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Miroslava Vlčková, Zuzana Frantíková and Jaroslav Vrchota

Abstract

In most European countries, teleworking or homeworking is used in various forms that differ from one another by its legal regulation. The paper examines the SME’s in the Czech Republic from the perspective what makes them to adopt telework using the financial indicators. We hypothesized that employer adoption of telework would depend on some economic factors. The empirical evidence showed that a typical company that uses telework is a company with higher ratio of liabilities and therefore lower ratio of equity, a lower ratio of fixed assets, higher sales, lower inventory, higher labour productivity and higher value added per employee, higher return on equity, higher personnel costs, higher average wages. Within the analysed enterprises, 16 indicators were assessed; the 9 indicators showed the difference between companies that use telework and companies that do not use telework. The research shows a typical company that uses telework.

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Liliana E. Donath and Petru-Ovidiu Mura

Abstract

The paper investigates whether there is a convergence club stance for the Visegrad countries plus Romania and Bulgaria and the part played, in this process, by the implicit tax rates on labour and consumption, respectively. For the purpose of the research, the GDP per capita, productivity and unemployment are used as convergence indicators and dependent variables. The dataset covers the 1995–2016 timeframe and the analysis is based on a panel-model approach. The main results show that the implicit tax on labour has no significant effect on the convergence indicators while the implicit rates on consumption are statistically significant with negative influence. The interpretation of results is made considering a set of control and robustness variables where policy lessons derive from. The conclusion reflects on the policy lessons that can serve to accomplish the convergence club within selected CEE countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Romania.

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Tomáš Gongol and Radka Zahradníková

Abstract

The rapid development of IT technologies in the last few decades has also created increasing number of cross-border disputes. This trend is affected by the fact, that there are no border lines that we can find in the real world. Different law systems have to deal with the existence of this new, on state borders independent entity. In the perspective of law, internet is interesting because of its inability as a virtual space, to fit in the doctrine of legal state, by which the state exercises its authority and enforces its law on its territory. This traditional bond between the state, its territory and its law system is impaired, sometimes it is referred to as virtualization or delocalization of legal relationships. Delocalization has a great influence on determination of the decisive law system and court jurisdictions. In those cases, we need to distinguish substantive law and procedural law in order to determine court (or other institution) jurisdiction and law system which would be applied on the case. With regard to the topic of this article, we will deal with private law relationships with international elements. Unlawful use of trademarks on the internet raises a number of issues. One example is the use of trademarks on the internet and to what extent such use is infringing trademark rights on a specific territory. This paper deals particularly with the jurisdictional issues and how rules on private international law can assist in resolving these issues. The currently applicable EU Brussels I Regulation (Recast) allows infringers to be sued either in the place of the defendant’s domicile or in the place of the harmful event.

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Lucie Coufalová and Libor Žídek

Abstract

Based on the interviews with that time managers, the paper aims to find out whether ideology affected the dealing with labor force in the last two decades of the socialist regime in Czechoslovakia. Technically, the labor market was balanced and characterized by zero unemployment and low and highly equalized wages. However, actually, there was a permanent imbalance with the lasting dominance of demand over supply and overemployment. Increasing wages was, due to ideological and formal settings of the system nearly impossible, and thus the economic agents tried to find alternative “solutions” to this imbalance. This situation led to low motivation of the labor force and consequently to low productivity. The positive side was represented by relatively good relationships among the employees. We demonstrate on the interviews that in the clash between ideology and the market forces, the former was stronger and in fact prevented efficient functioning of the labor market.

Open access

Michael Christl and Dénes Kucsera

Abstract

This paper takes a closer look at the existing early retirement schemes in Austria and analyses whether early retirement imposes a financial burden on the pension system (actuarial neutrality). Additionally, we compute incentive-neutral deductions for early retirement. These deductions reflect the view of the individual, who faces option of retiring earlier or working another year. Incentive neutral deductions would imply that an individual is indifferent between both. Our results highlight substantial differences between both measures. While the current deduction rate of 5.1% in the Austrian age corridor is, on average, close to actuarial neutrality, it is lower than the incentive-neutral deductions. This indicates that there are financial incentives for early retirement, which may arise due to the Austrian tax system. Additionally, we show that both actuarial and incentive neutrality differ substantially across socio-economic characteristics, such as gender, wages and (early) retirement age.

Open access

Lucia Palšová

Abstract

The protection of the qualitative aspects of agricultural land is in the interests of both Slovakia and the European Union. Several policy documents have emerged in the European Union over the last few years, however, they have not been legally binding, as the EU Member States refuse all binding legal acts in this area. Therefore, solving the problem of agricultural land protection is left to the exclusive competence of the EU Member States. On the other hand, problems related to agricultural land cross the borders of states and that is why the Department of Law, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra submitted an international research project under the Erasmus + program, Key Action 3: Jean Monnet entitled “Central European Initiative on Agricultural Land Protection”. The aim is to strengthen the dialogue between key stakeholders in the protection of agricultural land in Central Europe what will have a positive impact on the achievement of the EU agri-environmental and food policy objectives.

Open access

Tekla Papp

Abstract

The state can be an actor in Hungarian private law in several ways: on the one hand, by its organs (e.g. the Office of the National Assembly, ministries), on the other hand, by the organs of public law the state creates (e.g. budgetary organs), thirdly, through business associations operating with the participation of the state, fourthly, exceptionally, the state itself can also act as a subject of private law. In this study we call the attention to that the terminology used in case of business associations operating with state/local government participation is not sustainable and we focus on some issues where the private and public law discrepancy can be found in Hungary.

Open access

Monika Bumbalová

Abstract

Provision of services by public sector is a concept, which has been implemented for many decades in various forms of economic arrangement. Public sector policies and public services have significant impact on almost all spheres of life including agriculture. Throughout the history, there were times with smaller and bigger importance of public sector within the economy. The conditions of public sector always depend on the actual trend applied in the sphere of public administration and public management. After the period of New Public Management accompanied by leaning away from the “public” concept, a return to stronger statehood and more intensive public sector can be seen. There are several reasons for such development, which are also called megatrends. Urbanization, demography and social changes, climate changes and development of technology belong to the most intensive ones. The presented review paper deals with the description of the mentioned trends and provides a reflexion on their influence on the public sector and provision of public services in particular.

Open access

Katarína Kalesná

Abstract

The article analyses the significance of the ECJ preliminary ruling on competition law. Starting with the general characteristic of the preliminary ruling of the Court of Justice, its legal regulation in TFEU and its effects, it focuses on the concrete judgement of the Court (Tenth Chamber) of 7 February 2013 in Case C-68/12 at the request of the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic. It explains the preliminary questions and the background of the competition case that was the incentive for them. It describes the quite complicated cartel agreement of the three banks concerned and the impact of the ECJ preliminary ruling on the judgements/decisions of the case.

Open access

Polonca Kovac

Abstract

Good public governance requires participative networking to tackle the worst societal problems. Redefined administrative procedure as an instrument that should ensure efficient public policies is one of the key approaches in this respect. The objective of this article is to show, based on qualitative research methods, that in modern public administration, procedure is attributed a much different role than under the traditional Rechtsstaat doctrine. It has been evolving towards becoming a dialogue tool for the state and the citizens, increasingly recognised in Neo-Weberian and good governance models, also in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Administrative procedure’s modernised codification in CEE countries, grounded in public administration theory, EU and case law, is in this article seen as of the utmost importance to apply in the region to develop its governance capacity. The article addresses said issues and provides a specific outline as to how to systematically and proportionally codify administrative procedural law in this sense on a national scale. The author proposes a concrete, holistic outline to redefine respective codification within contemporary public governance models. This outline incorporates minimum joint fundamental principles, e.g. the right to be heard. Following the principle of proportionality, in addition a more detailed codification is suggested by more formalised proceedings in the case of the collision of legally protected interests. The principles, such as participation, would apply for any administrative acts, resulting from legislative policy-making or single-case decision-making, and judicial reviews thereof alike. Such an approach should ensure a balanced recognition and effective protection of parties and public interest.