as well as for suicide prevention programs in this group of patients.

Open access

Mervat Z. Mohamed, Heba M. Hafez, Hanaa H. Mohamed and Nagwa M. Zenhom

Abstract

Objective. We aimed to assess the protective role of verapamil, L-type calcium channel blockers, against early lung damage in diabetic rats. Lung injury has recently been recognized as a consequent complication of diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia induces inflammatory changes in lung tissue early in the disease. Methods. Twenty four adult male rats were grouped into control, diabetic, diabetic treated with verapamil, and verapamil control. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce diabetes. Oxidative parameters and antioxidative mechanisms were assessed in lung homogenate. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein was measured as a pro-inflammatory mediator. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene expression and nuclear erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) immunoexpression were screened. Results. The lung showed oxidative damage and inflammatory infiltration in STZ diabetic rats early at 2 weeks. The parameters significantly improved in lung tissue treated with verapamil. Histopathology of the lung tissue confirmed the results. Inhibition of STAT3/TNFα pathway was involved in the protection offered by verapamil. Activation of Nrf2 together with an increasing antioxidant capacity of diabetic lung significantly ameliorates the injury induced by diabetes. Conclusions. Verapamil afforded protection in diabetic lung injury. The protection was mediated by the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of verapamil.

Open access

Laura M. L. Carvalho, Fernando M. dos Reis, Ana Lucia Candido, Fernanda F. C. Nunes, Claudia N. Ferreira and Karina B. Gomes

Abstract

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries. This endocrinopathy is associated with many metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular complications. Inflammation is likely to play an important role in the promoting these metabolic imbalances, while prothrombotic and pro-oxidative mechanisms further contribute to the cardiovascular risk of these patients. The etiology of PCOS is still not fully understood, but there is evidence of genetic and environmental components. This review aims to discuss some molecular pathways associated with PCOS that could contribute to the better understanding about this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that intrauterine exposure of female mice to an excess of anti-Müllerian hormone may induce PCOS features in their post-natal life. High cytokine levels and cytokine gene polymorphisms also appear to be associated with the pathophysiology of PCOS. Furthermore, high levels of microparticles may contribute to the altered hemostasis and enhanced inflammation in PCOS. All these mechanisms may be relevant to clarify some aspects of PCOS pathogenesis and inspire new strategies to prevent the syndrome as well as treat its symptoms and mitigate the risk of long-term complications.

Open access

Dora Zelena, Ophelie Menant, Frederic Andersson and Elodie Chaillou

Abstract

The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is less referred in relationship with emotions than other parts of the brain (e.g. cortex, thalamus, amygdala), most probably because of the difficulty to reach and manipulate this small and deeply lying structure. After defining how to evaluate emotions, we have reviewed the literature and summarized data of the PAG contribution to the feeling of emotions focusing on the behavioral and neurochemical considerations. In humans, emotions can be characterized by three main domains: the physiological changes, the communicative expressions, and the subjective experiences. In animals, the physiological changes can mainly be studied. Indeed, early studies have considered the PAG as an important center of the emotions-related autonomic and motoric processes. However, in vivo imaging have changed our view by highlighting the PAG as a significant player in emotions-related cognitive processes. The PAG lies on the crossroad of networks important in the regulation of emotions and therefore it should not be neglected. In vivo imaging represents a good tool for studying this structure in living organism and may reveal new information about its role beyond its importance in the neurovegetative regulation.

Open access

Tomomi Nobashi, Tsuneo Saga, Yuji Nakamoto, Yoichi Shimizu, Sho Koyasu, Takayoshi Ishimori, Masao Watanabe, Hiroyuki Kimura and Kaori Togashi

Abstract

Objective. This study investigated whether the metformin (Met)-induced enhanced intestinal uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) is reduced by loperamide, a long-acting anti-diarrheal agent. Methods. Mean 18F-FDG uptake in the mouse small intestine and colon with Met exposure was compared with that in control mice. In the Met group, high-dose (1.0 mg/kg body weight) and low-dose (0.1 mg/kg body weight) loperamide were introduced, and 18F-FDG uptake in the small intestine and colon was compared with that of control mice administered high-dose loperamide. The percent injected dose of 18F-FDG per gram of tissue (%ID/g) in the extracted tissues was then determined. Results. 18F-FDG uptake increased significantly in the small intestine (0.64±0.06 vs. 1.01±0.15, p=0.040) and, especially, the colon (0.46±0.13 vs. 2.16±0.51, p<0.001) after Met exposure. Neither high-dose nor low-dose loperamide significantly reduced 18F-FDG uptake in the small intestine (0.82±0.31 vs. 0.84±0.22, p=0.93 and 0.78±0.25 vs. 0.70±0.15, p=0.13, respectively) or colon (2.13±0.41 vs. 1.67±0.55, p=0.063 and 1.77±0.39 vs. 1.80±0.25, p=0.56, respectively). The colonic %ID/g was significantly higher in Met groups irrespective of loperamide introduction than in control group, whereas the significant difference in the small intestine was observed only between Met and control groups. Conclusion. Metformin increased 18F-FDG uptake in intestines especially in colon. Loperamide administration partially, but not sufficiently, suppresses the Met-induced increased colonic uptake of 18F-FDG.

Open access

Zahra Mogaddami, Farzam Sheikhzadeh, Homeira Hatami, Seyed Mahdi Banan Khojasteh, Nazli Khajehnasiri, Ali Reza Ali Hemmati and Ali Dastranj

Abstract

Objective. Reproductive disorders are one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. Since conflicting results have been obtained from different studies, which examined serum levels of cytokines in patients with diabetes, and considering the fact that the origin of cytokines cannot be accurately determined from their serum changes, attempts were made in the present study to study histological changes and testicular tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-1 in rats treated with exercise. Considering the effects of exercise in reducing blood sugar level and its complications, two types of short-term and long-term regular exercises were also considered to evaluate their effects on male reproductive tissues. Methods. In this study, 60 male rats with the weight range of 250±50 g were used and were randomly divided into six groups (10 rats each). Healthy groups included sedentary control group, and groups treated with two and eight weeks of exercise. Rats with type 1 diabetes (induced by streptozotocin) included sedentary control group, groups treated with two and eight weeks of exercise (six groups). All groups were evaluated in terms of testicular tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-1 using ELISA and the histometry of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, epithelial thickness, diameter of veins, and thickness of the seminiferous tubule. Results. Histological changes resulting from diabetes, particularly in the diameter of testicular veins and a number of cells, including Sertoli, highlights the important fact that tissue perfusion in patients with diabetes is especially crucial, in a way that exercise proved useful for tissue structures by offsetting this complication. Measurement of the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α in the current study showed that perfusion problems are more important in diabetic complications than inflammatory factors. Conclusions. The main result of this research is recommendation of investigating the tissue of interest for diagnosis of diabetes complications, measuring inflammatory mediators of tissue rather than evaluating their serum concentrations, and focusing on vascular complications as a major complication of diabetes. Furthermore, regular exercise could help improve the function of reproductive organs in healthy groups and prevent diabetes infertility complications to an acceptable degree in diabetic groups.