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Open access

Thomas Halper

Abstract

The first amendment does not protect all speech. Should it protect lies? Some argue that the state should intervene to prevent and punish lying because the people are insufficiently rational (they are too emotional, and, therefore vulnerable) or excessively rational (they find it too costly to investigate claims and are, therefore, vulnerable). Others retort that state officials are not neutral or objective, but have their own interests to advance and protect, and, therefore, cannot be trusted. Though certain kinds of lying, like fraud and perjury, are clearly not protected speech, courts have recently seemed sympathetic to the view that the proper response to lying is not government action, but the workings of the marketplace of ideas. The distinguished economist, Ronald Coase, has taken this argument much farther, applying it to commercial speech, but thus far his views have not prevailed.

Open access

Lucia Palšová

Abstract

The protection of the qualitative aspects of agricultural land is in the interests of both Slovakia and the European Union. Several policy documents have emerged in the European Union over the last few years, however, they have not been legally binding, as the EU Member States refuse all binding legal acts in this area. Therefore, solving the problem of agricultural land protection is left to the exclusive competence of the EU Member States. On the other hand, problems related to agricultural land cross the borders of states and that is why the Department of Law, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra submitted an international research project under the Erasmus + program, Key Action 3: Jean Monnet entitled “Central European Initiative on Agricultural Land Protection”. The aim is to strengthen the dialogue between key stakeholders in the protection of agricultural land in Central Europe what will have a positive impact on the achievement of the EU agri-environmental and food policy objectives.

Open access

Monika Bumbalová

Abstract

Provision of services by public sector is a concept, which has been implemented for many decades in various forms of economic arrangement. Public sector policies and public services have significant impact on almost all spheres of life including agriculture. Throughout the history, there were times with smaller and bigger importance of public sector within the economy. The conditions of public sector always depend on the actual trend applied in the sphere of public administration and public management. After the period of New Public Management accompanied by leaning away from the “public” concept, a return to stronger statehood and more intensive public sector can be seen. There are several reasons for such development, which are also called megatrends. Urbanization, demography and social changes, climate changes and development of technology belong to the most intensive ones. The presented review paper deals with the description of the mentioned trends and provides a reflexion on their influence on the public sector and provision of public services in particular.

Open access

María Mar Delgado-Serrano and José Ángel Hurtado-Martos

Abstract

Land is an essential resource and plays a vital role in providing food and food security, water, ecosystem services and territorial resilience. However, the past few decades have generated enormous and increasingly unsustainable pressures on land use. The objective of this research is to analyse the main land use changes in Spain between 1987 and 2011 using data provided by the Corine Land Cover (CLC) project. The general trends in land use change at CLC level 1 in this period, and more specifically the changes occurring at CLC level 3 in land destined for agricultural use are analysed. The main reasons that explain these changes, including policy influences, are then identified. The results show that the area occupied by buildings and infrastructure has doubled, agricultural land has decreased and irrigated land has increased; forested areas have also increased, but their ecological quality has been degraded. These trends question the future sustainability of that land use in the analysed period.

Open access

Jarmila Lazíková and Zuzana Lazíková

Abstract

Land consolidation in the Slovak Republic is an important legal institute for fragmented agricultural land, which makes it difficult not only for the agricultural land market but also for the rational and efficient use of agricultural land. The necessity of land consolidation was already realized by the peasants in Slovakia at the beginning of the 20th century, when they voluntarily began to exchange the land. The law maker in Slovakia, however, did not realize the need for the arrangement of land relations until the year 1989, when the Law No. 229/1991 Coll. on the regulation of ownership relations to land and other agricultural property and Law No. 330/1991 Coll. on land arrangements, settlement of land ownership rights, district land offices, the Land Fund and land associations as amended were adopted. Moreover, land consolidation also addresses the development of the countryside and, last but not least, increases rural attractiveness for the inhabitants themselves. Rural development also belongs to the priorities of the EU. Thus, the implementation of the land consolidation projects is not only a wish of the owners or private investors, but also one of the ways to realize the goals of Slovakia and even of the European Union.

Open access

Zsolt Orlovits and László Kovács

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the major regulations related to the acquisition and ownership of agricultural and forestry lands in Hungary and the effect of these regulations on the trends and changes in trade and ownership structure. The four pivotal points regarding policy–making have been the following: (1) maintaining national ownership of agricultural lands, (2) preventing the registration of ownership when the aim of the transaction is speculation, (3) maintaining the limitation and strict regulations on the possibilities for new acquisitions by corporately owned farms, (4) supporting the acquisition and usage of agricultural lands by privately and family owned farms. In order to achieve these aims, the government of Hungary decided upon a framework for agricultural land acquisition and ownership that integrates a number of rules and limitations already applied by land administration authorities in other EU member countries. However, their systematic and cumulative use raises major questions in the application of the relevant laws in real–life situations; in addition, there are serious concerns about their compatibility with EU principles on legislation and jurisdiction(1). This paper summarises typical situations to illustrate the controversies of the regulations related to agricultural land acquisition and use in Hungary.

Open access

Mirela Metushaj

Abstract

The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of the role of the Great Powers in the Western Balcans, in this region of contrasts, of many partial, which did not have an easy cohabitation between them, for various reasons, as shown in history from numerous wars. Being in a very interesting part of the western balcans even Albania, my country had its sad history over decades. Western Balcans, despite being geographically distant from many of the great powers, has always attreacted their attention, becoming a battling and disputable terrain by the grat international actors, especially for putting political ideologies that would govern this part of the peninsula. Why does the Weatern Balcans rise so much interest in the international arena?

Open access

Jirada Praebaisri and Koompong Noobanjong

Abstract

This research has studied Wat Poramaiyigawas with the objective to study Mon identity in Siam context through Buddhist architecture during the transition from Old to New Siam. The essence of this research is set upon the concept of Stuart Hall's Representation Theory which indicates that architecture is constructed with the purpose to express the creator's concept, with the method of studying related historical information and physical field study. Wat Poramaiyigawas had been abandoned before it was restored by the Mon immigrants in Thonburi Kingdom until it was later sponsored by Siamese aristocrats for major reconstruction. During the social transition from a conservative society to a modern one which had the Western world as the prototype, temple reconstruction or building of the Mon the subordinates of Siam where changes were taking place, the Mon had to follow Siamese aristocrats' view showing not only for the purpose of ideological significance of their belief or Buddhist function, but also was the venue for creating the ideological and conceptual meaning which were created symbolically through art and architecture according to views reflecting identity of the creator in that period than Mon people who were the real users.

Open access

Virginia Navajas Romero, Juan Antonio Jimber del Río and José Carlos Casas-Rosal

Abstract

The main objective of this article is to analyze the degree of satisfaction of European Union workers, especially those working in the hotel and restaurant sector. The study is based on two phases: the first analyzes the number of workers in the EU between 2006 and 2017; a dynamic model for predicting the number of people working in hotels and restaurants has been created. In order to predict the number of workers in the studied sector, a dynamic model has been created based on a classical series estimation methodology. In the second phase, this study aims to measure the degree of satisfaction of these workers and the causes that affect them. A univariate and bivariate analysis has been used to describe satisfaction among hotel and restaurant workers and the relationship between this satisfaction and their working conditions. From the special characteristics observed in this sector, it can be deduced that the level of satisfaction expressed by the working conditions of the worker is significantly lower in the hotel and restaurant sector.

Open access

Edo Sherifi

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) (APA). Case Study of autistic child D.S. treated with (IEP) program and therapeutic methods. Direct observation of the vertical grid with the child treated with (IEP) program and professional techniques was used for the realization of the study, semi-structured interviews with actors and factors that have access to autistic children. Focus group with field specialists who create a multidisciplinary team. Child testing with the SON-R test proved that the age of the trained child increased 4 years. The non-exercising child's mental age increased only 7 months (2.5-3.2) years. Achievements of an autistic child treated with the Individualized Education Program, (IEP-1+IEP-2+IEP- 3 in the spheres exercised: The child has made progress in the psychomotor skills (learning). Results: (IEP-1-15%); (IEP-2-45%); (IEP-3-80%). Linguistic skills has not progressed, because it has serious brain damage in the part of communicative ability; the results in this sphere are: IEP-1-0%; IEP-2-5%; IEP-3-10%. The achievements of the child in the social sphere are: IEP-1-35%; IEP-2-45%; IEP-3-75%. Psychological treatment of autistic child with Individualized Education Program (IEP) and therapeutic methods resulted in success story.