Objective. Reproductive disorders are one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. Since conflicting results have been obtained from different studies, which examined serum levels of cytokines in patients with diabetes, and considering the fact that the origin of cytokines cannot be accurately determined from their serum changes, attempts were made in the present study to study histological changes and testicular tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-1 in rats treated with exercise. Considering the effects of exercise in reducing blood sugar level and its complications, two types of short-term and long-term regular exercises were also considered to evaluate their effects on male reproductive tissues. Methods. In this study, 60 male rats with the weight range of 250±50 g were used and were randomly divided into six groups (10 rats each). Healthy groups included sedentary control group, and groups treated with two and eight weeks of exercise. Rats with type 1 diabetes (induced by streptozotocin) included sedentary control group, groups treated with two and eight weeks of exercise (six groups). All groups were evaluated in terms of testicular tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-1 using ELISA and the histometry of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, epithelial thickness, diameter of veins, and thickness of the seminiferous tubule. Results. Histological changes resulting from diabetes, particularly in the diameter of testicular veins and a number of cells, including Sertoli, highlights the important fact that tissue perfusion in patients with diabetes is especially crucial, in a way that exercise proved useful for tissue structures by offsetting this complication. Measurement of the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α in the current study showed that perfusion problems are more important in diabetic complications than inflammatory factors. Conclusions. The main result of this research is recommendation of investigating the tissue of interest for diagnosis of diabetes complications, measuring inflammatory mediators of tissue rather than evaluating their serum concentrations, and focusing on vascular complications as a major complication of diabetes. Furthermore, regular exercise could help improve the function of reproductive organs in healthy groups and prevent diabetes infertility complications to an acceptable degree in diabetic groups.