Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 179 items for :

  • Food Science and Technology x
Clear All
Open access

Alkasim Kabiru Yunusa, Munir Abba Dandago, Sa’adatu Mukhtar Ibrahim, Nura Abdullahi, Abdulrashid Rilwan and Aminu Barde

Abstract

The aims of this research were to estimate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from different parts of cucumber. The antioxidant activity was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total flavonoid and phenolic contents were estimated using aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteau reagents assays, respectively. Our finding showed that the ethanolic peel extract contained the highest phenolic (23.08 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (14.02 mg QE/g). Also, ethanolic peel extract demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher FRAP value. Pearson correlation revealed that there were positive correlations (p<0.01) between TPC and TFC with FRAP assay. These findings suggest that consumption of cucumber with peel may provide optimum health benefit than its peeled counterpart.

Open access

R. Juhászné Tóth and J. Csapó

Abstract

The role of selenium has been changed over the last decade. The element that was previously considered to be toxic turned out to be present in the human body in amounts of 10–15 mg, and almost every cell of our body contains it. Selenium contributes to growth, supports healthy muscle activity, reproductive organs, reduces the toxicity of certain elements such as mercury, supports the immune system, and even delays the spread of certain viruses (influenza, Ebola, HIV). Selenium-deficient areas of Europe could be a risk for their populations. The recommended daily intake (RDA) of selenium is 55 µg/day, while WHO and FAO have set up the daily tolerable dose at 400 µg/day. We must count with the harmful effects of selenium overdose, but it is almost impossible to introduce this amount into our body solely with food. Our selenium sources can be refilled with food supplements or selenium-enriched functional foods. In the review article, we report about the role of selenium in the environment, selenium-enriched plants, selenium-enriched yeast, the role of selenium in animal feed and in the human body, the opportunities of selenium restoration, selenium-enriched animal products, and the selenium content of milk.

Open access
Open access

J. Csapó, Cs. Albert and D. Kiss

Abstract

We have developed methods for the production of protected methionine and protected lysine, making use of the reaction between citric acid and malic acid as well as methionine and lysine, on the one hand, and of the interaction between swollen bentonite and the two amino acids, on the other hand. Our in vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that one part of the amino acids transformed during the reaction, while another part bound on the bentonite’s surface to a significant degree. Assisted by the reaction between hydroxycarboxylic acids and amino acids, we achieved a protection of about 75% for methionine and 60% for lysine, that is, 25% of the methionine and 40% of the lysine appeared in the free amino acid fraction. The swollen bentonite bound 75% of the added methionine and 60% of the added lysine. Our chemical analyses have demonstrated that through the time–temperature combinations applied by us the methionine and lysine do not undergo significant degradation and can be fully released from the protected form. Further, our in vitro experiments using rumen fluid from fistulated cattle showed that during the average retention time of the fodder in the rumen the protected amino acids will resist microbial enzymes and maintain their protected status during their presence in the rumen.

Open access

J. Csapó, D. Kiss and Cs. Albert

Abstract

Prebiotics are such indigestible food ingredients that enter the colon and serve as nutrient for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Since fibres and oligosaccharides are the typical prebiotics, we produced prebiotics in our experiments with the reaction of lactose and malic acid as well as citric acid, where these reactions made use of an appropriate concentration of these substances, had an adequate duration, and were carried out under optimal temperature conditions. We determined the optimal parameters of the reaction, measured the loss of the starting materials as well as the increase in concentration of the end-product, and analysed the total sugar content of the hydrolysed prebiotics after hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate our end-product’s resistance to carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, which is a fundamental requirement for a prebiotic so that upon reaching the colon it can serve as nutrient for the probiotic bacteria found there.

Open access

Yanuar Sigit Pramana, Titi Candra Sunarti and Purwoko

Abstract

Cassava pulp, the side product of tapioca industry consists of starch and fiber as the major component. Acid treatment was employed in the conversion process of cassava pulp into dietary fiber to remove the starch component, to increase fiber content, and to modify the structure of fiber. This study purposed to obtain optimum process conditions (acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time) in the production of dietary fiber from cassava pulp. Process optimization was conducted using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for maximizing Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and Oil Holding Capacity (OHC) as the responses. The optimum process was gained at 6% H2SO4 concentration, 127°C, and 45 mins. Prediction values of TDF, WHC, and OHC were 100%, 10.47 g/g, and 3.60 g/g, respectively. Validation was carried out and resulted in TDF 96.95%, WHC 10.47 g/g, and OHC 3.55 g/g. Physicochemical properties of the resulting dietary fiber were significantly improved. The fiber structure has modified which characterized by the changes in morphology and crystallinity.

Open access

Helen Weldemichael, Shimelis Admassu and Melaku Alemu

Abstract

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of enset fermentation process. Two numerical (time and amount of starter culture) and one categorical variable (types of starter strain) was used for evaluation of sensory quality of kocho. The physicochemical properties, proximate composition and color of kocho product were also analyzed. It was found that the coefficient of determination (R2) of the response variables were greater than 80% described that high percentage of the variability was defined by the model. These findings revealed that fermentation time, amount of starter culture and types of starter strain affected the sensory attributes of kocho. The preferred sensory quality of kocho was produced using 2% L. plantarum as starter strain at 6 days of fermentation time.

Open access

Emmanuel Agomuo and Peter Amadi

Abstract

This study evaluated the nutrient properties of parts of Dacryodes edulis (DE), Persea americana (PA) and Canarium schweinfurthii (CS) oils using standard methods. Pulp oils of DE and PA had the least moisture, melting point, acid, and saponification values. Occurrence of C10-12 fatty acids was between 0 and 1.46%, and C22-26 between 0 and 4.3%. Anthocyanins, epicatechin, and ribalinidine were undetected in CS seed oils, while oils from the pulp and peels of PA showed the highest amounts for catechins (57.73µg/ml) and kaempferol (57.91µg/ml) respectively. The pulp oils contained higher amounts of Na, K, Zn, Ca, vit A and D. This study has shown that the seed oils suits industrial needs, and the pulp oils for therapeutic purposes.

Open access

J. Csapó and Cs. Albert

Abstract

The research subject is the elaboration of a method and procedure for processing feather from poultry slaughterhouses and using it as antioxidant as well as for satisfying the sulphurous amino acid needs of ruminants. We investigated the level of digestion of the meal feather obtained with our technology, its antioxidant effect and role in the rumen fermentation of the ruminants. Making use of the digested feather meal’s antioxidant effect and amino acid composition, we make a suggestion for the preparation to be used as antioxidant and for the satisfaction of the sulphurous amino acid needs of ruminants. By adopting this procedure, the valueless feather can be transformed into a useful feed supplement (natural antioxidant, sulphur source) that can bring about significant economic growth. Pre-trials have been performed successfully, and in what follows we’ll need to prove through field trials and pilot-scale experiments that feather meal can be produced and utilized economically as antioxidant in monogastric animals and as a sulphur source in the studying of ruminants.

Open access

J. Csapó and Cs. Albert

Abstract

We have developed a new procedure for reducing soy trypsin inhibitor activity by means of heat treatment combined with chemical methods, through which soy trypsin inhibitor activity decreases to the tenth or twentieth part of the original value. We determined the optimal concentration of the applied chemicals (hydrogen-peroxide, ammonium-hydroxide) as well as the optimal temperature and duration of the treatment. The chemical procedure combined with heat treatment results in lower energy consumption as compared to the original heat treatment methods.