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Abstract

Prebiotics can play an important role in functional foods. In this paper, casein and five probiotics were selected to study the effects on ACE inhibitory peptides in fermented milk of L. bulgaricus LB6 through Plackett-Burman design, so as to improve the production of ACE inhibitory peptides. The results showed that xylooligosaccharides (XOS), fructosaccharide (FOS) and inulin had the most significant effect on the yield of ACE inhibitory peptides. Optimization added the amount of the three prebiotics added, that is, the amount of XOS added was 0.7%, the amount of FOS added was 1.1%, and the amount of inulin added was 0.7%. It provides a basis for subsequent optimization experiments.

Abstract

Carbon dioxide (CO2) injury is one of the key cause affecting the sales of fresh-cut apples during the sales period. The method to warn the time till occurring CO2 injury would be convenient for businesses and consumers, but so far, no one has paid attention. This research aimed to study the change rule of the mechanism of carbon dioxide injury of fresh-cut apples treated with high CO2 concentration. The experiment was conducted at 5, 15, 25 and 35°C for 4 days. Every twelve hours, the fresh-cut apple was analyzed by measuring the changes of firmness, soluble solids concentration, browning index and sensory evaluation. The results showed that sensory scores, firmness and soluble solids concentration decreased over time, while the browning index of freshly cut apple increased rapidly with time. Based on the dynamic model of the browning index, with the CO2 Injury warning model of ready-to-eat apples treated with high CO2 concentration was determined.

Abstract

This study assessed the physicochemical and sensory properties of ‘probiotic’ drink from blends of milk analogues from African yam bean, soybean and coconut. Milk analogues were blended at ratios of 1:1:1, 3:1:1 and 5:1:1 (African yam bean: soybean: coconut) as samples A, B and C respectively. These samples were fermented for 24 h at 43°C using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The results showed that the fermented milk analogue of ratio 1:1:1 was the most acceptable in terms of sensory parameters. The pH of the milk analogues ranged from 5.07 to 5.85. The sample B1 (fermented (1:1:1) African yam bean: soybean: coconut) had a crude protein of 2.38%, potassium of 80.13 mg/100g, phytate of 2.85 mg/100g and saponin was 0.19 mg/100g. The study concluded that the sample with equal ratio of African yam bean, soybean and coconut adjudged the most acceptable by tasters.

Abstract

The objective of this research was to assess energy independent and develop a model of closed system production process of cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Mass balance analysis and potential energy assessment of byproducts were used to develop the closed system of cacao processing industry. The results showed that cacao industry with 4,500 kg of cacao capacity per day has the potential energy of 14,561,290 k cal per day derived from the pod husk and bean shells. This potential energy meets the energy needs for the production process. This study explained that the cacao industry can be developed to be an energy independent industry by using the by-products for energy source.

Abstract

Earlier we determined the colostrum and milk composition of cows after single- and twin-calving as well as the changes in the composition as a function of postpartum time. It was established that the dry matter, protein, whey protein, and immunoglobulin-G (IgG) content of the first-milked colostrum immediately after calving was significantly higher with twin-calving cows than with single-calving animals. As regards the other components, there were no significant differences among the animals. During the last years, we managed to collect the first-milked colostrum from five cattle after triplet-calving. The composition of these samples were determined by the methods we used earlier at twin-calving animals, and the results were compared to the colostrum composition of single- and twin-calving animals. It was found that although as an effect of triplet-calving the protein and IgG content of colostrum increased, the difference was not significant between twin- and triplet-calving animals. We are aware that others have not reported data from the point of view of the colostrum composition of twin-calving, and in the case of tripletcalving our results are unique in the world. In our publication, we report on the results of our investigations.

Abstract

Carrot is one of the most important root vegetables rich in bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and dietary fibres, with appreciable levels of several other functional components and having significant health-promoting properties. Therefore, it is cultivated on a large scale throughout the world. The by-product (pomace) resulted during carrot juice production is used mainly as animal feed although it contains many valuable components and could therefore be used profitably in the food industry, too. Carrot pomace needs to be preserved by drying as otherwise it deteriorates rapidly. In our research, we studied the infrared drying kinetics of carrot pomace at various temperatures, the obtained data being very important in the drying practice.

Abstract

Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been used as a probiotic for the prevention or treatment of various human gastrointestinal diseases for many years. Thus, S. boulardii has a wide range of application prospects in medicine and food industry. The experiments were investigated with effecting of carbon sources (galactose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, lactose, glucose, and soluble starch), nitrogen sources (tryptone, casein, yeast extract, peptone, soy peptone, beef extract and malted milk; ammonium sulfate, urea, diammonium hydrogen citrate, triammonium citrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride and potassium nitrate), prebiotics (xylo-oligosaccharide, isomaltooligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, stachyose, raffinose and inulin) on the number of viable cells and dry cell weight of S. boulardii. The optimum concentration of 5 % glucose or sucrose, 2 % peptone or yeast extract, 0.4 % urea, 0.2 % fructo-oligosaccharide and 0.6 % galacto-oligosaccharide for S. boulardii grew better in medium.

Abstract

The recent years have seen a great number of instances when ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used in the preservation process of all sorts of foods. Since the purine and pyrimidine bases of DNA and RNA absorb well the 254 nm radiation, its application with the use of a correct dosage can result in disinfections of various orders of magnitude. It can be particularly effective in cases where technology does not allow a more intensive heat treatment. When used properly, UV treatment can be a competitive procedure in the case of foodstuffs where the large surface area allows for UV rays to penetrate the entire volume of the substance. Incorrectly applied UV treatment may change the composition of foods. Free-radical as well as photochemical reactions can digest the proteins, damage the antioxidants, oxidize the lipids, make changes to the colour and substance, and produce undesirable flavourings and odorous substances. Some vitamins are particularly sensitive to UV irradiation in the course of which losses could reach even 50%. Photosensitive water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C, B12, B6, B2 and folic acid, while vitamins A, K and E are the fat soluble sensitive to light, carotene being the only provitamin with such properties. On the other hand, UV treatment can be a useful tool of food safety because of the photosensitivity of fungal toxins.

Abstract

Energy drink (ED) consumption, even mixed with alcohol, is popular among adolescents and young adults. The side effects of ED are attributed to their active ingredients and their cumulated effect. A cross-sectional study to identify university students’ ED consumption habit was realized. A small sample size (n = 10) experiment examining the effect of ED consumption on arterial blood pressure and heart rate was carried out.

From the total number of 240 interviewed students, 87.1% consumed ED at least once, and one third of them did so on a monthly basis. Students consume energy drinks mainly for its taste, very rarely for studying. Differences in consumption place preferences were observed between sexes, females preferring bars, while males the dormitory. We have demonstrated the increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP) for one type of energy drink in young and healthy volunteer students. Other changes in blood pressure and heart rate were not observed.