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Open access

Reinis Lazda and Armands Kalnins

Abstract

The contents in the work of personnel specialist differ in organizations from one field to another. It continues to evolve with an emergence of new technologies and business methods, as well as with structural changes in the economy, both at a global and national level. However, the existing professional regulations of particular professions in Latvia has not been changed for almost 10 years, while the economy as well as the workforce appears to have changed. The aim of the paper is to illustrate what currently forms the contents of work of personnel specialist in Latvia. To achieve this, a study on trends in the work of personnel specialists has been conducted with an informative support of Latvian Association for People Management. The topics of daily activities and tasks, as well as individual features of personnel in various fields, including building, banking, manufacturing, IT, retail company, and public service companies have been included in the study. Overall, 18 personnel specialists from public and private sectors were interviewed. The results show that the classical model of human resource management is still popular, although some of the industries have adapted many or most of the cutting-edge approaches in the field, including flexible jobs and continuous employee support. Therefore, it is advised to update the existing documentation, including the professional regulation and university curricula, to meet the needs of the contemporary companies employing personnel specialists.

Open access

Professor Florin Dumiter and Ștefania Jimon

Abstract

The taxation of non - resident economic entities supposes the establishment of an administrative framework as fair, efficient, effective and comprehensible as possible, fact due to the multifaceted nature of the concept of profits generated by an enterprise and which depend on some items as: the foundation of incomes sources, the methods of valuation and collecting taxes, as well as different rules of establishment of some tax thresholds in different situations. Taking into account the legal doctrine, as well as jurisprudence, respectively the national and international tax practices, we can notice the fact that the profits of enterprises are founded, stricto sensu, on tax declarations made by companies. Therefore, we consider very important, in this way, the technical capability of tax administrations regarding the establishment, implementation and coordination of some good practice procedures. In this article, we have tackled the treatment regarding the taxation of non - resident economic entities in Romania. The first part of the paper represents a truth caveat in which is presented and analysed the international and European theoretical framework of legal and tax treatment of non - resident economic entities. The second part of the paper represents a quid pro quo of taxing of non - resident economic entities in Romania, in which are analyzed the taxing stipulations established on national level. The final part of the article is enriched with the presentation and analysis of a particular case regarding the taxation of non - resident economic entities in Romania. The conclusion resulted from this article highlights the fact that Romania had made important steps regarding ―the adjustment‖ of national tax legislation, as well as the permanent improving of tax administration framework in the field of non - resident economic entities taxation in Romania.

Open access

Margareta Nadanyiova, Jana Kliestikova and Juraj Kolencik

Abstract

A brand is one way to distinguish products from each other, while simplifying consumers’ decisions in choosing an appropriate product. Brand building is not just about design but also strategy, which is even more important in the process. The result of brand building is the potential to represent a certain value for the company. However, sustaining and improving a brand’s position in the market is not a simple process in the current competitive environment. Therefore, there is scope for application of new marketing strategies such as sensory marketing. Sensory marketing represents a way for companies to influence consumers’ senses (sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste) and evoke the emotions affecting their buying behaviour and perceptions of the product or brand. The aim of the article is to provide a literature review on the issue from several foreign and domestic authors. It discusses the essence of a brand, brand value, sensory marketing and also analyses its use as a support tool for building brand value in practice through secondary research data. Based on this, in conclusion, the authors highlight the benefits of using sensory marketing for building brand value, including ensuring loyalty of standing customers as well as gaining new ones, building a successful brand and positive perception of the brand and product by users.

Open access

Ivana Podhorska, Maria Kovacova and Katarina Valaskova

Abstract

The issue of enterprise in bankrupt or financial health as a whole is still very actual topic not only in Slovakia but also in abroad. Works dealing with the enterprise in bankruptcy have already appeared in the 1930s of the 20th century. Bankrupt of enterprise affect all subject in relationship with this enterprise. Financial experts were looking for the ways for enterprise bankrupt prediction. This article is based on the searching for key factors that could indicate the enterprise in bankrupt in Slovak conditions. This article tries to work with financial variables from the area of financial health assessment of enterprise and works with the sample of Slovak enterprises. This sample includes 8,522 financial statements of enterprises in 2016. According to several relevant decisions rules, for example, the value of equity or equity debt ratio, enterprises are divided into two categories – bankrupt enterprises and creditworthy enterprises. Subsequently, this article tries to find statistically significant financial variables that could indicate involving enterprises in these two categories and works with several statistical methods for searching significant relationship between variables and the tightness of relations between them. As a main statistical method, Pearson´s correlation coefficient is used, which is supported by correlation matrices. In addition, it is necessary to test an existence of outliers in the sample of enterprises. Existence of outliers is tested by the Grubbs test of outliers.

Open access

Daniel Berlingher

Abstract

The principle of the free movement of goods in one of great importance for the European Union and for in general and for the Internal Market and the European citizens in particular. Starting from the fact that the Internal market is considered to be a critical element for the present and future prosperity of the European Union in a globalized world, the objective of the present text is to present and analyse, in a concise manner, the main legal provisions that govern this field. In order to accomplish this objective we made reference to the following aspects: considerations regarding the role and importance of the free movement of goods in the European internal market; the role of the European Commission within the internal market and implicitly for the free movement of goods; Treaty provisions governing the free movement of goods; and related instruments of secondary law related to the free movement of goods.

Open access

Eva Kicova, Pavol Kral and Katarína Janoskova

Abstract

Customers are key in the brand-building process. Many times, this term is applied very broadly, especially in segmentation and planning. Knowing the customer buying behaviour and customer decision-making process is important for brands, especially today, when customers are informed much better and get information over the Internet faster. In this paper, we present theory that deals with the purchasing behaviour of customers and emphasize the analysis of the sales cycle of the individual phases in the current conditions, when segmentation based on socio-demographic data is not enough. It is much better to define the psychological factors, which influence the customer and motivate him to buy in combination with the buyer’s decision-making speed. Thus, the article discusses the basic four types of customers according to the major research work carried out by Eisenberg brothers. Based on this analysis, we can determine the percentage of individual customers. The article offers a survey that was conducted to find the most important factors in the decision-making process when buying a car. In addition to the criteria, we also asked our respondents about the importance of these factors. We have used the multiple criteria decision analysis as it is one of the methods of complex evaluation and it minimizes the degree of subjectivity in choosing a suitable variant. Based on our survey, we have used analysis to estimate trends that brands operate in automotive sector could use to communicate in order to address the type of customer that belongs to their target audience. The primary aim of the paper is to prove that there is a growing trend of humanistic customers through study about their preferences and criteria during the decision-making process that leads them to buy a new car. Moreover, we determinate communication strategies for all four types of customers based on theory provided by Eisenbergs.

Open access

Narcisa-Mihaela Stoicu, Simeon Murgu and Anca-Florina Moroșteș

Abstract

The Constitutional provisions regulate the Government possibility to undertake the political liability for a program, a general policy statement or a draft law in front of the Parliament. The purpose of Government political liability for its initiative consists in its decision to continue the given mandate of trust only under the term of the approval for the program, the general policy statement or draft law submitted in joint session of the Chamber of Deputies and Senate.

Open access

Anna Siekelova, Tomas Kliestik and Peter Adamko

Abstract

Bankruptcy models are used to assess credit risk and predict financial situation to indicate the probable bankruptcy of the company. Contribution deals with the application of chosen bankruptcy models in analysing and predicting the financial health of selected companies. Most of the models have been developed abroad. In case of Slovak Republic, its application and correctness of the results can be problematic; therefore, we have focused primarily on those that have emerged in countries with a similar economy. We have calculated the selected prediction models in a sample of 500 Slovak enterprises. Predictive ability lower than 64% is considered as unfavourable. As part of the contribution, based on expert literature and relevant legislation, we have defined the criteria that allow to divide businesses into two groups: prosperous and non-prosperous. In the end, we compared the results of the selected models with the inclusion of enterprises in a prosperous and non- prosperous group based on the criteria set by us. We also dealt with examining of error types I (when an enterprise in bad financial condition is included in a non-bankruptcy group) and II (when an enterprise in good financial condition is included in a bankruptcy group). The aim is to analyse the predictive ability of the selected bankruptcy models.

Open access

Lucia Svabova, Marek Durica and Ivana Podhorska

Abstract

From the time of Altman and the first bankruptcy prediction models, the prediction of default of companies is in the centre of interest of many economists and scientists all over the world. For companies, early detection of the possible threat of imminent financial difficulties or even bankruptcy is a very important part of financial analysis. Over the last few years, many predictive models have been created in the world. However, it has been shown that these models are not very well transferable to the conditions of the economy of another country and their prediction or rating power in another country is lower. Therefore, it is best to create a specific predictive model in the country that takes into account the situation of companies on the basis of real data on their financial situation. This paper is focused on creating a model of failure prediction of small companies in Slovakia using a well-known and widely used method of multivariate discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis is one of the oldest multivariate statistical methods and sometimes it is difficult to fulfil certain assumptions for data. However, its results are easily interpretable and can be used to classify a company to the group of companies with risk of financial difficulties or, on the contrary, between well-prosperous companies. Prediction model is created based on real data on Slovak enterprises and has a strong classification ability in the specific conditions of the Slovak Republic.

Open access

Ștefan Ioan Lucaciuc

Abstract

The early regression of the fidejussor implies his ability to "turn" against the debtor even before he pays something to the creditor „To turn against“ in the sense of the new Civil Code, does not mean the right to actually receive a payment before the fidejussor has paid, at least in part, the claim of the creditor in whose favor he has guaranteed. The same principle applies in insolvency proceedings where the fidejussor, who has not paid anything yet, may exercise early regression, but his claim against the debtor will be a potential, conditional one, reason for which it will be included in the debt table under suspensive condition, without voting rights.