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Open access

Weimei Zhang

Abstract

The Grey Relational Degree method was applied to evaluating the core competence of the ten listed liquor companies. The study found that: the most critical factor affecting the strength of the core competence of listed liquor companies is the technological innovation capability; in general, the core competence of the ten listed liquor companies is weak, with an average Grey Relational Degree of 0.752, indicating more potentials for improvement; in addition, with the exception of Kweichou Moutai, the other nine listed liquor companies are all in an uncoordinated state regarding the development of the six capabilities, and they usually have one or several capabilities lagged behind.

Open access

Yilin Li, Guowei Shu, Yichao Li, Yu Liu and Yajuan Song

Abstract

The effects of different prebiotics and oxygen scavengers on making the process of xanthan gum and chitosan (XC) Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 microcapsules were studied by single factor experiment and Plackett-Burman screening test, ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and xylo-oligosaccharide had significant effects. Based on the previous studies, the process XC B. Bifidum BB01 microcapsules were further optimized by Box-Behnken model in this study. Response surface analysis showed that the best additive amoumt of ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and xylo-oligosaccharide were 3.0%, 2.36% and 4.99%, respectively. The viable counts of B. Bifidum BB01 microcapsules reached to 1.52×1010CFU/g from 1.25×1010 CFU/g, the encapsulation yield reached to 94.88% from 90% under the optimum conditions. It provided the research foundation for the afterward production and exploration of the process XC B. Bifidum BB01 microcapsules.

Open access

Alfonso Totosaus, Reyna Gutierrez and M. Lourdes Pérez-Chabela

Abstract

Edible films were elaborated with sodium caseinate and different types of carrageenans (iota, kappa or lambda), and glycerol as plasticizer, to determine the different specific interactions between caseinate and carrageenans on physical and mechanical properties via a response surface methodology approach. The different sulphate groups content in the different carrageenans affected differentially edible films properties. The use of lambda carrageenan in edible film formulation resulted in more soluble and permeably film, with a concomitantly both less rigid and more elastic structure. The edible film formulation was optimized to 8.0 % of caseinate, 0.4% of carrageenan (irrespectively of the type) and 0.3% of glycerol.

Open access

Xiaoyu Shi, He Chen, Yilin Li, Jie Huang and Yunxia He

Abstract

The effects of kefir grains from different regions in China on fermentation and bioactivity were studied by using pH value, acidity degree, protein hydrolysis degree, antioxidant activity, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) inhibition rate and sensory evaluation as indexes to select the most suitable kefir grains as starter for goat milk. The parameters of kefir fermented goat milk were optimized by single factor experiment constantly. The results showed that kefir grain K1, which performed better in antioxidant activity, ACE inhibitory activity than the other four kefir grains and sensory evaluation was inferior to kefir grain K5 only, was suitable for the fermentation of goat milk. And the optimum fermentation conditions were found to be as 3% inoculation size at 25 °C for 22h.

Open access

Fakhrurrazi, Tajuddin Bantacut and Sapta Raharja

Abstract

Utilization of cocoa bean to be a derivative products in industrial is wide enough, that it is necessary to determine the priority of the processed products development. This study aimed to determine the prospective processed cocoa products with a system approach using Bayes method and assessed the potential of added value by using Hayami method. Based on several assessment criteria indicated that chocolate bar is the priority product that needs to be developed and followed by several other processed products. This development was able to produce the added value of Rp 135.000 per kg of cocoa beans. Result indicated that by processing the cocoa beans into chocolate bar could provide a considerable income for the businessman.

Open access

Cosmina-Mădălina Cherățoiu, Mihai Ognean, Claudia Felicia Ognean and Ioan Danciu

Abstract

Gluten-free products are necessary for the people suffering from celiac disease or having a sensibility for products containing gluten. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate gluten free biscuits made from a mixture of flours (50% corn flour and 50% oat flour) with various fats (palm fat, coconut oil) and sweeteners (sugar, stevioside with erythritol). Sample biscuits were made and then analyzed to find out the moisture, water activity, braking point, specific volume and sensory evaluation. All samples had the moisture close to 5-6%. Water activity ranged from 0.49 to 0.71. The breaking point was higher for sample prepared with palm fat and sugar (0.43). This sample was accepted by panellist better than others samples of biscuits.

Open access

Manfred Jakop, Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, Martina Bavec, Martina Robačer, Tjaša Vukmanič, Urška Lisec and Franci Bavec

Abstract

In 2013 and 2014, a long-term trial (which was established in 2007) was conducted at the University Agricultural Centre in Pivola near Hoče. It included different production systems (conventional, integrated, organic, biodynamic), carried out in a field trial with oil pumpkins. The aim of the research was to analyse the effects of different production systems, varieties (hybrid and population variety) and years of production, on formation of oil pumpkin yields. The agricultural practice has been carried out in accordance with the applicable legislations and standards for the individual production system. When sowing, before fertilizing with nitrogen in early June and after the harvest, the amount of soil mineral nitrogen was monitored. We evaluated the number and weight of harvestable, unripe and decayed fruits, and yield of oil seed pumpkins and calculated the agronomic efficiency of the applied nutrients. The results showed that the year of production, the production system and the variety have a significant effect on some fruit characteristics and the yield of oil pumpkin seeds. The content of soil mineral nitrogen in May and September was significantly influenced by the production system and the year. In June, only the production system had a significant effect. The hybrid significantly increased the yields of oil pumpkin seeds in all production systems, even in the year that was less suitable for production. The agronomic efficiency of the applied nutrients in the biodynamic and organic production system is higher or equal than in the conventional production system, similarly, agronomic efficiency is higher in the hybrid compared to the oldest population variety efficiently. A comparable oil pumpkin yield can be expected in biodynamic and organic production, when proper nutrition and well carried out cultivation practices are combined with a new variety, when compared to less sustainable production systems, which often cause damage to the environment.

Open access

Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba, Lydia Chidimma Jiwuba and Moses Udoha Onyekwere

Abstract

The growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical characteristics of thirty-six West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of about 10 - 12 months of age and averaged 8.53kg in weight were sourced from the College flock. Four dietary treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% oil palm leaf meal (OPLM) respectively were randomly assigned to the animals. The experimental animals were divided into four groups of nine animals each, with each group replicated thrice with three animals per replicate. Each group was allotted to one of the diets in a completely randomized design. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the trial and weekly subsequently and data for growth performance were generated. Blood samples were obtained from one animal in each replicate, and data generated were analyzed statistically. Average daily feed intake, total dry matter intake and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment, with animals on T4 group having higher and better values. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also differed significantly (P<0.05) with sheep on T3 and T4 (11.82 and 11.49 respectively) having the best FCR. The haematology showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCV) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved at 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels of OPLM, respectively. Sheep in treatment groups had improved (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count than those on the control group. Serum biochemistry results showed that total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and tended to increase with increasing levels of test ingredient. Sheep in treatment groups had higher (P < 0.05) urea values than those on control. Creatinine values at 20% and 30% inclusion differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the control value. Cholesterol was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and followed an irregular trend across the treatment groups. The results showed that inclusion of OPLM had a beneficial effect on the general performance of the WAD sheep. Therefore, 30% OPLM supplementation was recommended for optimum performance in WAD sheep.

Open access

Barbara Videc and Jurij Rakun

Abstract

This paper presents a method of estimating the size of plants by using two parallel views of the scene, taken by a common digital camera. The approach relays on the principle of similar triangles with the following constraints: the resolution of the camera is known; the object is always in parallel to the camera sensor and the intermediate distance between the two concessive images is available. The approach was first calibrated and tested using one artificial object in a controlled environment. After that real examples were taken from agriculture, where we measured the distance and the size of a vine plant, apple and pear tree. By comparing the calculated values to measured values, we concluded that the average absolute error in distance was 0.11 m or around 3.7 %, and the absolute error in high was 0.09 m or 4.6 %.

Open access

Valiollah Rameeh

Abstract

Information on estimates of combining ability of the promising lines of breeding material is important for evolving higher yielding varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). An experiment was conducted to quantitatively examine the genetic parameters of phenological traits, plant height, pods on main raceme, pods per plant and seed yield for eight oilseed rape genotypes using a half-diallel crosses. The result of the diallel analysis revealed significant mean squares of general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) for all studied traits, indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects for these traits. On the other hand estimation of high narrow-sense heritability estimates for days to flowering, duration of flowering and pods on main raceme, indicated the prime importance of additive genetic effects for these traits. L420 and L401 with significant negative GCA effects for days to flowering and days to maturity were suitable for yielding early maturity combinations. L41, Zafar and L22 with significant positive GCA effects for seed yield were superior parents for increasing seed yield. The crosses with significant positive SCA effects for seed yield had at least one parent with significant positive GCA effects for this trait. The crosses including L41×L22, L41×LF2, Zafar×L22 and Zafar×L420 with seed yield of 3421.7, 3400, 3348.1 and 3311.3 kg ha-1 could be promising for determination of superior recombinants for high seed yield coupled with other growth characters in advanced generations of segregation.