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The issue of protecting the natural persons has been triggering a lot of interest due to the need for providing them with proper means for this purpose. In Romania, the court of guardianship and family plays an important role in protecting this category of persons, court established as a result of the entering into force of the new Romanian Civil code in 2011. The legal norms distinguish between the prerogatives of this court on the protection of the major persons and its attributions in this matter towards the minors. Further on, it will be analyzed certain prerogatives of the guardianship and family court meant for the minor persons.


Research purpose. High technology creation, as a rule, requires national support systems although the flow of the created value in an international level is unexplored. The national innovation systems are becoming globalized; thus the distinct process of creation, dissemination and implementation of high technologies is becoming globally fragmented and therefore the added value distribution within the global value chain (GVC) should be investigated.

Design/Methodology/Approach. The brief and extensive academic literature review dedicated to high technology creation is introduced, although the empirical investigation is narrowed to the scientific research and development sector, depicted as M72 by NACE statistical classification. Thus empirical research design is based on the sectoral level data, considering M72 sector as the main economic activity for high technology creation. The data for the comparative analysis of countries is retrieved from the 2014 world input–output data (WIOD) which enables to exclude double counting of added value inherent for the convenient import and export data and holds information of intermediate and final consumption of added value within a country and between different countries. The descriptive statistic based on WIOD data is provided and further prescriptive statistics for the data interpretation is conducted. While developing the predictive models, the number of investigated countries varies while the data for M72 sector is not available for all countries provided in WIOD and including to the model basic science and technology indicators as independent variables, retrieved from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development database, the number of countries reduced additionally, also due to the data shortage.

Findings. The key result is the provided methodology for the positioning of the countries evaluating the involvement in the upstream and downstream GVC processes, hereby introducing new indicators that may have an impact on the sector’s performance.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. The evaluation of high technologies creation performance would provide insights into the international management and innovation policies, and the matrix concept for the positioning countries by the pattern of involvement to the GVCs could be applied to other sectors.


Some aspects of the possibility of using euthanasia are covered. The author draws attention to the relation between the categories “euthanasia” and “bioethics”. The emphasis has been placed on the legal and medical aspects of the applying of euthanasia, based on the practice of the Netherlands.


The article deals with limitation of claims in Poland, Ukraine and Germany. The authors made a conclusion that the most liberal solution in the area of contractual regulation of limitation is provided in the German Civil Code, which allows shortening and prolonging the statutory limitation period, whereas the most severe is provided for in the Polish Civil Code, prohibiting it altogether. An indirect solution has been adopted by the Ukrainian Civil Code, which allows only the extension of the statutory limitation period. These different legislative solutions demonstrate that the national legislators are partially different in their view of the reasons justifying the statute of limitations. Newer prescription regulations, to which the German and Ukrainian ones belong, are largely similar to each other. The same can be said about the Polish academic project of the general section of the civil code. The Principles of European Contract Law have had a significant impact on teaching of civil law, as well as on national legislators.


Research purpose. The teacher of higher education should motivate students to use modern information technology training to study the discipline and develop professional competencies in foreign language teaching. The purpose of this research is to highlight the problem of finding the optimal didactic capabilities of modern information technologies used for improving the system of training specialists in the field of foreign languages teaching and to discuss the results of current studies in this direction.

Design/Methodology/Approach. The authors summarized the relevant literature and results of the research and teaching experience. The main theoretical methods of research are modelling and designing the process of incorporating modern information technologies into foreign language teaching at the university. Theoretical methods are supplemented by empirical methods, such as observation, survey, testing, experimental work and methodological analysis.

Findings. The article reveals the main components of the system of using modern technologies of foreign languages teaching at Theory and Practice of Foreign Languages Department of L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University. The article presents a description of training and monitoring online programs, their approbation in real conditions of pedagogical activity, the results of a pedagogical experiment, which proves the effectiveness of using modern technologies in the training of foreign and second language students.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. The electronic educational materials, recommendations developed by the authors, can be used in the teaching of foreign language and can serve as a basis for the development of information, communication and instrumental provision in other subjects. The need for further research is as follows: to create online platforms, multimedia and testing programs and to develop variants of using modern technologies in foreign language teaching.


Research purpose: The aim was to identify the personal qualities needed to develop sales manager competences.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The methods used were theoretical—systematic analysis of literature sources; empirical—employers’ research questionnaire; descriptive statistical data analysis.

Findings. Having analyzed the competencies and personal qualities required for a sales manager, one can observe the tendency to look at the future specialist in a modern way. Both authors and respondents emphasize that the future employee must take the initiative to improve his/her professionalism. When comparing the competencies, required for the manager, indicated by the scientists and employers, the conclusion is that a large part of managerial competencies are partly or entirely of generic competences origin deriving from the personal qualities. For example, creativity in solving problems is a personal feature, but the ability to solve problems creatively must be accompanied by the ability to base the decision on appropriate knowledge. On the other hand, use of special knowledge must be based on creativity in the search for the necessary information, which is again a matter of personal qualities.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. Based on the results of the research carried out, the authors of the article propose measures to improve a sales manager’s competence development(a) by training a sales manager, to reduce the scope of strategic knowledge subjects in the study process, and fill in loose credits with the subjects that develop the student’s competences to identify perfectly the functional values of the products and services sold and to sell them but not just to offer as low price as possible; and (b) in the descriptions of management study programs, to emphasize the orientation to changing labor market factors: increase of personal responsibility, promotion of creativity and individual initiative, continuous learning and adaptation to changing conditions.


One of the continuing problems, which had faced the African Charter, is many of its substantive provisions that are raven with qualifications without reasonable justification. These rights guaranteed under the Charter are subject to “claw-back” clauses that are introduced by governments and public authorities thereby undermining their citizen‟s basic constitutional rights of securing fundamental freedoms. They are those rights that impose negative duty on the state and are meant to promote the values of pluralism, equality and human dignity, which should be enjoyed free from state interference. It is in the interference of these rights that commentators have frequently criticized the African Charter for rendering its protective mandate meaningless and unenforceable. With hindsight, it is evident that the foregoing critique levelled against the “claw-back” clauses under Charter is justified, as they have a chilling effect on the exercise of human and peoples‟ rights on the African continent. Such condition has produced intense academic discussion on the interpretation and implications of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Charter. None the less, the scope and the significance of the legal measures adopted by the African Commission have minimized the impact of the clauses affected considerably. Accordingly, a strong principle of interpretation adopted by the Commission has contributed to shaping the Charter‟s legal structure in harmony with international human rights law standards.


Research purpose. Stocks as well as other securities are a crucial part of the financial market that helps to redistribute financial resources amongst market participants, which in a modern economy include not only professional stock players but also many common individuals seeking to increase their capital. Previous studies found a strong relationship between the macroeconomic variables and stock returns but often the explanatory power of those models seems to be limited in the applicable region. The aim of this article is to establish whether each region’s stock indices have to be predicted based on a separate set of variables.

Design / Methodology / Approach. The article uses correlation–regression analysis method to confirm the initial hypothesis regarding regional limitations of such prediction models.

Findings. The same set of independent variables cannot be directly applied to different regions because although the chosen Y2B model did provide an accurate relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock indices in the United Kingdom, it failed to provide accurate (usable) results in other regions (Estonia, European Union, France, Germany, Latvia and Lithuania),

Originality / Value / Practical implications. The results are important in order to define the way that the smaller and less-researched economies should be examined because detailed researches of power economies such as the United States, the United Kingdom, China or Germany often cannot be directly applied outside the initial research region. Therefore, the need of separate studies for smaller regions such as Baltic States is confirmed.


Research purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of small and medium enterprises in the economy, as well as to study and evaluate the effectiveness of government support methods for small business entities (SMEs) using the example of the Republic of Latvia. The subject of the research was the system of state regulation and promotion of SME development. The object of the research was the sphere of small business in the Latvian economy, including SMEs, infrastructure support and development of small business.

Design/Methodology/Approach. The study used basic methods of scientific knowledge of economics: an interdisciplinary approach combining methods of systems and comparative analysis, an integrated approach, induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, methods of organization theory and management, logical analysis, strategic management and also economic analysis of small businesses.

Findings. The research resulted in a system of state regulation and promotion of SME development in Latvia developed by the author, based on an assessment of the impact of measures provided to support SMEs, taking into account the importance of the role of small business in the economy of the Republic of Latvia.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. The practical significance of the work is that the study completes a number of conclusions and practical recommendations in the field of organizational measures for effective support and multilateral development of the SME sector in the economy, recognition of the role of small business as the basis of the economic stability of the Republic of Latvia and the effectiveness of its support as the main state economic policy goal.